D. Hamilton (Duane Hamilton) Hurd.

History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts : with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men (Volume 1) online

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BOSTON

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'*ir.'^






/I




HISTORY



(IK



MIDDLESEX COUNTY,



MASSACHUSETTS,



WITH



b[(.)(tPvAPH[(;al sketches



OF MANY OK ITS



Pioneers and Prominent Men.



iKMIMI.FI' I NIlKl; rilK SLPF.KVISKIN OF



I \ \ I I i . 1 I • \ 1 1 1 I : I >



VOL I.



ILLUSTIL^TED.



Pll I LA I) t; Ll'Il lA ;

I \\ I . ; W I S A < ' t

1 >!I0



Copyright, 180U,
[Jy J. W. LEWIS i i <>.



.\n Right," Reserved.



PKCSS OF

JAM. K. EODGnU FBIKTINO COMPAKT,

rRTLA DELPHI A-



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PUBLISHER'S PREFACE.



The History of Middlesex G)untY, contained in these volumes, has been prepared by the
publishers with a due sense of the responsibility resting upon them, and with an earnest effort
to meet the just expectations of the public. Their undertaking was a formidable one, in-
volving, a.s it did, histories of six cities and forty^eight towns, together with histories of
the county proper, with its courts and officers, and of the bench and bar, as well as
notices of many of its prominent men. As far as it was possible these histories and notices
have been confided to local historians of acknowledged capacity for the work, a few of them
only having been prepared by other writers accustomed to historical research and po-ssessing
liter.iry skill. The chapters relating to the county, and the bench and bar, will be found of
especial value, entering, as they do, a field hitherto unexplored. In presenting these volumes,
while the publishers cannot expect to wholly escape criticism, they look with hope, if not
with confidence, for an approval of their work.



CONTENTS OF VOL. I.



GENERAL HISTORY.



CHAPTER I.



Middlesex County



CHAPTER II.
Bench and Bab xxiv



CITIES AKD TOWNS.



CHAPTER I.

Cambridge 1

lotroductloa.

CHAPTER 11.
CxyiBRiTXiE—iContimied) 4

The IndiaDS of Cambridge aod Vicinit}*.

CHAPTER III.
Cambridge— ( 0)»i<inu€rf) 11

Ecclesiastical History.

CHAPTER rv.
Cambridge— I Continued) 77

Harvard Univereity.

CHAPTER V.
Cambridge — {ContinuM) 140

The DiviDUj School of Harrard Uoivervity.

CHAPTER VI.
Ca.mbridge— ( C)n(mu«<i) 142

Tbe Public Schools.

CHAPTER VII.
Cambridge — {Continued) 151

Literature.

CHAPTER VIII.
Cambridge — {Continued) 153

Musical,

CHAPTER IX.

Cambriikje — {Continued) 158

Medical Uistory.



CHAPTER X.

Cambridge — (Continued) 176

MiliUry.

CHAPTER XI.

Ca-MBRIDGE — (Continued) 190

Civil History.

CHAPTER XII.

Cambridge— (Continued) 198

Baoldog and losarmDce.

CHAPTER Xin.

Cambridge — {Continued) 201

MaDufactariDg aud Industrial.

CHAPTER XIV.
Ca.mbridge — {Continued) 210

Miscellaneous.

CHAPTER XV.
Acton 238

CHAPTER XVI.

ASHBY 306

Description.

CHAPTER XVII.

AsHBY — (Continued) 314

MecbAnical lodustriee.



CHAPTER XVIIL

AsHBY — [Continued)



Ecclesiastical Affairs.



M



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XTX.

A SUBY— {Continued) 319

The Great Cirll War.

CHAPTER XX.

AasBY— {Continued) 319

MIscellaneoiu.

CHAPTER XXr.

AsHBY— {Continued) 325

Civil Huturj.

CHAPTER XXir.

ASHBY— {Continued) 327

Poat'Officea, PbyBicianB, Agricultural, Peraooa) Notices,

CHAPTER XXIir.
WOBURN 334

lotrodaction.

CHAPTER XXIV.

WoBL-RH— {Continued) 3.?6

Civi] Hiator; to 1800.

