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TEXT-BOOK OF ANATOMY



PUBLISHED BY THE JOINT COMMITTEE OF HENRY FROWDE AND HODDER & STOUGHTON
AT THE OXFORD PRESS WAREHOUSE, FALCON SQUARE, LONDON, E.C.



CUNNINGHAM'S
TEXT-BOOK



OF



ANATOMY



EDITED BY



ARTHUR ROBINSON, M. D., F.R.C.S. Ed.

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY, UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH



FIFTH EDITION



ILLUSTRATED BY 1124 FIGURES FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS,

637 OF WHICH ARE PRINTED IN COLORS,

AND TWO PLATES



k



NEW YORK
WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY

MDCCCCXVIII



FIRST EDITION 1902
SECOND EDITION 1905

THIRD EDITION 1909
FOURTH EDITION 1913
REVISED FOURTH EDITION 1915

FIFTH EDITION 1918



\^n ;



6



\^\Z



i^«



(^



TO

Sir aEilliam Earner, l^MM.

F.K.S., M.B., l.L.l)., D.C.L., D.Sc.

IN RECOGNITION OF

HIS EMINENCE AS AN ANATOMIST

AND HIS INFLUENCE AS A TEACHER

THIS VOLUME

IS DEDICATED

BY THOSE OF HIS FORMER PUPILS AND ASSISTANTS

WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED

TO ITS PAGES



PRINTED FOR THE JOINT COMMITTEE OK HENRV FROWDE, HODDER & STOUOHTON, OXFORD PRESS

WAREHOUSE, FALCON SQUARE, LONDON, E.C., BY R. & R. CLARK, LTD., EDINBURGH,

GREAT BRITAIN.



All riyhis reserved



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.



The fourth edition of Cunningham's Text-look of Anatomy has lacked during its
preparation the able guidance of its original editor, but the various contributors
have attempted to maintain the standard of excellence which was Professor
Cunningham's ideal.

The deaths of Professor Cunningham, Professor Birmingham, and Professor
A. H. Young have necessitated changes in the authorship of several of the articles.

Every section has been fully revised ; some have been partially and others
have been completely rewritten.

In the majority of the sections numerous additional illustrations have been
added, or the original illustrations have been replaced by new figures better
adapted to their purpose, and colour has been largely used, particularly in diagrams.

The sections originally written by Professor Cunningham were the Central
Nervous System, the Eespiratory System, and the Ductless Glands. The account
of the Central Nervous System has been revised and largely rewritten by
Professor Elliot Smith of Manchester. The Eespiratory System has been revised
and partly rewritten by Professor Berry of Melbourne ; and the section dealing
with the Ductless Glands has been rewritten by Professor A. Campbell Geddes
of Dublin.

The description of the AUmentary System, originally written by Professor
Birmingham, has been revised and partially rewritten by Professor Waterston of
King's College, London. ^

With regard to the sections dealing with General Embryology and the
Vascular System, in the original preparation of which I was associated with my
senior colleague and friend. Professor A. H. Young, I have completely rewritten
the account of General Embryology, and have revised and partially rewritten the
account of the Vascular System.

It may be found, where the sections written by various authors overlap one
another, that there occur, in this as in previous editions, different accounts of
certain phenomena concerning which our knowledge is still in an indefinite stage,
and it must be understood that the authors of the various sections are solely
responsible for the opinions expressed in their own sections.

The Basle anatomical terminology has been adopted throughout, except in
those cases where the results of recent researches have shown that the terms of
that nomenclature are incorrect, oj where the terms themselves did not conform
with the principles of the terminology.

It is scarcely necessary, to-day, to urge reasons for the use of the Basle
nomenclature, for it is now generally recognised, not only that it is based on



PREFACE. vii

sound general principles, but also that it is, ut the same time, less cumbrous and
more detinitely instructive than tiie terminology previously in use in this country.

One of the recognised iunctions of a preface is to give the editor the
opportunity of expressing his thanks to those who l)ave assisted in the production
of the work, and I gladly avail myself of this function.

My thanks are due to all the authors fur their courtesy and consideration. To
Mr. J. Keogh Murphy, F.R.C.S., for the preparation of an extremely useful glossary
and index, and for ever-ready help and many valuable suggestions. To Dr. E. B.
Jamieson for assistance in the revision of the text, and for the preparation of
specimens from which some of the new illustrations were made.

