D. Hamilton (Duane Hamilton) Hurd.

History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts : with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men (Volume 3) online

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HISTOEY



of



3IIDDLESEX COUNTY.



MASSACHUSETTS,



WTTU



BIOI.HAPHICAL SKETCHES



UF MANY OF IT.-i



Pioneers and Prominent Men.



1 OMl'tl.ED INDKR TItK SLFF.KVISIOX (JF



1 ! \ \[ I [ . [< >S I L t i; I )



VOL. III.



I Hj LTJ S T I^ J^ T E 3D -



PHILADELPHIA:
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1 .^ ;i .



i.'opiiriijhl, IsiMi.
1!Y .1. \V. LKW I?* i CO.

AU liinhls /;,serifil.



FU



PHESS ur

JAS. n. RnnQEBS printino c">rPANY.

piitrAiir.i.rni k.



Reprinted by -

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CONTENTS OF VOL. III.



CITIES AND TOAVNS.



CHAPTER [.



CHAPTER XIII.



Xewtox



1 i Ari.in-gtox



173



CHAPTER n.



CHAPTER XIV.



Newton — {Cimtinued) . . .

Tlip First C'hurcii in Xuwlciii.



CHAPTER III



Xkwtos" — {Con(iiuieil)

£(lnc;tlinnnl.

CHAPTER IV

N'ewt(jS — iContiniieih ■

Npwt'.n Tliroloeical tustituri-in.

CHAPTER V.

Newton' — it'onlinufd'



Til- Lilirarie-



CHAPTER VI.



N nv.Ti )>• — ( t 'oniiii ueil >

Itaiikini: Tiitero^ls.



CHAPTER VII.



Newton — (Continued) ■ ■ ■
Iiiilu:jtries anil Mnniiraclures.



CHAPTER VIII.



Newtos — (Continued)

(.'luba. S4»«'i«»ti.'3. i-xr.

CHAPTER IX.

.Vewton — i Conliiniedi

Jlilimry Hi-'torv .if NVMtoli.

CHAPTER X.



Newton — t Continued) .

.^(f*•UcAl History.



4(1 .VRLiNfiTON— (Confinued) 198

Mnrltet Gardening in Arilogton and Beltnont.



CHAPTER XV.

49 Mei,ro.se

CHAPTER XVI.

■ .Melrose — (Contmued)



71



SI



Kccl4»iii8tlc;il iiiiU Educacioual Hiatorj.

CHAPTER XVII.
Melrose — (Continued)

.^lilitiiry History — Societies. AssociatiODB, Clubs, etc

CHAPTER XVIII.



.Melrose— {Continuet/) .

lliliUo^i-HpItT and Mlscelianeous.



CHAPTER XIX.



S9



Pepperell

P-lrocbiivl nod Eccle^iasticHl.



205



209



212



214



22U



110



125



l.-.o



CHAPTER XX.

Peppebell — (Contimud) 227

Muiiicipal and Slititant.

CHAPTER XXI.
Peppebell— ( Continued) .... 236



CHAPTER XXII.



Pkpperell — ( Continued)

lodnstriiil Piir^nitfl.



Hudson-



chapter XX m.

chapter XXIV.



Teavksburv .



chapter XI.

^EWTOS— [Continued) H'

Huni'ioiMtliy.

chapter XII. chapter XXV

yEWToy— [Continued) loU | Tewk.<dubv— (Condnued)

Ocili'L'V of N-evvt.iii. I Tlie ('Imrch.



241



250



281



287



CONTENTS



CHAPTER XXVI.

Tewksbury — (Conlinued) 203 Belmont

The French and Indian War — The Revolution.



CHAPTER XXVII.
Tewksbury — ( Continued)



CHAPTER XI, IV



CHAPTER XLV.



302



The Poor— Slavery— Natural History.

CHAPTER XXVIII.
Tewksbury — (Continued) . . . .

The Civil War— Civil and Biographical.

CHAPTER XXIX.



! Wa



70.0



CHAPTER XLVI.