CHAPTER XXV.

WoBrRN — {Cojitinued) 355

CiTil Hlatai7 from 1800 to Present Time.

CHAPfER XXVT.

WoBUBN — {Continued) 365

Woburn as a City.

CHAPTER XXVn.

Woburn— (OwUmu**/) 366

The M«dlc&l and Legal Prefeetiolu: Golooiat, ProTiDcial and
Later Periods.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

WoBFRN — (CoTUinued) ■ 377

Military Uistory— Tbe Colonial and Provincial Periods,
1642-1775.

CHAPTER XXIX.

WoBtJBN— (CbTirinued) 389

MUitarr History — The Revolutionarr and Later Periods to
1861, etc.— The Civil War vt 1861-65.

CHAPTER XXX.

VfoBVRV— (Continued) 410

Biographical Notices.

CHAPTER XXXI.
Woburn — (Continued) 414

Eocleaiaatlcal History.

CHAPTER XXXII.
Shirley 466

CHAPTER XXXIII.
Weston 486

CHAPTER XXXIV.

Weston— (CWinittid) 498

Biographical.



CHAPTER XXXV.

Natick

Natural Features And Productjoos.

CHAPTER XXXVr.

Natick — (Continued)

lodian SettlemeDt. 1650-1700.



512



514



I CHAPTER XXXVir.

j Natick — [Continued) . . ■ 520

1700-1800: ADomaloDB ConditioD of the Townehlp— Change
io the IndlaD GoverDmenl — Their Records — Population -
Acts as Proprietors — Allotment of Lands— Sale of the
Same— Xatick as a Parieh— Acts of General Court Belnt-
ing to it — Parish Meetings— Warning Out of Town — In
the Revolutionary War — Parish Declanttion Regarding
Independence — Natick Soldiers — <.»ach of Allegiance —
Town Incorporated.

CHAPTER XXXVITT.

XatijTK — {Continued) 525

1800-1890; Prospects of the Town more Encouraging —
General Progreas — Town Ac'ion Respecting the Pastors of
the Church — Town Hall Erected — The Town in Suppress*
IDR the Great Rebellion— Losses in the same — Financial
Condition— The Centenniiil Celebnition— Town Ofttcers
and Representative in the General Court.

CH.APTER XXXIX.

'Sktics.— (Continued) 536

Ecclesiastical: Or^nization or (lie Indian Churcb —
Eliot's Translation of tbe Bible— The Printing and Dis-
tribution or the same— Mr. Eliot's Death— Memorial ^yin-
dows to Perpetuate his Memory— Pastor Takawambait —
Rev. Messrs. Peabody and Badger Missionaries to the
Natick Indians — Organisation of tbe Congregational
Church in the Centre of the Town — Sketches of its Pas-
torx— The Baptist Church— Tbe Methodist Episcopal
Church — St Paul's Episcopal Church — Tbe Roman Catho-
lic Churches— The Unitarian or Eliot Church— The John
Eliot Church— The Univetsalist Church.

CHAPTER XL.

Nat'ick — (Continued) 546

Edpcattonal; Schools — Libraries — Morse Institute— College
and UniTersity Honors.

CHAPTER XLI.

Natick — (Continued) 553

MlecELUkHEous: Population — Water Department — Fire De-
partment— Natick Gas-Light Company— Natick Electric
Company— Natick National Buk— Natitk Five-Centa
SaTings Bank— Henry Wilson Cooperative Bank— Poat-
Offlces- ManufActoren — South Natick Business— Ceraeter-
iea — Lawyers — Physicians — iCxpress ITompanies — Coal,
Wood, etc.— The Press— Biographical.

CHAPTER XLII.

TOWNSEND ''fiS

CHAPTER XLIII.
Lexington 604

Topography and Scenery.

CHAPTER XLIV.

Lexington — { CoiUintied) 606

Civil History.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XLV. I

Lexington — iConlinued) 615 , jj^

MilitHry History.

CHAPTER XLVI.

Lkxixgton — (Continued) fi21

Education— Scliool.i aDd Librariei.

CHAPTER XLVII.

Lexington — {Continued)



CHAPTER LIV.