I am also greatly indebted to Professor Keibel, and to Mr. Gustav Fischer of
Jena for permission to copy eight figures from Korvientajien zur Entvncklungs-
geschichte des Menschen ; to Professor Gustav Eetzius for permission to use
figures from his monographs ; and to Professors Mall, Felix, and Tandler for
permission to utilise the results of their work in the preparation of diagrams.

Most of the new figures in this edition have been drawn by Mr. J. T.
Murray with his usual skill and appreciation, and the remainder have been prepared
by Mr. Frank Putterworth from designs made by the authors of the articles in
which the figures appear.

ARTHUR EOBINSOX.

Edinburgh, April 1913.



PEEFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION, REVISED.

The wh(de of the text of this edition has been carefully revised, and alterations
which seemed to be necessitated by advancing knowledge have been made.

As in the case of the fourth edition I am greatly indebted to Dr. E. B.
Jamieson for his invaluable assistance.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.

October 6. 1914.



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION, THIRD
IMPRESSION, REVISED.

The whole of the text has again been revised, and mistakes to which attention has
been directed have been corrected.

Notes have been appended to some of the sections drawing attention to the
bearing of recent observations on statements made in the text.

Parts of the Vascular System have been rewritten, and in that section some of
the old figures have been replaced, partly by drawings made by Mr. J. T. Murray
from recent dissections, and partly by diagrams illustrating points not well shown
by dissections.

I am indebted for the dissections from which the drawings were made to
Dr. E. 1>. Jamieson and Mr. A. R. Maclean.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.

June 8, 1917.






^H



'"WSit







Oliver Sheppard, R.H.A., fecit.



DANIEL JOHANNES CUNNINGHAM ADHUC LOQUITUR.

Demonstrator ok Anatomy, University of Edinburgh, 1874-1882.

Professor of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin, 1882-1883.

Professor of Anatomy, Trinity College, Dublin, 1883-1903.

Professor of Anatomy, University op Edinburgh, 1903-1909.



LIST OF COXTKIl^LTOKS



RICHARD J. A. BERRY, M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Melbourne.
{The Respiratory System.)

A. FRANCIS DIXON, M.B., D.Sc. (Dubl.),

Professor of Anatomy, Trinity College, Dublin.
{The Uro-genital Sysievi.)

A. CAMPBELL GEDDES, M.D.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Montreal.
(The Ductless Glands.)

DAVID HEPBURN, M.B., F.R.S.E.,

Professor of Anatomy, University College, Cardiff'.
{Arthroloyy.)

ROBERT HOWDEN, M.A., M.B.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Durham.
{The Organs of Sense and the Integument.)

A. M. PATERSON, M.D., F.R.C.S.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Liverpool

{Myology, The Spinal and Cerebral Nerves, The Sympathetic Nervous System.)

ARTHUR ROBINSON, M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Edinburgh.
{General Embryology, The Vascular System.)

Q. ELLIOT SMITH, M.D., F.R.S.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Manchester.
{The Central Nervous System.)

HAROLD J. STILES, M.B., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Surgeon to the Royal Hosjiital for Sick Children, Edinburgh.
{Surface and Surgical Anatomy.)

ARTHUR THOMSON, LL.D., M.A., M.B., F.R.C.S.,

Profe.ssor of Human Anatomy, University of Oxford.
{Osteology.)

DAVID WATERSTON, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Professor of Anatomj-, University of St. Andrews.
{Tlie Digestive System.)



CONTENTS.



Glossary of Variations between International and Old Terminology
Introduction



PAGE

xvii



GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY.

PAGE

The Animal Cells 7

Reproduction of Cells ... 8
Amitotic and Mitotic Division of

Cells 9

The Ovum 13

Its Structure 13

Its Maturation ..... 15

The Spermatozoon 17

Fertilisation 20

Segmentation 21

Formation of Blastula . . . . 21

Ectoderm and Entoderm . . . 21

Embryonic Area .... 22

Extra-Embryonic Coelom ... 22

Differentiation of the Embryonic

Area . 23

Neural Groove 23

Formation of Notochord and Secondary

Mesoderm ..... 24

The Paraxial Mesoderm .... 28

Mesodermic Somites .... 28
Early Stages in Development of the

Nervous System .... 30
Nerve Ganglia and Chromaffin

Tissues 32

Differentiation of the Neural Tube . 33
Fate of Walls of Primitive Brain

Vesicles ..... 33
Fate of Cavities of Primitive

Brain • 36

Folding off of the Embryo ... 37



Professor Arthur Robinson.



