D. J. (Daniel John) Cunningham.

Cunningham's manual of practical anatomy (Volume 1) online

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XX11



GLOSSARY



Brain.



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.



Rhombencephalon

Eminentia medialis

Ala cinerea

Ala acustica

Nucleus nervi abducentis

Nuclei n. acustici

Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis

Corpus trapezoideum

Incisura cerebelli anterior

Incisura cerebelli posterior

Sulcus horizontalis cerebelli

Lobulus centralis

Folium vermis

Tuber vermis

Lobulus quadrangularis

Brachium conjunctivum cerebelli

Lobulus semilunaris superior

Lobulus semilunaris inferior

Cerebrum

Pedunculus cerebri
Colliculus superior
Colliculus inferior
Aqueductus cerebri

Foramen interventriculare

Hypothalamus

Sulcus hypothalamicus

Massa intermedia

Fasciculus thalamo-mammillaris

Pars opercularis

Thalamus

Pallium

Gyri transitivi

Fissura cerebri lateralis

Gyrus temporalis superior

Gyrus temporalis medius

Gyrus temporalis inferior

Sulcus centralis (Rolandi)

Sulcus temporalis superior

Sulcus temporalis medius

Sulcus circular is

Sulcus temporalis inferior

Gyrus fusiformis

Sulcus interparietalis

Sulcus corporis callosi

Sulcus cinguli

Fissura hippocampi

Gyrus cinguli



OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Eminentia teres

Trigonum vagi

Trigonum acusticum

Nucleus of 6th nerve

Auditory nucleus

Posterior longitudinal bundle

Corpus trapezoides

Semilunar notch (of cerebellum)

Marsupial notch

Great horizontal fissure

Lobus centralis

Folium cacuminis

Tuber valvulse

Quadrate lobule

Superior cerebellar peduncle

Postero-superior lobule

Postero-inferior lobule

Crus cerebri

Anterior corpus quadrigeminum
Posterior corpus quadrigeminum
Iter e tertio ad quartum ventri-

culum, or aqued. of Sylvius
Foramen of Monro
Subthalmic region
Sulcus of Monro
Middle commissure
Bundle of Vicq d'Azyr
Pars basilaris
Optic thalamus
Cortex cerebri
Annectant gyri
Fissure of Sylvius
First temporal gyrus
Second temporal gyrus
Third temporal gyrus
Fissure of Rolando
Parallel sulcus
Second temporal sulcus
Limiting sulcus of Reil
Occipito-temporal sulcus
Occipito-temporal convolution
Intraparietal sulcus
Callosal sulcus
Calloso-marginal fissure
Dentate fissure
Callosal convolution



GLOSSARY



xxiu



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.
Stria terminalis
Trigonum collaterale
Hippocampus
Uigitationes hippocampi
Fascia dentata hippocampi
Columna fornicis
Septum pellucidum
Inferior cornu
Commissura hippocampi
Nucleus lentiformis
Pars frontalis capsulse internze
Pars occipitalis capsulse internoe
Radiatio occipito-thalamica
Radiatio corporis callosi

Pars frontalis

Pars occipitalis



OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Ts;nia semicircularis
Trigonum ventriculi
Hippocampus major
Pes hippocampi
Gyrus dentatus
Anterior pillar of fornix
Septum lucidum

Descending horn of lateral ventricle
Lyra

Lenticular nucleus
Anterior limb (of internal capsule)
Posterior limb (of internal capsule)
Optic radiation
Radiation of corpus callosum

Forceps minor

Forceps major



Membranes of Brain.



Cisterna cerebello-medullaris
Cisterna interpeduncularis
Granulationes arachnoideales
Tela chorioidea ventriculi tertii
Tela chorioidea ventriculi quarti



Cisterna magna
Cisterna basalis
Pacchionian bodies
Velum interpositum
Tela choroidea inferior



Cerebral Nerves.