I W.vLTi[.\M — (Continued)

304 I Mililary Hiatorv



CHAPTER XLVII.



Watertown .



\Valtha:m — ' Continued)



CHAPTER XXX.

Watertown — (Continued) . . . . 325

Ecclefliaatical History.

CHAPTER XXXI.

Watertown — (Continued) . . . :M4

Early People — Land Grants — Tlie Proprietors' Bouk— Town
GoverDmeot— Schools— The Wears — The South riide.

CHAPTER XXXII

Watertown — ^Continued) . 377

Military History — Indian Ware — Revolutionary PrrioiJ — Tlio
Civil War.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Watertown — (Cimtinverl ' ... 3'J'J

Budiiiei^s Intereats — Banks.

CHAPTER XXXIV

Watertown (Continued) ...

Mainiractuhug and Mechanical Intlustries

CHAPTER XXXV.

Watertow.s — (Continued)

Societies. Pbysicians, etc.



CHAPTER XLVI II.

Waltham - ■ Continuedi

CducatioHHl H!.ituiy — Banks.

CHAPTER XLiX.



CHAPTER XXXVI.



HOLLISTON .



CHAPTER XXXVII.



Malden .



CHAPTER XXXVIII.

Malden — (Continued)

The Gccleilutlcal History of Maiden.



397



414



^3l



456



477



Waltha.m — ( Continued)

>chnoU and N'l-vvHpnpers-

CHAPTER L.

Waltha.m — Conlinueil)

The Aiiienriui U'.ililium Wiittli (Vmipauy,

CHAPTER LI.

\VALTllA.M^(Con(/nu«/i

Pul'lic Lihrrtrr.

CHAPTER LI I.

vValth.im — (Continued)

Mftinifuctories.



72G



730



734



750



CHAPTER LI II



>O.MERVILLK



■5f|



CHAPTER LIV.



HOPKINTON 7.SII



CH.\PTER LV.



Medford



SOT



CHAPTER XXXIX.
Malden — (Continued) 527

Societies.

CHAPTER XL.
ASHI^MD .53,5

CHAPTER XLI.

Everett 576



CHAPTER LVr.



CHAPTER XLII.



Framinoham



607



CHAPTER XLIII.
Framingham— (Oantmued)



. 653



Marlbohough .

Original Grant — Indian Grant— First .Meelln^ ''f PropritTors
— tjwners of House Lota in Ifi&i — First Settler.*— Kine
Philip's War— French and Indian War.

CHAPTER LVII.

>I xRLBoKOL'GH — ' Conlimied). . . . ...

".Var of the Revolution -The Lexin^tun AIaidi— The Minure-
Mcn — List of Soldiers — Vote.-, etc. — Horn;, Uaruea, the
Royalist.

CHAPTER LVril.
Marlborough — iContinuea) .

Ecclesiastical Hidtor>'— Union Congregstional Chtirch — The
:recoud Pariah. Unitarian. Methodiut Epiecopai- First Bap-
tist — Church of the Holy Trinity— Univerwilist — Immacu-
late Conception, Roman i^athulic — .St. Mary's, French Cath-
olic— French Kvaugelical Church.



siy



821



8l>.'^



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER LIX.



Marlborough — {Continued)

Educational— The Press— First National Bank— Public Li-
brary—Water Works — Fire Department — Steam Railway.
— Marlborough Savings Bank

CHAPTER LX.



832



>[arlboroi:gh- -(Con<tnu€(i)

Manufacturing Interests.

CHAPTER LXT.

yiARhBOROVGn—t Continued)

Masonic.



837



840



CHAPTER LXII.

Mari.bukough — {Continued) ... 844

Civil History-Incorporation— First Selectmen — Selectmen
from lOlil to 1890— Town Clerks from 1660 to 1890— Treas-
urers— Representatives — State Senators — County Commis-
sioners — Delegates to Provincial Congress — Delegates to
Constitntlonal Convention- Assistant Treasnrer of United
."States — Popolation — Valuation.

CHAPTER LXiri.
Marlborouoh — (Continued) 846

Odd Fellowship— Celebration of Two Hundredth AnniveF^
sary of Incorpoistiou of Tovro — War of BebelUon — Socie-
ties, etc.