Formation of the Embryo
Development of the Limbs
Primitive Alimentary Canal .
The Fore -Gut — Pharynx and Stoma
todaium .....
Visceral Clefts and Arclie^s
Rudiments of Respiratory System
External Ear, Tympanic Cavity

and Auditory Tube
The Tongue ....
Derivatives of the Mid-Gut .
The Hind-Gut, Anal Passage, and Post
anal Gut ....
Derivatives of the Stomatodseum—
The Nose and Mouth .
The Internal Ear . ". . .
Protection and Nutrition of the Embryo
during its Intra-uterine Existence
FcEtal Membranes and Appendages
Chorion ....
Amnion ....
Body-Stalk

Allantois ....
Umbilical Cord
Yolk-Sac or Umbilical Vesicle
The Placenta ....
Primitive Vascular System and FcEtal

Circulation

Summary of the External Features of

the Human Embrj^o and Fcetus at

different periods of Development .



PAGE

39
39

41

42
43

44

44
45
47

48

48
50

53
53
53

54
54
54
55
55
56

63



74



OSTEOLOGY.

The Skeleton .

Composition of Bone

Structure of Bone

Os.sification and Growth o
The Vertebral Column
A Typical Vertebra

Cervical Vertebra;

Thoracic Vertebra^ .

Lumbar Vertebra}
Fal.se or Fixed Vertel>ra;

The Sacrum

The Coccyx
The Vertebral Column as a w



Professor Arthur Thomson.





81




82




83


)i' Bones


85




87




88 !




90




93




95 j




96 !




96




99


vhole


100



Development of the Vertebral Column

The Cartilaginous Column

Ossification of the Vertebrae

The Sternum .

The Ribs

The Costal Cartilages

The Thorax as a wliole

The Bones of the Skull

Frontal Bone

Parietal Bones .

Occipital Bone .

Temporal Bones

Sphenoid Bone.



102
102
104
106
109
113
113
115
115
118
120
125
133



CONTENTS.



XI



Ethmoid Bone .

Inferior Condue
The Lacrimal Bones
The Vomer ....

Nasal Bones

Sutiiral Bones .
Bone.s of the Face .

Ma.xilhe ....

Palate Bones

Zygomatic Bones

^Iandible ....
The Hyoid Bone .
The Skull a.s a whole

The Skull from the Front

The Skull from the Side .

Posterior Asjiect x)f the Skull

Uj)per Aspect of Skull

Base of the Skull .

The Skull in Section

Upper Surface of the Base of the
Skull

Medial Sagittal Section of
Skull .

Nasal Fossae

Nasal Septum

Air-sinuses in
Nasal Fosspe .

Frontal Sections of the Skull

Horizontal Section of the Skull
Sexual Differences in the Skull
The Skull at Birth
Differences due to Age .
Bones of the Upper Extremity

Clavicle ....

Scapula ....

Humenis ....



connexion with the



PAOK

139

142
U3
144
145
14r,
146
14G
l.'iO

ir)3

154
158
159
160
164
171
171
172
179

179

183
183
185

185
186
192
193
194
197
197
197
200
.204



THE ARTICULATIONS OR JOINTS.

Syndesmology ..... 299

Synarthroses 299

Diartiiroses or Movable Joints . . 300
Structures which enter into the

Formation of Joints . . . 301
The Different Kinds of Movement

at Joints 303

The Development of Joints . 304

Morpliology of Ligaments . . 305
Ligaments of the Vertebral Column and

Skull . . . . .305

Articulation between the Athis and

Epistropheus .... 309
Articulation between the Atlas and

the Cranium .... 310

Mandibular Joint 312

Cranial Ligaments not directly as.so-

ciated with Articulations . 313

The Joints of the Thorax . . .' 313

Joint^s of the Heads of the Kibs 313

Costo-transverse Joints . . . 314
Articulations between the Ribs and

their Cartilages .... 315
Interchondral Joints 315
Sterno-costal Joints . . . : 315
Sternal Articulations . . . 317
The Articulations of the Superior Ex-
tremity 317



THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM.

The Muscular System .
Fascite .....
Description of the Muscles



363
364
365



Ulna ....


PAOE

210


Radius ....