N. oculomotorius
N. trochlearis
N. trigeminus

Ganglion semilunare (Gassed)

N. naso-ciliaris

N. maxillaris

N. meningeus (medius)

N. zygomaticus

Rami alveolares superiores pos-
teriores

Rami alveolares superiores medii

Rami alveolares superiores an-
teriores

Ganglion spheno-palatinum

N. palatinus medius

N. mandibularis

Nervus spinosus

N. alveolaris inferior
N. abducens
N. facialis
N. intermedius
N. acusticus



Third nerve

Fourth nerve

Fifth nerve

Gasserian ganglion
Nasal nerve

Superior maxillary nerve
Recurrent meningeal nerve
Temporo-malar nerve
Posterior superior dental

Middle superior dental
Anterior superior dental

Meckel's ganglion
External palatine nerve
Inferior maxillary nerve
Recurrent nerve
Inferior dental

Sixth nerve

Seventh nerve

Pars intermedia of Wrisberg

Eighth or auditory nerve



XXIV



GLOSSARY



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

Ganglion superius
N. recurrens
Ganglion jugulare
Ganglion nodosum
Plexus oesophageus anterior \
Plexus oesophageus posterior J
Nervus accessorius
Ramus internus

Ramus externus



OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Jugular ganglion of Qth nerve
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Ganglion of root ^ ,
Ganglion of trunk j ofva S us

Plexus guise

Spinal accessory

Accessory portion of spinal

accessory nerve
Spinal portion



Spinal Nerves.



Rami posteriores

Rami anteriores

N. cutaneus colli

Nn. supraclaviculares anteriores

Nn. supraclaviculares medii

Nn. supraclaviculares posteriores

N. dorsalis scapulae

Nn. intercosto-brachiales

N. thoracalis longus

N. thoraco-dorsalis

N. cutaneus brachii medialis

N. cutaneus brachii lateralis

Fasciculus lateralis
Fasciculus medialis
N. cutaneus antibrachii lateralis

N. cutaneus antibrachii medialis

Ramus volaris

Ramus ulnaris
N. cutaneus antibrachii dorsalis

N. axillaris

N. interosseus volaris

Ramus palmaris N. mediani

Nn. digitales volares proprii
Ramus dorsalis manus
Ramus cutaneus palmaris

N. radialis

N. cutaneus brachii posterior

N. cutaneus antibrachii dorsalis



Posterior primary divisions
Anterior primary divisions
Superficial cervical nerve
Suprasternal nerves
Supraclavicular nerves
Supra-acromial nerves
Nerve to the rhomboids
Intercosto-humeral nerve
Nerve of Bell
Long subscapular nerve
Lesser internal cutaneous nerve
Cutaneous branch of circumflex

nerve

Outer cord (of plexus)
Inner cord
Cutaneous branch of musculo-cuta-

neous nerve

Internal cutaneous nerve
Anterior branch
Posterior branch
External cutaneous branch of mus-

culo-spiral
Circumflex nerve
Anterior interosseous
Palmar cutaneous branch of the

median nerve
Collateral palmar digital branches

of median nerve
Dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar

nerve
Palmar cutaneous branch of ulnar

nerve
Musculo-spiral nerve

Internal cutaneous branch of

musculo-spiral nerve
External cutaneous branches of
musculo-spiral nerve



GLOSSARY



XXV



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

N. radialis (conid.}
Ramus superficialis
N. interosseus dorsalis

Nn. digitales dorsales

N. ilio-hypogastricus

Ramus cutaneus lateralis

Ramus cutaneus anterior

N. genito-femoralis

N. lumbo-inguinalis

N. spermaticus externus

N. cutaneus femoris lateralis
N. femoralis
N. saphenus

Ramus infrapatellaris

N. ischiadicus



N.



peronseus commums
Ramus anastomoticus



pero-
nseus

N. peronseus superficialis
N. peronseus profundus

N. tibialis

N. cutaneus suras medialis

N. suralis

N. plantaris medialis

N. plantaris lateralis

N. pudendus



OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Musculo-spiral nerve (confit.)
Radial nerve

Posterior interosseous nerve
Dorsal digital nerves
Ilio-hypogastric nerve

Iliac branch of ilio-hypogastric

nerve

Hypogastric branch of ilio-
hypogastric nerve
Genito-crural nerve

Crural branch of genito-crural

nerve
Genital branch of genito-crural

nerve

External cutaneous nerve
Anterior crural nerve
Long saphenous nerve

Patellar branch of long saph-
enous nerve
Great sciatic nerve
External popliteal nerve

Nervus communicans fibularis

Musculo-cutaneous nerve

Anterior tibial nerve
Internal popliteal nerve

Nervus communicans tibialis
Short saphenous nerve
Internal plantar
External plantar
Pudic nerve



THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS.



