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TEXT-BOOK OF ANATOMY



PUBLISHED BY THE JOINT COMMITTEE OF HENRY FROWDE AND HODDER & STOUGHTON
AT THE OXFORD PRESS WAREHOUSE, FALCON SQUARE, LONDON, E.C.



u-u



CUNNINGHAM'S
TEXT-BOOK



OF



ANATOMY



EDITED BY



ARTHUR ROBINSON, M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY, UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH



FOURTH EDITION, ENLARGED AND REWRITTEN



ILLUSTRATED BY II24 FIGURES FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS

637 OF WHICH ARE PRINTED IN COLORS,

AND TWO PLATES



NEW YORK
WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY

MDCCCCXI\



'•NZ3

I

Ik



FIRST EDITION 1902.
SECOND EDITION 1905.
THIRD EDITION 1909.
FOURTH EDITION 1914.



TO

Sir SEilitam Eurtur, H.CJ.

F.R.S., M.B., LL.D., D.C.L., D.Sc.

IN RECOGNITION OF

HIS EMINENCE AS AN ANATOMIST

AND HIS INFLUENCE AS A TEACHER

THIS VOLUME

IS DEDICATED

BY THOSE OF HIS FORMER PUPILS AND ASSISTANTS

WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED

TO ITS PAGES






FEINTED FOE HENRY FROWDE, OXFORD UNIVERSITY FK1-S, AM' HODDEB

WARWICK SQUARE, E.C., BY' B. & u. CLARK, LTD., BDINBUBOH.






PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.



The fourth edition of Cunningham's Text-look of Anatomy has lacked during its
preparation the able guidance of its original editor, but the various contributors
have attempted to maintain the standard of excellence which was Professor
Cunningham's ideal.

The deaths of Professor Cunningham, Professor Birmingham, and Professor
A. H. Young have necessitated changes in the authorship of several of the articles.

Every section has been fully revised; some have been partially and others
have been completely rewritten.

In the majority of the sections numerous additional illustrations have been
added, or the original illustrations have been replaced by new figures better
adapted to their purpose, and colour has been largely used, particularly in diagrams.

The sections originally written by Professor Cunningham were the Central
Nervous System, the Eespiratory System, and the Ductless Glands. The account
of the Central Nervous System has been revised and largely rewritten by
Professor Elliot Smith of Manchester. The Eespiratory System has been revised
and partly rewritten by Professor Berry of Melbourne ; and the section dealing
with the Ductless Glands has been rewritten by Professor A. Campbell Geddes
of Dublin.

The description of the Alimentary System, originally written by Professor
Birmingham, has been revised and partially rewritten by Professor Waterston of
King's College, London.

With regard to the sections dealing with General Embryology and the
Vascular System, in the original preparation of which I was associated with my
senior colleague and friend, Professor A. H. Young, I have completely rewritten
the account of General Embryology, and have revised and partially rewritten the
account of the Vascular System.

It may be found, where the sections written by various authors overlap one
another, that there occur, in this as in previous editions, different accounts of
certain phenomena concerning which our knowledge is still in an indefinite stage,
and it must be understood that the authors of the various sections are solely
responsible for the opinions expressed in their own sections.

The Basle anatomical terminology has been adopted throughout, except in
those cases where the results of recent researches have shown that the terms of
that nomenclature are incorrect, or where the terms themselves did not conform
with the principles of the terminology.

It is scarcely necessary, to-day, to urge reasons for the use of the Basle
nomenclature, for it is now generally recognised, not only that it is based on

iv



PEEFACE. v

sound general principles, but also that it is, at the same time, less cumbrous and
more definitely instructive than the terminology previously in use in this country.

One of the recognised functions of a preface is to give the editor the
opportunity of expressing his thanks to those who have assisted in the production
of the work, and I gladly avail myself of this function.

My thanks are due to all the authors for their courtesy and consideration. To
Mr. J. Keogh Murphy, F.E.C.S., for the preparation of an extremely useful glossary
and index, and for ever-ready help and many valuable suggestions. To Dr. E. B.
Jamieson for assistance in the revision of the text, and for the preparation of
specimens from which some of the new illustrations were made.

I am also greatly indebted to Professor Keibel, and to Mr. Gustav Fischer of
Jena for permission to copy eight figures from Normentaflen zur Entwicklungs-
geschichte des Menschen; to Professor Gustav Eetzius for permission to use
figures from his monographs; and to Professors Mall, Felix, and Tandler for
permission to utilise the results of their work in the preparation of diagrams.