. 214


Tin; Carpus


217


Tin: Carpus as a wlnjle


222


The Metacarj)us


223


Tlie Phalanges .


•2-2(i


ye.samoid Bones


. 228


Bones of the Lower Limb


. 228


The Pelvic Ginlle and the Lowi


M K.x-


tremity ....


228


The Hip Bone .


228


The Pelvis


235


The Femur


239


The Patella


245


The Tibia .


246


The Fibula


250


Tarsus


254


Talus


254


Calcaneus ....


2.59


Navicular Bone of the Fool


261


Cuneiform Bones


261


Cuboid Bone


263


The Tai-siLS as a whole


. 264


The Metatarsus .


. 265


Phalanges of the Foot


267


Sesamoid Bones of the Foot


. 269


Appendices —




Architecture of the Bones of the


Skeleton


. 270


Variations in the Skeleton


275


Serial Homologies of the Vertebrie . 283


Measurements and Indices emj


(loved


in Physical Anthropology


. 284


Developmentof the Chondro-cranium


and Morphology of the Skul


I 290


Morphology of the Limits


294


Professor David Hepburn.


Articulations of the Clavicle .


317


Stemo-clavicular Joint


317


Acromio-clavicular Joint .


318


Ligaments of the Scapula


320


Shoulaer-joint


320


Elbow-joint ....


323


The Radio-ulnar Joints .


326


The Radio-carpal Joint .


328


Carpal Joints


329


Intermetacarpal Joints .


332


Carpo-metacar])al Joints


332


Melacarpo-phalangeal Joints


3.33


Interphalangeal Joints .


. 334


Articulationsand Ligaments of the '.


^elvis 334


Lumbo-sacral Joints


. 335


Sacro-iliac Joint


335


Symphysis Pubis .


337


Articulations of the Inferior Ext re


mitv 339


The Hip-joint .


■ . 339


The Knee-joint


342


The Tibio-liliular Joints .


349


The Joints of the Foot


351


The Ankle-joint


351


The Intertarsal Joints


354


The Tai-so-metatarsal Joints


359


Intermetatarsal Joints


360


Metatai-so-phalangeal Joints


360


Interphalangeal Joints


. 361


Professor A. Mklvillf


PATKR.SOX.


Appendicular Muscles .


. 365


Fascia- and Sui>erficial Muscles o


f the


Back


.365



xu



CONTENTS.



Fasciae of the Back

The Superficial Muscles of the Back

The Fascite and Muscles of the Pectoral

Region

Fasciae of the Pectoral Region

Muscles of the Pectoral Region

Fascite and Muscles of the Shoulder

Muscles of the Shoulder

Fasci te and Muscles of the Arm

Fasciae and Muscles of the Forearm and

Hand
The Muscles of the Front and Medial

Aspect of the Forearm
Superficial Muscles .
Intermediate Layer .
Deep Layer
Short Muscles of the Hand
Muscles of the Thumb .
Muscles of the Little Finger
The Interosseous Muscles of the Hand
The Muscles on the Dorsal Surface of the

Forearm
Suijerficial Muscles .
Deep Muscles .
The Lower Limb .
Fasciae and Muscles of the Thigh and

Buttock . . . . ,
Fasciae of the Thigh and Buttock ,
Muscles of the Thigh and Buttock
The Muscles on the Anterior Aspect of

the Thigh .
The Muscles on the Medial Side of the

Thigh .
Tlie Muscles of the Buttock
The Muscles on the Posterior Aspect of

the Thigh .
The Fasciae and Muscles of the Leg and

Foot
Fasciae of the Leg and Foot
The Muscles on the Front of the Leg and

Dorsum of the Foot



PAGE

365
365

369
369
369
373
373
378

382

385
385
388
388
391
392
393
394

395
396
398

402

402
402
405

405

411

414

418

422
422

424



THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Elements of the Central Nervous

System 497

Outline of Development of the Central

Nervous System .... 499

Neurone Theory ..... 503

Nerve Components . . . 505

Nerve-cells . . ■ . . . 506

Nerve-fibres ...... 508

Neuroglia . . . . . .511

The Nature of tlie Brain . . .512
The Spinal Medulla .... 517

Internal Structure of Spinal Medulla 523
Characters presented by the Spinal

Medulla in its Different Regions . 524
Component Parts of the Gray Matter

of the Spinal Medulla . . .527
Component Parts of the White Matter

of the Spinal Medulla . . . 531
The Encephalon or Brain . 539

General Appearance of the Brain . 539
Parts of Encephalon derived from the

Hind-ljrain 543

Medulla Oljlongata .... 643

Pons 548

The Fourth Ventricle ... 549
Internal Structure of Medulla Ob-
longata and Pons . . . .551
Internal Structure of tlie Pons . 565