Heart.



Atrium

Auricula cordis
Incisura cordis
Trabeculse carnese
Tuberculum intervenosum
Sulcus longitudinalis anterior
Sulcus coronarius
Limbus fossse ovalis
Valvula venae cavse
Valvula sinus coronarii



Auricle

Auricular appendix

Notch at apex of heart

Columnae carnese

Intervenous tubercle of Lower

Anterior interventricular groove

Auriculo-ventricular groove

Annulus ovalis

Eustachian valve

Valve of Thebesius



XXVI



GLOSSARY



Arteries.



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.



Sinus aortse

A. profunda linguae

A. maxillaris externa

A. alveolaris inferior

Ramus meningeus accessorius

A. buccinatoria

A. alveolaris superior posterior

Aa. alveolares superiores anteriores

Ramus carotico-tympanicus

A. chorioidea

A. auditiva interna

Rami ad pontem

A. pericardiaco-phrenica

Rami intercostales (A. mammaria

interna)

Truncus thyreo-cervicalis
A. transversa scapulae
A. intercostalis suprema
A. transversa colli
A. thoracalis suprema
A. thoraco-acromialis
A. thoracalis lateralis
A. circumflexa scapulae
A. profunda brachii
A. collateralis radialis
A. collateralis ulnaris superior
A. collateralis ulnaris inferior
Ramus carpeus volaris
Ramus carpeus dorsalis
Aa. metacarpese dorsales
A. volaris indicis radialis
Arcus volaris superficialis
Arcus volaris profundus
A. interossea dorsalis
A. interossea recurrens

A. interossea volaris

Ramus carpeus dorsalis

Ramus carpeus volaris

Aa. digitales volares communes

Aa. digitales volares prop-rise

Arterise intestinales

A. suprarenalis media
A. hypogastrica
A. umbilicalis
A. pudenda interna
A. epigastrica inferior



OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Sinuses of Valsalva
Ranine artery
Facial artery
Inferior dental artery
Small meningeal artery
Buccal artery
Posterior dental artery
Anterior superior dental arteries
Tympanic branch of int. carotid
Anterior choroidal artery
Auditory artery
Transverse arteries (branches of

Basilar artery)

Arteria comes nervi phrenici
Anterior intercostal arteries

Thyroid axis

Suprascapular artery

Superior intercostal

Transversalis colli

Superior thoracic artery

Acromio-thoracic artery

Long thoracic artery

Dorsalis scapulae

Superior profunda

Anterior branch of superior profunda

Inferior profunda

Anastomotica magna

Anterior radial carpal

Posterior radial carpal

Dorsal interosseous arteries

Radialis indicis

Superficial palmar arch

Deep palmar arch

Posterior interosseous artery

Posterior interosseous recurrent

artery

Anterior interosseous artery
Posterior ulnar carpal
Anterior ulnar carpal
Palmar digital arteries
Collateral digital arteries
Intestinal branches of sup. mesen-

teric

Middle capsular artery
Internal iliac artery
Obliterated hypogastric
Internal pudic artery
Deep epigastric artery



GLOSSARY



XXVll



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

A.' spermatica externa
Aa. pudendae externse

A. circumflexa femoris medialis

A. circumflexa femoris lateralis

A. genu suprema

A. genu superior lateralis

A. genu superior medialis

A. genu media

A. genu inferior lateralis

A. genu inferior medialis

A. malleolaris anterior lateralis

A. malleolaris anterior medialis

A. peronaea

Ramus perforans

A. malleolaris posterior lateralis
A. malleolaris posterior medialis
Kami calcanei laterales
Kami calcanei mediales
A. plantaris medialis
A. plantaris lateralis
Aa. metatarseae plantares
Aa. digitales plantares



OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Cremasteric artery

Superficial and deep external pudic

arteries

Internal circumflex artery
External circumflex artery
Anastomotica magna
Superior external articular artery
Superior internal articular artery
Azygos articular artery
Inferior external articular artery
Inferior internal articular artery
External malleolar artery
Internal malleolar artery
Peroneal artery

Anterior peroneal artery
Posterior peroneal artery
Internal malleolar artery
External calcanean artery
Internal calcanean artery
Internal plantar artery
External plantar artery
Digital branches
Collateral digital branches



Veins.