CHAPTER LXrV.

WiLMINOTON 859



CITIES AND TOWN'S.



CHAPTER I.

NEWTON.

BY REV. S. F. SMITH.

The history of Newton is rooted in the history of
Boston, the metropolis of New England. The settle-
menf of Boston was commenced September 17, 1630,
by the removal thither of Mr. Wjlliam Blaxton, whose
name is perpetuated in Blackstone Street, at the
north part of the city, and Blackstone Square, on
Washington Street, at the south end. Mr. Blaxton
was attracted to Boston by the existence of a spring
of pure water, such as he failed to find in Charles-
town, his former residence. Boston was at first but a
diminutive place in territory. In the northern part
it was but three streets wide from east to west, the
three streets being Fox Street, Middle Street and
Back Street; the first being now North Street, the
second the north part of Hanover Street, and the
third the south part of Salem Street. The northern
portion of Boston, originally "the court end," was
separated from the southern by a creek called Mill
Creek, reaching from water to water, and occupying
the space of the present Blackstone Street. The
southern portion of Boston was joined to the conti-
nent by "the neck," so-called, being the upper part
of Washington Street, towards Roxbury. The neck
was so narrow that farmers bringing their produce to
market in Boston in the morning, used to hasten back
at evening in the periods of high tides, lest the rise
of the water should cut off their return. Long Wharf,
at the foot of State Street, commenced at India Street.
Large vessels were moored close to Liberty Square.
Harrison Avenue was washed by the tide. The
Public Garden and most of Charles Street, and Tre-
mont Street, south of Pleasant Street, was under water.

The territory of Boston was small, but the inhabit-
ants of the little peninsula thought it necessary to
have a fortified place to flee to in ease of invasion by
the neighboring tribes of savage Indians. Other
towns, already commenced — Charlestown, Watertown,
Roxbury and Dorchester — shared in this spirit of
wise precaution, and felt equally the need of a sure
place of defence. At first they fixed upon the neck,
between Boston and Roxbury, which was, on some
1-ui



accounts, a strategic point, shatting off the possibility
of assault by Indians of the continent. But this plan
was abandoned on account of the lack in that vicinity
of springs of running water. It was finally decided to
build the place of defence on the north side of Charles
River, laying the foundations of a new town near
where Harvard College now stands. Here they began
to build in the spring of 1631. They laid out a town
in squares, with streets intersecting each other at
right angles, and surrounded the place with a stock-
ade, and excavated a fosse inclosing more than a
thousand acres; and, as a historian of 1683 remarks,
" with one general fence, which was about one and a
half miles in length. It is one of the neatest and
best compacted towns in New England, having many
fair structures, with many handsome contrived streets.
The inhabitants, most of them, are very rich. Half
a mile westward of the town is a great pond (Fresh
Pond), which is divided between Newtowne and Wa-
tertown on the south side of Charles River."

In 1632 the General Court levied a rate of £60 upon
the several plantations towards building the palisade
around Newton. The tax levied was thus distributed :
Watertown, £8; Newton, £3; Charlton, £7; Medford,
£3 ; Saugus and Marblehead Harbor, £6 ; Salem, £4
lOa.; Boston, £8; Roxbury, £7; Dorchester, £7; Wes-
sagusrus, £5; Winethomet, £1 30«. The fence passed
near the northwest corner of Gore Hall, in the col-
lege yard, eastwardly to the line between Cambridge
and Somerville, and southwardly from GSore Hall to
a point near the junction of Holyoke Place with
Mount Auburn Street. This £60 levy for building
the stockade was probably the first State tax. Wa-
tertown objected to the assessment as unjust, and a
committee of two from each town was appointed to
advise with the Court about raising public moneys,
" so as what they agree upon shall bind all." " This,"
says Mr. Winthrop, " led to the Representative body
having the full powers of all the freemen, except that
of elections."