PAGE

The Muscles on the Lateral Side of the Leg 426
The Muscles on the Posterior Aspect of

the Leg 428

The Muscles in the Sole of the . oot . 432

Axial Muscles 437

The Fasciae and Muscles of the Back . 437

The Fasciae of the Back .... 437

The Muscles of the Back . . . 438

First Group 438

Second Group 439

Third Group 442

Fourth Group ..... 444
The Fasciae and Muscles of the Head

and Neck 446

Fasciae of the Head and Neck . . 44..
The Muscles of the Head . . .448

Superficial Muscles .... 448
The Muscles of the Scalp . . .448
The Muscles of the Face . . .450

The Fasciae and Muscles of the Orbit . 452

Muscles of Mastication .... 454
The Muscles of the Neck . . .458

The Muscles of the Hyoid Bone . . 458 •

The Muscles of the Tongue . . ., 462

The Muscles of the Pharynx . . . 464

The Muscles of the Soft Palate . . 466
Deep Lateral and Praevertebral Muscles

of the Neck 467

The Muscles of the Thorax . . .470

Muscles of Respiration .... 470

Fasciae and Muscles of the AbdominalWall 474

Fasciae of the Abdominal Wall . . 474

The Muscles of the Abdominal Wall . 476
Fasciae and Muscles of the Perineum

and Pelvis 485

Fasciae of the Perineum .... 485

The Muscles of the Perineum . . 486

The Fasciae of the Pelvis . . . 489

Muscles of the Pelvis .... 493
The Development and Morphology of

the Skeletal Muscles . . . 495

Professor G. Elliot Smith.



The Cerebellum

The Structure and Connexions of the
Cerebellum . .
The Mesencephalon ....

Internal Structure of the Mesence-
phalon

The Deep Connexions of the Cerebral
Nerves attached to the Medulla
Oblongata, Pons, and Mesence-
phalon ......

Prosencephalon or Fore-brain

Development of Parts derived from
Fore -brain .....

Parts derived from the Dience-
phalon

Thalamus

Hypothalamic Region

Pineal Body

Trigonum Habenulae

Corpora Mamillaria ....

Hypophysis

Third Ventricle ....

Cerebral Connexions of the Optic

Tract

Parts derived from the Telencephalon .

Cerebral Hemispheres

The Connexions of the Olfactory
Nerves



570

576

581

584



592

607

608

609
609
613
614
614
615
615
616

619
620
620

623



CONTENTS.



Xlll



The Cerebral Commissures and the:

Sej)tum Pellucidum . . . 628
Tlie Corpus Callosuin . . .629
Tlie Lateral Ventricle . . .632
13a.sal Ganglia of the Cerebral Hemi-
sphere 637

Intimate Structure of Cerebral Hemi-
sphere 644

The Cerebral Cortex .... 644

The Neopallium .... 645
The White Matter of the Cerebral

Hemispheres 647

THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Spinal Nerves 677

Development of the Peripheral Nerves . 679
Development of the Sympathetic System 681
Development of the Cerebral Nerves . 682
The Spinal Nerves . . . . .685
Posterior Rami of the Spinal Nerves . 687
Posterior Rami of the Cervical Nerves . 688
Posterior Rami of the Thoracic Nerves . 690
Posterior Rami of the Lumbar Nerves . 690
Posterior Rami of the Sacral and Coccy-
geal Nerves 691

Morphology of the Posterior Rami . 691

Anterior Rami of the Spinal Nerves . 692

Cervical Nerves 692

Cervical Plexus 694

Phrenic Nerve 699

Morphology of the Cervical Plexus . 700

Brachial Plexiis 700

Branches of Brachial Plexus . . 701

Anterior Thoracic Nerves . . 703

Musculo-cutaneous Nerve . 704

Median Nerve 705

Ulnar Nerve 708

Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Fore-
arm 709

Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the

Arm 710

Axillary Nerve 710

Radial Nerve 710

Superficial Ramus of Radial Nerve . 712

Deep Ramus of Radial Nerve . . 712
Subscapular Nerves . . . .713

Thoracic Nerves 713

Lumbo-sacral Plexus .... 718

Lumbar Plexus 719

Obturator Nerve .... 722

Femoral Nerve ..... 724

Sacral Plexus 727

Sciatic Nerve . ... 728

The Nerves of Distribution from the

Sacral Plexus .... 728



The Sulci and Gyri of the Cerebral

Hemispheres

The Acoustic Area and Fibre Tracts
The Visual Area and Fibre Tracts
The Parietal Region of the Bniii
Tlie Frontal Region .
Weight of the Brain .
Meninges of the Encephalon and Spina
Medulla ....
Dura Mater ....
Arachnoidea ....
Pia Mater