V. cordis magna

V. obliqua atrii sinistri

Lig. venae cavae sinistrae

Vv. cordis minimse

Sinus transversus

Confluens sinuum

Plexus basilaris

Sinus sagittalis superior

Sinus sagittalis inferior

Spheno-parietal sinus

V. cerebri internae

V. cerebri magna

V. terminalis

V. basalis

V. transversa scapulae

V. thoraco-acromialis

Vv. transversae colli

V. thoracalis lateralis

V. azygos

V. hemiazygos

V. hemiazygos accessoria

V. hypogastrica

V. epigastrica inferior

V. saphena magna

V. saphena parva



Great cardiac vein
Oblique vein of Marshall
Vestigial fold of Marshall
Veins of Thebesius
Lateral sinus
Torcular Herophili
Basilar sinus

Superior longitudinal sinus
Inferior longitudinal sinus
Sinus alae parvae
Veins of Galen
Vena magna Galeni
Vein of the corpus striatum
Basilar vein
Suprascapular vein
Acromio-thoracic vein
Transversalis colli veins
Long thoracic vein
Vena azygos major
Vena azygos minor inferior
Vena azygos minor superior
Internal iliac vein
Deep epigastric vein
Internal saphenous vein
External saphenous vein



xxviii GLOSSARY

Lymphatics.

B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY. OLD TERMINOLOGY.

Cisterna chyli Receptaculum chyli



THE VISCERA.
Digestive Apparatus.

Arcus glosso-palatinus Anterior pillar of fauces

Arcus pharyngo-palatinus Posterior pillar of fauces

Gl. lingualis anterior Gland of Nuhn

Ductus submaxillaris Wharton's duct

Gl. parotis accessoria Socia parotidis

Ductus parotideus (Stenonis) Stenson's duct

Denies praemolares Bicuspid teeth

Dens serotinus Wisdom tooth

Papillae vallatae Circumvallate papillae

Recessus pharyngeus Lateral recess of pharynx

Tela submucosa Pharyngeal aponeurosis

Plicae circulares Valvulae conniventes

Gl. intestinales Crypts of Lieberkuhn

Valvula coli Ileo-caecal valve

Columnae rectales Columns of Morgagni

Plicae transversales recti Valves of Houston

Valvula spiralis Valves of Heister

Noduli lymphatici aggregati Peyer's patches

(Peyeri)

Intestinum jejunum Jejunum

Intestinum ileum Ileum

Noduli lymphatici lienales Malpighian corpuscles

(Malpighii)

Respiratory Apparatus.
Larynx

Prominentia laryngea Adam's apple

Incisura thyreoidea superior Superior thyroid notch

M. ary-epiglotticus Aryteno-epiglottidean muscle

M. vocalis Internal thyro-arytenoid muscle

M. thyreo-epiglotticus Thyro-epiglottidean muscle

Appendix ventriculi laryngis Laryngeal sac

Plica vocalis True vocal cord

Plica ventricularis False vocal cord

Ligamentum ventriculare Superior thyro-arytenoid ligament

Ligamentum vocale Inferior thyro-arytenoid ligament

Glottis Glottis vera

Rima vestibuli Glottis spuria

Cartilago thyreoidea Thyroid cartilage



GLOSSARY



XXIX



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.
Membrana hyo-thyreoidea
Cartilage corniculata (Santorini)
Tuberculum epiglotticum
Pars intermembranacea (rimae

glottidis)
Pars intercartilaginea (rimae

glottidis)
Conus elasticus (membranse

elasticae larynges)
Glandula thyreoidea
Glomus caroticum
Nose

Concha nasalis suprema (Santorini)
Concha nasalis superior
Concha nasalis media
Concha nasalis inferior



OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Thyro-hyoid membrane
Cartilage of Santorini
Cushion of epiglottis
Glottis vocalis

Glottis respiratoria
Crico-thyroid membrane

Thyroid gland
Intercarotid gland or body

Highest turbinate bone
Superior turbinate bone
Middle turbinate bone
Inferior turbinate bone



Urogenital Apparatus.