623



Ecclesiastical Affairs — Churches, Sunday-Scbools huJ Beuev-
cleDt OrganizatioDd.

CHAPTER XLVIII.
Lexington' — (Continued)



f30



RLISr.G



708



CHAPTER LV.



Midcellaneoue.



CHAPTER XLIX.



Dunstable 736

Present CoQtiitiou of the Towo— TupograpUy— Bofiiaess
Toterests.

CHAPTER LVI.

Dunstable— (CWinuerf) 738

Origin and Early Settlement— IC43-I723.

CHAPTER LVn.

DiN^TABi.E — (CorUinued) 742

<-'uutinued Attacks from the Indians — Growth of tbe Town —
Church and School Affairs — 1723-1708.

Stow 637

CHAPTER LVIir.

CHAPTER L. I r. f^ ,. ,. _^.

I DiNSTABLE— (Con<inued) 751

BlRI-INGTON 663 ! The Town as Bapresented lu the American Berolntlon—

Introduction. Educational, Religious and other Aflain— 176S-I820.

CHAPTER LL

BcRi.iNiiToN- (Con/iTiKet/) t'65 !

Civil History.

CHAPTER Lir.

BuKLixcTON — (Continued) 670

Ecclediaslical History.



CHAPTER LIX.

Dunstable — (Continued) 757

Church Erected — Soldiers in tbe War of the RebellioD— Dun-
stable Cornet Band Formed — Naahaa, Acton and Boston
Railroad Opened— Bl-Centennial Celebration— I82I-I890.



CHAPTER LIIL
.Shebborn 680 j



CHAPTER LX.



Dunstable — ( CojUinued)

Biographical.



762



GENERAL HISTORY.



CHAPTER I.



MIDDLESEX COUNTY.



BY WILLI \M r. DAVIS.



Though it may be assumed that the reader is fam-
iliar with the history of the settlement of Massachu-
setts Colony, it may be well to hastily recount its chief
incidents occurring before the incorporation of the
county which includes a part of its territory.

On the 20th of April, 160(), Kiu^ James issued let-
ters-patent dividing a strip of land one hundred miles
wide along the Atlantic coast of North America, ex-
tending from the thirty-fourth to the forty-fifth de-
gree of nortli latitude, between two companies, gener-
ally called the Southern and Northern Virginia Com-
panies. This territory was known as Virginia, so
called after Queen Elizabeth. The Southern Company
was composed of knights, gentlemen, merchants and
adventurers of London, and was granted all the lands
between the thirty-fourth and forty-first degrees ;
while the Northern Company, composed of persons of
the same description, was granted the lands between
the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth degrees. That por-
tion lying between the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth
which was included in both grants was open to the
company first occupying it; and it was stipulated
that neither company should settle within one hun-
dred miles of any previous settlement of the other
company. On the 3d of November, 1620, Sir Ferdi-
nand Gorges aud his associates, the members of the
Northern Virginia Company, received a new patent,
which passed the seal on the 3d of the following
July under the title of "The council established at
Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting,
ordering, ruling and governing of New England in
America." Under this patent the company was au-
thorized to hold territory extending from sea to sea
and in breadth from the fortieth to the forty-eighth
degree of north latitude ; and to make laws, appoint
governors and other officers and generally to estab-
lish all necessary forms of government.

The motive inspiring the i^sue of this new patent
seems to have been to show special favors to this com-



pany and to inflict thereby a slight on the Southern
Company. The King had for some reason fallen out
with Sir Edwin Sandys the governor and treasurer of
the Southern Company, and forebade his re-election.
The Earl of Southampton, the successor of Sir Ed-
win, was equally obnoxious to the King, and the new
charter of the Northern Company was the conse-
quence. The new patent included all the terri-
tory between Central New Jersey and the Gulf of
St. Lawrence on the Atlantic coast and the north-
ern part of California, Oregon and nearly all of
Washington on the Pacific, with a line running
through Lake Superior for its northern boundary
and one through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and
Illinois for its southern.