Boston, as was natural, came to be regarded as the
old town, and this new and fortified place beyond the
river acquired the title of the new town, or Newtown.
When Harvard University was founded, in 1638, the
General Court ordained "that Newtowne should
thenceforward be called Cambridge," in compliment
to the place where so many of the civil and ecclesiaa-

1



HISTORY OF MIDDLESEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.



deal fathers of the town had received their education.
The large territory on the south side of Charles River,
beyond the stockade and Cambridge, and comprising
most of what is now Brighton and Newton, was at first
called the "south side of Charles River,'' and some-
times "Nonantum," the Indian name. After relig-
ious services came to be held regularly on the south
side of the river, about 1654, the outlying territory
was called "Cambridge Village," or, "New Cam-
bridge," until 1679. The General Court decreed that
after December, 1691, it should be called " Newtown."
The change of the name from "Newtown" to "New-
ton" seems to have come about spontaneously with-
out any formal authorization. The change is first
noticed in the records of town-meetings by Judge
Fuller in 1766 and ever afterwards. The question of
spelling the name of the town was never put to vote;
but it is deemed that Judge Fuller was fully justified
in assuming such a responsibility.

Before leaving London the company forming the
first plantations in New England received the follow-
ing instructions : " If any of the salvages pretend
right of inheritance to all or any part of the lands
granted in our pattent, wee pray you endeavor to pur-
chase their tytle, that wee may avoyde the least scru-
ple of intrusion." Accordingly, at the session of the
General Court, March 1.3, 1638-39, Mr. Gibbons was
desired to agree with the Indians for the land within
the bounds of Watertown, Cambridge and Boston.
" The deed of conveyance is missing, but there is
sufficient evidence," says Mr. Paige, " that the pur-
chase was made of the Squaw-sachem, and that the
price was duly paid. The General Court ordered.
May 20, 1640, ' that the £13 8«. ed. layd out by Capt.
Gibons shall be paid him, viz., £13 Ss. 6rf. by Water-
town, and £10 by Cambridge, and also Cambridge is
to give Squaw-sachem a coate every winter while she
liveth.' This sale or conveyance to Cambridge is
recognized in a deed executed Jan. 13, 1639, by the
Squaw-sachem of Misticke and her husband, Web-
cowits, whereby they conveyed to Jonathan Gibbons
' the reversion of all that parcel of land which lies
against the ponds of Misticke aforesaid, together with
the said ponds, all which we reserved from Charles-
town and Cambridge, late called Newtowne, and all
hereditaments and appurtenances thereunto belong-
ing, after the death of me, the said Squaw-sachem.' "

This Squaw-sachem is supposed to have died in
about the year 1662. Twenty years previous to her
death she, with four other Indian rulers, put herself
under the government and jurisdiction of the Massa-
chusetts, to be governed and protected by them, and
promised to be true and faithful to the said govern-
ment. The inhabitants of Cambridge lived on terms
of amity with the Indians.

The early history of Newton is involved with the
history of Cambridge. Indeed, Newton was required
to pay taxes for the support of the church in Cam-
bridge till 1661. In 1656 the inhabitants of Cam-



bridge Village organized a distinct congregation for
public worship, and petitioned the General Court to
be released from paying rates for the support of the
ministry of the church in Cambridge. The commit-
tee reported adversely to the petition, and the peti-
tioners had leave to withdraw. Dr. Holmes, however,
says that in 1656, when the inhabitants of the vil-
lage had become so numerous as to form a distinct
congregation for public worship, " an abatement was
made of one-half of their proportion of the ministry's
allowance during the time they were provided with
an able minister according to law." In 1661 they
renewed their petition, and the Court granted them
'' freedom from all church rates for the support of the
ministry in Cambridge, and for all lands and estates
which were more than four miles from Cambridge
Meeting-house, the measure to be in the usual paths
that may be ordinarily passed."

The petitioners were not satisfied with this line,
and in 1662 petitioned the Court for a new one. A
committee was appointed in October, 1662, to give
the petitioners and kheir opponents a hearing. This
new committee settled the bound, as far as ministerial
taxes were concerned, and " ran the line which is
substantially the line which now divides Newton from
Brighton."