Corpuscula renis

Paradidymis

Appendix testis

Ductus deferens

Gl. urethrales

Glandula bulbo-urethralis (Covvperi)

Folliculi oophori vesiculosi

Cumulus oophorus

Tuba uterina

Epoophoron

Appendices vesiculosi

Ductus epoophori longitudinal is

Orificium internum uteri

Orificium externum

Processus vaginalis

Glandula magna vestibuli



Malpighian corpuscles

Organ of Giraldes

Hydatid of Morgagni (male)

Vas deferens

Glands of Littre

Cowper's gland

Graafian follicles

Discus proligerus

Fallopian tube

Parovarium

Hydatids of Morgagni (female)

Gartner's duct

Internal os (of uterus)

External os

Canal of Nuck

Bartholin's gland



Peritoneum.



Bursa omentalis
Foramen epiploicum
Lig. phrenico-colicum
Excavatio recto-uterina (cavum

Douglasi)
Lig. gastro-lienale



Lesser peritoneal sac
Foramen of Winslow
Costo-colic ligament
Pouch of Douglas

Gastro-splenic omentum



SENSE ORGANS.
The Eye.

Sclera Sclerotic coat

Lamina elastica anterior (Bowmani) Bowman's membrane



XXX



GLOSSARY



B.N.A. TERMINOLOGY.

Lamina elastica posterior (Des-

cemeti)

Spatia anguli iridis
Angulus iridis
Zonula ciliaris
Septum orbitale
Fascia bulbi

Commissura palpebrarum lateralis
Commissura palpebrarum medialis
Tarsus superior
Tarsus inferior
Lig. palpebrale mediale
Raphe palpebralis lateralis
Tarsal glands



OLD TERMINOLOGY.
Descemet's membrane

Spaces of Fontana
Irido-corneal junction
Zonule of Zinn
Palpebral ligament
Capsule of Tenon
External canthus
Internal canthus
Superior tarsal plate
Inferior tarsal plate
Internal tarsal ligament
External tarsal ligament
Meibomian glands



The Ear.



Canalis semicircularis lateralis
Ductus reuniens
Ductus cochlearis
Recessus sphericus
Recessus ellipticus
Paries jugularis
Paries labyrinthica

Fenestra vestibuli

Fenestra cochleae
Paries mastoidea

Antrum tympanicum
Paries carotica
Processus lateralis
Processus anterior



External semicircular canal
Canalis reuniens
Membranous cochlea
Fovea hemispherica
Fovea hemi-elliptica
Floor of tympanum
Inner wall

Fenestra ovalis

Fenestra rotunda
Posterior wall

Mastoid antrum
Anterior wall

Processus brevis (of malleus)
Processus gracilis



MANUAL

OF

PRACTICAL ANATOMY.



THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY.

Introduction. The superior extremity consists of the
brachium or arm, which extends from the shoulder to the
elbow ; the antibrachium or forearm, which lies between the
elbow and the wrist ; the wrist, which connects the forearm
with the hand; and the manus or hand. Belonging to it
also are the bones of the shoulder girdle, the clavicle and
scapula, by means of which it is articulated with the skeleton
of the trunk ; it is also attached to the trunk by means of a
number of muscles. The angle which lies between the arm
and the upper part of the trunk is the axilla or armpit.

Surface Anatomy. Before commencing the actual dis-
section of any region of the body the student should be
quite familiar with the bones of the region, for they are the
landmarks by means of which the positions of the soft parts
which lie beneath the skin can be defined, both in the dead
and in the living body. The outlines of many of the bones
and the projecting parts of others can be seen, for they cause
prominences on the surface. Many portions of bone which
cannot be seen can be felt quite easily when the finger is
passed lightly over the places where they lie ; slight pressure
must be used in other places where the bones lie more
deeply. Some parts of the skeleton, however, can be neither
seen nor felt until the soft parts have been removed.

VOL. i i



2 THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY

It is essential, therefore, that the student should train his
eyes to see all that can be seen, and his fingers to feel all
that can be felt, and he must remember that anything which
he can see or feel in the case of the body of another person
he can almost equally well see and feel in the case of his
own body.

The bones of the superior extremity are the clavicle (collar
bone) and the scapula (shoulder blade), the humerus, the
radius and the ulna t eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones,
w\& fourteen phalanges (Figs, i, 2, 3).

The scapula and clavicle, together, form the shoulder girdle,
by means of which the arm is articulated with the skeleton of
the trunk.