653
657
658
662
665
667

667
667
670
673



Professor A. Melville Paterson.



Common Peroneal Nerve .

Deep Peroneal Nerve

Superficial Peroneal Nerve

Tibial Nerve ....

Medial Plantar Nerve

Lateral Plantar Nerve
Pudendal Plexus ....

Pudendal Nerve
Morphology of the Pudendal Plexus
Morphology of the Limb-plexuses .
Distribution of Spinal Nerves to Muscles

and Skin of Limbs
Variations in Position of the Li ml

plexuses ....

Significance of the Limb-plexuses .
Sympathetic Nervous System .
Cervical Part of Sympathetic Trunk

Superior Cervical Ganglion

Middle Cervical Ganglion

Inferior Cervical Ganglion
Thoracic Part of Sympathetic Trunk
Abdominal Part of Sympathetic Trunk
Pelvic Part of Sympathetic Trunk
Sympathetic Plexuses ...

Coeliac and Pelvic Plexuses
Cerebral Nerves

Olfactory Nerves

Optic Nerve ....

Oculo-motor Nerve .

Trochlear Nerve

Trigeminal Nerve

Abducens Nerve

Facial Nerve ....

Acoustic Nerve ....

Glossopharyiigeal Nerve .

Vagus Nerve ....
Thoracic Plexuses of .

Accessory Nerve

Hypoglossal Nerve .
Development of Cerebral Nerves .
Morphology of Cerebral Nerves



730
730
731
732
734
734
735
738
740
741

744

752
753
753
756
756
759
759
759
761
762
763
763
767
767
768
769
770
771
781
781
784
785
786
789
791
791
795
796



ORGANS OF SENSE AND THE INTEGUMENT.



Professor Robert Howden.



Olfactory Organ

Cartilages of Nose
Nasal Cavity .
Organ of Sight .
Bulb of the Eye .
Sclera
Cornea .
Vascular and Pigmented Tunic

Retina

Refracting Media of Eveball .
Eyelids . . . " .
Lacrimal Apparatus
Development of the Eye
Auditory Organ .



799
800
801
806
806
807
808
810
814
819
821
824
825
827



External Ear ....

Auricle ....

External Acoustic Meatus
Tympanic Cavity .

Tympanic Antrum and Mastoid Air
cells ....

Auditory Tube .

Auditory Ossicles
Internal Ear ....
Osseous Labyrinth .
Membranous Labyrinth .

Development of Labyrinth
Organs of Taste .
The Integument or Skin .



827
827
830
832

836
837
838
843
843
846
853
854
856



XIV



CONTENTS.



Appendages of the Skin ....

Development of the Skin and its

Appendages

THE VASCULAR SYSTEM.



PAGE PAOK

858 Endings of Nerves of General Sensa-
tion 863

861 Special End Organs .... 863

Professor Arthur Robinson.



Structure of Blood-vessels




868 1


The Heart ....




870 '


The Chambers of the Heart .




873


Structure of the Heart .




878


Pericardium ....




880


Arteries ....




882


Pulmonary Artery .




882


The Systemic Arteries .




884 1


Aorta




884


Thoracic Aorta




884 1


Abdominal Aorta .




885 !


Branches of the Ascending Aorta




887 i


Coronary Arteries




887


Branches of the Arch of the Aorta


888 ,


Innominate Artery


888 ,


The Arteries of the Head and Neck


888


Common Carotid Arteries


888


External Carotid Artery


891


Branches of External Carotid Arterj


' 891


Internal Carotid Artery


900


Branches of Internal Carotid Artery


902


Vertebral Ai'tery


905


Arteries of the Upper Extremity .


909



Online LibraryD. J. (Daniel John) CunninghamCunningham's text-book of anatomy → online text (page 1 of 235)