In 1672 the inhabitants of Cambridge Village pre-
sented to the Court another petition, praying to be
set ofl' from Cambridge and made an independent town.

The following year the Court granted the petition-
ers the right to elect annually one constable and three
selectmen dwelling among themselves, " but requiring
them to continue to be a part of Cambridge so far as
related to the paying of certain taxes." The action
of the committee did not satisfy the petitioners, and
they declined to accept it or to act under it. In 1677
another attempt was made to determine a satisfactory
dividing line, through a committee of referees, two to
be chosen by Cambridge, two by Cambridge Village
and the fifth by the four others jointly. The line pro-
posed by these referees did not differ materially from
the line run in 1662.

Again, in 1678, fifty-two out of sixty-five of the
freemen of Cambridge Village petitioned the General
Court to be set off from the town of Cambridge and
to be made a town by itself Cambridge, by its select-
men, presented a remonstrance. The Court, however,
30 far granted the petition as to order " that the free-
holders should meet on the 27th August, 1679, and
elect selectmen and other town officers to manage the
municipal affairs of the village." This was an im-
portant concession on the part of the Court, though it
did not fully meet the desires of the petitioners ; and
nearly ten years more passed away before they fully
obtained the object of their requests.

Until August 27, 1679, all the town-meetings were
held iu Cambridge, and all town officers were elected
there. After this date town-meetings were held in
Cambridge Village (Newton) by the freemen of the



NEWTON.



village only, and they transacted their town business
free from all dictation or interference of Cambridge.
On that day they took into their own hands the man-
agement of the prudential affairs of the village as
completely as any other town, and conducted them
according to the will of the majority of the freeholders
until Newton became a city. For town purposes they
were independent, but for a number of years they
were still taxed with Cambridge for State and county
purposes, to wit, the repairs of the Great Bridge be-
tween Cambridge and Brighton. Nor were they per-
mitted to send a deputy to the General Court till 1688,
when the separation was fully consummated, and
Newton became a free and independent corporation.
Dea. John Jackson, the first settler of Cambridge
Village, and nine others were dead when the town of
Newton became wholly independent.

After an extended and careful investigation by dif-
ferent historians, " there seems," says Mr. Paige, in his
" History of Cambridge," " no reasonable doubt that
the village was released from ecclesiastical depend-
ence on Cambridge and obligation to share in the ex-
penses of religious worship in 11561 ; became a pre-
cinct in 1673; received the name of Newton in De-
cember, 1691 ; and was declared to be a distinct vil-
lage and place of itself, or, in other words, was incor-
porated as u separate aud distinct town by the order
passed January 11, 1687-88, old style, or January 11,
1688, according to the present style of reckoning.

" While by her separation from Cambridge, Newton
lost iu territory, she found, in due time, more than she
lost. By the limitation of her boundaries she cut
herself off from ' JIaster Corlet's faire grammar
schoole,' though she retained iis much right in the
University as belonged to any and every town in the
Commonwealth. She was deprived of the prestige of
the great men whose dignity and learning brought
fame to the Colony ; but she has since been the
mother of governors and statesmen, of ministers and
missionaries, of patriots and saints. .\.nd in the progress
of years she added to her reputation as the scene of
that great enterprise, the translation of the Bible into
the language uf her aborigines, and the first Protes-
tant missionary efforts on this Continent. Subse-
quently she had the first normal school for young
ladies (continued from Lexington) ; several^ of the
earlier and the best academies and private schools,
and finally the theological institution, whose profess-
ors have been and are known and respected in all
lands, and whose alumni have carried the gifts of
learning and the gospel to every part of the earth.
She left the rustic i^hurch near the College, by the in-
convenience of attending which she wa.s so sorely
tried ; but she has attained to more than thirty
churches within her own borders."

The first appearance of the name of the town in
the form of Newton appears in the following town-
meeting record :
" Newton, 3Iay 18, 1^94. The Selectmen then did tneet, and leaTy a



rate npon the town of twelve pound six shilling. Eight pound ia to pay
the debety for bia serrice at the General Court in 1693, and the other
fore pound six shilling is to pay for Killing of wolve* and other nesea-
serey charges of the Town."