The colony settling at Plymouth in 1620 had re-
ceived a patent from the Southern Company author-
izing a settlement within their territory at some point
south of New York harbor ; but finding themselves
outside of the jurisdiction of the company from whom
they had received their patent, they sent by the " May-
flower," on her return, for a patent from the Northern
Company. The Northern Company, under its new
charter, consequently issued a patent, under date of
June 1, 1621, to John Pierce and his associates in
trust for the Plymouth Colony. This patent was
brought to Plymouth in 1621 in the ship " Fortune," and
is preserved in Pilgrim Hall in that town. It is en-
grossed on parchment and bears the signatures of the
Duke of Lenox, the Marquis of Hamilton, the Earl
of Warwick, Lord Sheffield and Sir Ferdinand Gor-
ges. Another signature is illegible, which may be
that of either Thomas, Earl of Arundel, or the Mar-
quis of Buckingham. This is the oldest state paper
in New England.

On the 30th of December, 1622, the Northern Com-
pany, which, for convenience, may be still so called,
notwithstanding its new charter and change of title,
granted to Robert Grorges all that part of the main
land " commonly called or known by the name of the
Messachusiack " situated " upon the northeast side of
the Bay called or known by the name of the Messachu-
sett." This included the shore " for ten English
miles towards the northeast and thirty English miles
unto the main land through all the breadth afore^



11



HISTORY OF MIDDLESEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.



said," with all the rivers, islands, etc. This grant in-
cluded a part of Middlesex Connty. Up to this date
the only white men known to have visited this local-
ity were John Smith, the navigator, who visited it in
1614, and a party of ten members of the Plymouth
Colony who came by water from Plymouth on an ex-
pedition, partly to trade and partly to conclude peace
with the Massachusetts Indians. It is probable that
on this expedition Point Allerton and the Brewsters,
, at the entrance of Boston harbor, received their names
from Isaac Allerton and William Brewster, two of
the " Mayflower " Pilgrims.

John Smith, after his expedition to Virginia in
1606, in the service of the Southern Virginia Com-
pany and some years connection with the Virginia
colony, returned to England, and in 1614 sailed with
two ships under the auspices of English adventurers
'' to take whales and also to make trials of a mine of
gold and copper." He anchored his vessels near the
mouth of the Penobscot River and sailed with eight
men in a shallop along the coast as far as Cape Cod,
giving the name of New England to the country and
" drawing a map from point to point, isle to isle, and
harbor to harbor, with the soundings, sands, rocks and
landmarks.'" After his return to England Prince
Charles, afterwards Charles the First, attached names
to many places on the coast as indicated on the map,
of which only Plymouth, Charles River, named after
himself, and Cape Anne, named after his mother,
Anne of Denmark, still adhere to the localities then
designated. Among the many other names affixed to
the map by Prince Charles were Cape James for Cape
Cod, Milford Haven for Provincetown Harbor, Stu-
ard's Bay for Barnstable Bay, Point George for
Branches Point, Oxford for Marshfield, London for
Cohasset, Cheviot Hills for the Blue Hills, Talbot's
Bay for Gloucester Harbor, and Dartmouth, Sandwich
and Cambridge for places near Portland. It is possi-
ble that besides John Smith and the Pilgrim party,
De Mont«, with Champlain, may have also visited this
locality in 1604.

Robert Grorges, having received the grant above-
mentioned in 1622, was appointed by the Plymouth
Council in 1623 Lieutenant-General of New England,
and arrived in Maasachusetta Bay in September of
that year, with what are described in the record as
" passengers and families." At the end of a year,
after futile eflbrts to establish his colony, he returned
to England, and at his death, which soon after oc-
curred, his brother John, to whom his rights had de-
scended, leased a portion of his grant to John Old-
ham and John Dorrill. This lease included " all the
lands within the Massachusetts Bay between Charles
River and Abonsett (now Saugus River) containing in
length by straight line five miles up the Charles
River into the main land northwest from the bord»r
of said bay, including all creeks and points by the
way ; and three miles in length irom the mouth of
the aforesaid river Abousett up into the main land.



upon a straight line southwest, including all creeks
and points; and all the land in breadth and length
between the foresaid rivers, with all prerogatives,
royal mines excepted.