Most of the new figures in this edition have been drawn by Mr. J. T.
Murray with his usual skill and appreciation, and the remainder have been prepared
by Mr. Frank Butterworth from designs made by the authors of the articles in
which the figures appear.

AETHUE EOBINSOK

Edinburgh, April 1913.








Oliver Sheppard, R.H.A., fecit.



DANIEL JOHANNES CUNNINGHAM ADHUC LOQUITUR.

Demonstrator of Anatomy, University of Edinburgh, 1874-1882.

Professor of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin, 1882-1883.

Professor of Anatomy, Trinity College, Dublin, 1883-1903.

Professor of Anatomy, University of Edinburgh, 1903-1909.



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS



RICHARD J. A. BERRY, M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Melbourne.
(The Respiratory System.)

A. FRANCIS DIXON, M.B., D.Sc. (Dubl.),

Professor of Anatomy, Trinity College, Dublin.
(The Urino-genital System.)

A CAMPBELL GEDDES, M.D.,

Professor of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland.
(The Ductless Glands.)

DAVID HEPBURN, M.D., F.R.S.E.,

Professor of Anatomy, University College, Cardiff.
(Arthrology.)

ROBERT HOWDEN, M.A, M.B.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Durham.
(The Organs of Sense and the Integument.)

A. M. PATERSON, M.D., F.E.C.S.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Liverpool.

(Myology, The Spinal and Cerebral Nerves, The Sympathetic Nervous System.)

ARTHUR ROBINSON, M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Edinburgh.
(General Embryology, The Vascular System.)

G. ELLIOT SMITH, M.D., F.R.S.,

Professor of Anatomy, University of Manchester.
(Tlie Central Nervous System.)

HAROLD J. STILES, M.B., F.R.C.S. Ed.,

Surgeon to the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh.
(Surface and Surgical Anatomy.)

ARTHUR THOMSON, M.A, M.B., F.R.C.S.,

Professor of Human Anatomy, University of Oxford.
(Osteology.)

DAVID WATERSTON, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.S. Ed.,
Professor of Anatomy, University of London.
(The Digestive System.)



The New Index and Glossary are the work of Mr. J. Kko<;h Murphy, M.C. Cantab., F.R.C.S.

vii



CONTENTS.



Glossary op Variations between International and Old Terminology
Introduction



PACK
XV




GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY.

The Animal Cells .
Reproduction of Cells
Amitotic and Mitotic Division of
Cells
The Ovum

Its Structure
Its Maturation
The Spermatozoon
Fertilisation
Segmentation
Formation of Blastula
Ectoderm and Entoderm

Embryonic Area
Extra-Embryonic Coelom

Differentiation of the Embryonic

Area

Neural Groove

Formation of Notochord and Secondary

Mesoderm

The Paraxial Mesoderm .

Mesodermic Somites .

Early Stages in Development of the

Nervous System

Nerve Ganglia and Chromaffin

Tissues

Differentiation of the Neural Tube
Fate of Walls of Primitive Brain

Vesicles

Fate of Cavities of Primitive
Brain
Folding off of the Embryo



Professor Arthur Robinson.



PAGE

7



9
13
13

15
17

20
21
21
21
22
22

23
23

24
28
28

30

32
33

33

36
37



Formation of the Embryo
Development of the Limbs
Primitive Alimentary Canal .
The Fore -Gut — Pharynx and Stoma
todaeum .....
Visceral Clefts and Arches
Rudiments of Respiratory System
External Ear, Tympanic Cavity

and Auditory Tube
The Tongue ....
Derivatives of the Mid-Gut .
The Hind-Gut, Anal Passage, and Post
anal Gut ....
Derivatives of the Stoniatodaeum—
The Nose and Mouth .
The Internal Ear ....
Protection and Nutrition of the Embryo
during its Intra-uterine Existence
Fcetal Membranes and Appendages
Chorion ....
Amnion ....
Body-Stalk

Allantois ....
Umbilical Cord
Yolk-Sac or Umbilical Vesicle
The Placenta ....
Primitive Vascular System and Foetal

Circulation

Summary of the External Features of
the Human Embryo and Foetus at
different periods of Development .