This record is signed by Edward Jackson, town
clerk.

The organization of the First Church in July, 1664,
and the ordination of Mr. John Eliot, Jr., aa pastor,
had in the meantime consummated the ecclesiastical,
though not the civil separation of Cambridge Village
(Newton) from Cambridge. The first meeting-house
in Cambridge Village was erected in 1660.

Six years after Charlestown was settled, the whole
State of Massachusetts consisted of only twelve or
thirteen towns, of which Newton paid the largest
tax. In the records of a court held at Newtown, Sep-
tember 3, 1634, is this item: " It is further ordered that
the sum of £600 shall be levied out of the several plan-
tations for publique uses, the one-half to be paid
forthwith, the other half before the settingof the next
Court, viz., Dorchester, 80 ; Roxbury, 70 ; Newtowne,
80 ; Watertown, 60 ; Saugus, 50 ; Boston, 80 ; Ipswich,
50; Salem, 45; Charlestown, 45; Meadford, 26 ; Wes-
sagasset (Weymouth), 10 ; Barecove (Hingham), 4."

It is evident from this record that Newton possess-
ed at that time as much wealth as any plantation,
and, excepting Dorchester and Boston, more than any
other in the Colony. In 1636 Newton had so prosper-
ed that she stood in wealth at the head of all the
towns, and numbered eighty-three householders.
This year the rates levied upon the several towns
stood as follows: Newton, £26 5«. ; Dorchester, £26
5». ; Boston, £25 10».; Watertown, £19 10». ; Rox-
bury, £19 5s. ; Salem, £16 ; Charlestown, £15 ; Ips-
wich, £14; Saugus, £11 ; Medford, £9 15*. ; New-
bury, £7 10?.; Hingham, £6; Weymouth. £4.

The question of the boundaries of the new towns
in the wilderness was not readily nor easily settled. It
was necessary thatagriculture, in its various branches,
should be an important factor in the occupations of
the early settlers. Hence they felt the need of much
land for cultivation, and for their flocks and herds.
At the outset, after the extinction of the Indian titles,
generous grants were made by the General Court to
towns and individuals. The people of the various
towns, however, began, at an early period, to demand
more land. The farmers specially craved meadow
land, free from wood, and suitable for mowing fields
without the labor of clearing, of which they could
avail themselves at once for the support of their
stock. A committee was appointed in 1636 to inves-
tigate the Shawshine country, now including the
town of Andover, and to report whether it was suit-
able for a plantation ; and 1641 this order wag passed :
" Shawshine is granted to Cambridge, provided they
make it a village, to have ten families there settled
within three years ; otherwise, the Ckmrt to dispose
of it."

The report of the committoe to examine the grant



HISTOKY OF MIDDLESEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.



was rendered in 1642, and being unfavorable, the
Court enlarged their grant, and gave the petitioners
further time to effect a settlement. This new grant
read as follows : " All the land lying upon the Shaw-
shine River, aud between that and Concord River,
and between that and the Merrimack River, not for-
merly granted by this Court, are granted to Cam-
bridge, so as they erect a village there within five
years, and so as it shall not extend to prejudice
Charlestown village or the village of Cochitawist, nor
farmes formerly granted to the now Governor of 1200
acres, and to Thomas Dudley, Esq., loOO acres, and
3000 acres to Mrs. Winthrop ; and Mr. Flint and Mr.
Stephen Winthrop are to set out their heade line
toward Concord."

No settlement having been made within the period
designated, this grant was modified by the Ibllowing
order, passed by the (xeneral Court : " Shaw.shine i.*-
granted to Cambridge without any condition of mak-
ing a village there ; and the land between them and
Concord is granted all, all save what is formerly
granted to the military company, provided the church
present continue at Cambridge."

"The limits of this grant of Shawshiue, as of most



Online LibraryD. Hamilton (Duane Hamilton) HurdHistory of Middlesex County, Massachusetts : with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 219)