la the mean time the same territory which had been
granted to Robert Gorges had been granted, with
other lands, to the Massachusetts Company. By this
grant, dated March 19, 1627-28, the Plymouth Council
issued a patent to Sir John Roswell, Sir John Young,
Thomas Southcoat, John Humphrey, John Endicott,
and Simon Whitcomb covering a territory extending
from three miles north oi the Merrimac River to three
miles south of the Charles River. The following is the
text of the letters-patent issued March 4, 1628-i!9 :

"Charles By The Grace of God Kinge of England, Scuttand, Fraunce
and Ireland, Defender of the Fayth etc. To All to whonie these Presents
shall cume Greeting. "Wliereas our most deare and rovHll father Kioge
James, of blessed memory, by his Highness letters jiatents beareing -date
at Westminster the third day of November in the eighteenth yeare of
his raigne, hath given and graunted unto the Cuuncell eslablished at
Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting, ruling, ordering
and governing of Newe England in .\nierica, and to their successors
and assignes for ever ; .\I1 that parte of .\merica lyeing and being in
bredtb from forty degrees of northerly latitude from the equinoctiall
lyne to forty-eight degrees of the saide northerly latitude inclusively,
and in length of and within all the breadth aforesaid throughout the
maine landes from sAa to sea, together also with all the llnne lands,
soyles, groundes, havens, portes, rivers, waters, fishery, myuesand myn-
er&lls, as well royall mynes of gould and silver as other mynes and
myneralls, precious stones, quarries and all and singular other contodi-
ttea, jurisdiccons, royalties, priviledges, franchesies and prehemynences,
both within the said tract of lande upon the mayoe and also within the
islandes and seua adioining ; Provided alwayes That the said islandes or
any the premises by the said letters patents intended and meant to be
graunted were not then actuallie possessed or inhabited by any other
Christian Prince or State now within the bounds, lymitts or territories
of the Soutbeme Colony then before graunted by our said deare father,
to be pUnted by divers of his loving subiecta In the south paites. To
Have and to houlde, posseese and enioy all and singular the aforesaid
continent, landes, territories. Islands, hereditaments and precincts, seas,
waters, flsherys, with all and all manner their comudities, royalties,
liberties, prehemynences and prohtts that should from thenceforth arise
from thence, with all and singular their appurtenances and every parte
and parcell thereof unto the aside Councell and their successors and
aaeigoes forever. To the sole and proper use, benetitt and behoofe of
them the saide Coancell and their successors and assignes forever ; To
be honlden of otir said most deare and royall father, his heires and suc-
ceawiv as of his manaor of Eaatgreeoewich, in the County of Kent in
free and comon Soccage, and not in capite nor b}' Knights service.
Yeildlnge and paying tbeiefure to the saide late Kinge, his heir%s and
successors, the flfte parte of the oare of gould and silver which should,
from tyme to tyme and at all tymes thereafter, happen to be found,
gotten, had and obteyned in, att or within any of the saide landes,
lymltta, territories and precincts, or, in or within any parte or parcell
thereof, for or in respect of all and all manner of duties, demauuds and
services whatsoever to be don, made or paide to our saide dear father,
the late Kinge, his heires and successors, as in and by the said letters
patent (amoogest sundrie other clauses, powers, priviledges and grauntes
therein couteyned) more at large appeareth. And whereas the saide
Councell established at Plymouth, in the County of Devon, for the
plantings, ruling, ordering and governing of Newe England in America,
have by their deede indented under their comon seale bearing date the
aynetaentb day of March Isst past in the third year of our raigne, given,
graunted, bargained, soulde, enfeoffed, aliened aud confirmed to Sir
Henry Roeewell, Sir John Young Knightes, Thomas Southcott, John
Humphrey, John Endecott and Symon Whetcombe, their heirs and as-
sociates for ever. All that parte of Newe England in America aforesaid
which lyes and extendes betweene a greats river there comonlie called
Monomack alhia Merriemack and a certen other river there called
Charles river, being in the bottome of a ceriayne bay there comonly
called Maaachtiaetts alias Mattachusetts alias Massatnsetts bay, and also
all and aingalar those landes and hereditaments whatsoever lying with*



MIDDLESEX COUNTY.