The clavicle can be seen and felt at the lower part of the
front of the neck. It extends from the shoulder to the upper
end of the sternum .(breast bone), which lies in the middle
part of the front of the chest. Below the junction of
its intermediate and lateral thirds is a depression of the
surface, the delto-pectoral triangle. The soft prominence to
the medial side of the delto-pectoral triangle is caused by the
portion of the pectoralis major muscle which is attached to
the front of the medial half of the clavicle, and the prominence
on the lateral side of the triangle is due to the anterior part
of the deltoid muscle which springs from the front of the
lateral third of the clavicle. If the finger is pressed upwards
and backwards at the upper part of the lateral margin of
the delto-pectoral triangle, a prominence of bone called the
coracoid process of the scapula will be felt. It lies under cover
of the medial edge of the deltoid muscle, and is an important
landmark (Figs, i, 2, 55, 56, 57).

Beyond and behind the lateral end of the clavicle a more
or less quadrangular plate of bone can be felt. It is the
acromion of the scapula. Its medial margin articulates with
the lateral end of the clavicle, at the acromio-clavicular joint.
Its lateral margin lies at the tip of the shoulder, and it is the
upper point from which the length of the superior extremity
is measured.

On the posterior aspect of the body running, medially,
backwards and slightly downwards, from the acromion is a
prominent and easily felt ridge of bone. It is the posterior
border or crest of the spine of the scapula.

In the arm there is one bone, the humerus. It extends



PLATE



CLAVICLE Spine



Acromion
Coracoid



- Medial angle



" r SCAPULA



"Inferior angle



Lateral epicondy-
lar ridge

Lateral

epicondyle

Head of radius-



Medial epicondyle
"Olecranon
" Coronoid process




CLAVICLE
i Coracoid



Styloid proce
Metacarpal



ist phalanx

Termin
phalanx



Medial angle'



Acromion




Deltoid
tuberosity

Sulcus for radial
nerve



Lateral supra-

epicondylar

ridge

Lateral

epicondyle

Head



-Oblique line
RADIUS



FIG. i. Bones of Upper Limb.
Posterior view.



Medial supra-
epicondylar ridge ~"

Medial epicondyle-

Trochlea*

Coronoid process'



Volar surface ~i

ULNA,

Interosseons crests .J
Oblique line J

Head^

Styloid process-
CARI

Metacarpal _

1ST PHALANX -

2ND PHALANX
TERMINAL

PHALANX



FIG. 2. Bones of Upper Limb.
Anterior view.



Styloid process




PLATE II



Ulna




Radius



Lunatum



Pisiform



Triquetrum



Hamatum



Navicular



5th meta-
carpal



Sesamoid
bone



Capitatum

ist meta-
carpal bone



Sesamoid
bones



FlG. 3. Antero-posterior Radiograph of the Wrist of a person of
19 years.

Note (i) The epiphyseal lines of the radius and ulna.

(2) The difference in level of the styloid process of the ulna as con-

trasted with the styloid process of the radius.

(3) The overlap of the shadows of adjacent bones.



PECTORAL REGION 3

from the shoulder, where it articulates with the scapula, to the
elbow, where it articulates with the bones of the forearm , they
are the radius on the thumb or lateral side, and the ulna on
the medial or little finger side.

When the fingers are placed on the lateral side of the arm
immediately below the acromion and the arm is moved in any
direction, the proximal end of the humerus can be felt moving
under cover of the deltoid muscle ; the part of the humerus
which is felt is mainly the greater tubercle (Figs, i, 2, 55, 56).

The angular interval between the proximal part of the arm
and the chest wall is the axilla. It contains important blood-
vessels, nerves, and lymph glands. If the fingers are pushed
well up into the axilla and the arm is moved, the lower part
of the rounded head of the humerus, which articulates with
the scapula, can be felt. In front of the fingers will be the
anterior wall of the axilla, formed almost entirely by muscle;
behind them will be the posterior wall, formed by muscles and
by the axillary border of the scapula, which can be felt. To
the medial side are the upper ribs of the chest wall, covered
by a muscle called the serratus anterior-, and laterally is the
humerus.

The student should follow the body or shaft of the
humerus from its proximal to its distal end, squeezing the
soft parts between his thumb and fingers ; as the region of
the elbow is approached he will find that the humerus
expands greatly from side to side and that its medial and
lateral margins terminate in projections, which are called the



Online LibraryD. J. (Daniel John) CunninghamCunningham's manual of practical anatomy (Volume 1) → online text (page 2 of 44)