ui



in the space of three English miles oo tlie south parte of the said
Charles river, or of any or overie parte thereof: And also all and ain^-
lar the landcs and hereditaments wtmtsoever lyeing and being within the
space of three English niyles to the suuthwarde of the soutliermoat parte
of the said bay called Massachusetts ulias Slat tochtisetts alias Massatusets
bay : and also all those luudes and hereditaments whatsoever which lye
and be within the space uf three English myles to the northward of the
saido river called MoQomack alias Merrymack, on to the northward of
any and every parte theieof: And all landea and hereditaments whatso-
ever lying within the lymitts aforesaide, north and south, in latitude
and hredth, and in length and longitude, of and within all the bredtb
aforesaide throughout the niayne landes there, from the Atlauttck and
westerne sea and ocean on the east parte^ to the south sea on the west
parte, and all landes and grouudes, place and places, aoylbs, wotides and
wood grouudes' }inveiui, portes, rivers, waters, flslnngs and lieredita-
uieiits, whatsoever, lyoing within the said bonndes aud tymittsand
everie parte and parcell thereof ; Aud also all islundes lyeiugin America
aforesaide in rtaid seas ur either of them on the westerne or eaateme
constes or partes of the eaide trades of lande by the saide indenture,
menroe^l to he given, graunted, bart;uined, sould, enfeoffed, alieneit and
confirmed or any of them : And iilsii all iiiyiies and utynemlls, as well
royall mynes of gonld aud silver sis other niyni'S and inynerall^ what-
soever in the saide landes aud prerniiics or any |iarte thereof: And all
jurisdiccons, rights, royalties, liberties, frcedonies, ymuitinities, privi-
ledges, franchises, iireheni'-ninci's and cutULtJities whatsoever which
they, the said Councell. ciilahlisht-d al Plymouth, iu the I'ounty of
Devuii, for the planting, nileing, ordereing and governing of Newe
England in America, then bad or might use, exercise or enioy in and
within the saiil landcs aud premisses by the suide indenture uiencoeil to
be given, gniunted, bargained, ^^oiild, t^nfeott'ed aud confirmed or iuor
within any parte or parcell thereof. To have aud to honid the saide
parte of Newe Knglaud in America, which lyes and exteudes and is
abutted iis aforesaide, and evfry iKirte ami parcell thereof; And all the
saide iilandes, rivers, iwrtt's, havens, waters, fishings, inynes aud min-
eralls, jurisdiccons, fmuL'IiiscH, royalties, liberties, priviledges, comodi
ties, hereditaments aud premisses whatsoever with the appurtenances
unto the said 8ir Henry Hosewell, Sir John Vouuge, Thomas Southcottf
John Uuuifrey, John Endecott aud Simon Whetcombe, their heires
and assignes and their aasociats to the oiilie proper and nbsotuie use and
behoofo of the paid ^^i^ Henry Uosewell, Sir John Younge, Thomas
^outhcott, John llumfrey, John Kiidecott ami Symon Whettccombe,
their heirea and asei^ues aud their ossociatts for cvermon*. To be
lloulden of us, our hrin-^ ami succetsurs, its uf uur mannornf East-
greetiewich in the Cuiinty of Kent, in tree* and conion socage and not
in capite, nor by ICnightes Kwrvice, ycilding and payeing therefore unto
Its, our licircs aud successors, the (iftc parte of the oare of gouhl and
dilver which f-hall, from tyme tn lyme and all tyniea hereafter, happen
to be founde, gotten, hail ami ubtjiyued in any of the saide lauiles with-
in the Mrtide lymitts ur in or within any gtnrte thereof, for and in 'Vitis-
facon of all manner, duties, deniuunds and services whatsoever, to be
doun. made or |iaid to us, uur heirea ur .succeioors, as in and by the
saide recid - d indi.*ntnre more at large maie apfteare. Nowe knowe yee
that wee, ut the humble »<uito ami jwlicon uf the »aid Sir Henry Rose-
well, Sir John Vonugt-, Thomas Aouthcott, John Hurafrey, John Ende-
cott and Siuiun Whetcombe and of utiiers whi>m they have associated



Online LibraryD. Hamilton (Duane Hamilton) HurdHistory of Middlesex County, Massachusetts : with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 214)