PAGE

39
39

41

42
43

44

44
45

47

48

48
50

53
53
53

54
54
54
55
55
56

63



74



OSTEOLOGY.

The Skeleton .

Composition of Bone

Structure of Bone

Ossification and Growth of Bones
The Vertebral Column .
A Typical Vertebra

Cervical Vertebrae .

Thoracic Vertebras .

Lumbar Vertebrae
False or Fixed Vertebrae

The Sacrum

The Coccyx
The Vertebral Column as a whole



Professor Arthur Thomson.



81


Development of the Vertebral Column


102


82


The Cartilaginous Column .


102


83


Ossification of the Vertebrae






104


85


The Sternum .






106


87


The Ribs






109


88


The Costal Cartilages






113


90


The Thorax as a whole .






113


93


The Bones of the Skull .






115


95


Frontal Bone






115


96


Parietal Bones .






118


96


Occipital Bone .






120


99


Temporal Bones






125


100


Sphenoid Bone .






133



CONTENTS.



IX



Ethmoid Bone .

Inferior Conchae
The Lacrimal Bones
The Vomer

Nasal Bones

Sutural Bones .
Bones of the Face .

Maxillae .

Palate Bones

Zygomatic Bones

Mandible .
The Hyoid Bone .
The Skull as a whole

The Skull from the Front

The Skull from the Side .

Posterior Aspect of the Skull

Upper Aspect of Skull

Base of the Skull .

The Skull in Section

Upper Surface of the Base
Skull ....

Medial Sagittal Section of
Skull .

Nasal Fossae

Nasal Septum

Air-sinuses in
Nasal Fossse .

Frontal Sections of the Skull

Horizontal Section of the Skull
Sexual Differences in the Skull
The Skull at Birth
Differences due to Age
Bones of the Upper Extremity

Clavicle

Scapula

Humerus



F the
the



connexion with the



of



PAGE

139
142
143
144
145
145
146
146
150
153
154
158
159
160
164
171
171
172
179

179

183

183
185

185
186
192
193
194
197
197
197
200
204



THE ARTICULATIONS OR JOINTS.

Syndesmology ....

Synarthroses ....
Diarthroses or Movable Joints .
Structures which enter into the

Formation of Joints
The Different Kinds of Movement

at Joints ....
The Development of Joints
Morphology of Ligaments
Ligaments of the Vertebral Column and

Skull

Articulation between the Atlas and

Epistropheus
Articulation between the Atlas and

the Cranium
Mandibular Joint ....
Cranial Ligaments not directly assu

ciated with Articulations
The Joints of the Thorax .
Joints of the Heads of the Ribs
Costo-transverse Joints
Articulations between the Ribs and

their Cartilages

Interchondral Joints

Sterno-costal Joints .

Sternal Articulations

The Articulations of the Superior Ex

tremity .

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM.

The Muscular System
Fasciae . . .

Description of the Muscles



299
299
300

301

303
304
305

305

309

310

312

313
313

313
314

315

315
315

317

317



363
364
365



Ulna

Radius ....

The Carpus

The Carpus as a whole

The Metacarpus

The Phalanges .

Sesamoid Bones
Bones of the Lower Limb

The Pelvic Girdle and the Lower Ex-
tremity ....

The Hip Bone .

The Pelvis

The Femur

The PateUa

The Tibia ....

The Fibula

Tarsus ....

Talus ....

Calcaneus ....

Navicular Bone of the Foot

Cuneiform Bones

Cuboid Bone

The Tarsus as a whole

The Metatarsus .

Phalanges of the Foot

Sesamoid Bones of the Foot
Appendices —

Architecture of the Bones of the
Skeleton ....

Variations in the Skeleton

Serial Homologies of the Vertebrae

Measurements and Indices employed
in Physical Anthropology

Development of the Chondro-cranium
and Morphology of the Skull
Morphology of the Limbs



PAGE

210
214

217
222
223
226
228
228

228
228
235
239
245
246
250
254
254
259
261
261
263
264
265
267
269



270
275
283

284

290
294



Professor David Hepburn.



Articulations of the Clavicle .

Sterno-clavicular Joint

Acromioclavicular Joint .

Ligaments of the Scapula
Shoulder-joint
Elbow -joint
The Radio-ulnar Joints
The Radio-carpal Joint
Carpal Joints
Intermetacarpal Joints
Carpo-metacarpal Joints
Metacarpophalangeal Joints
Interphalangeal Joints .
Articulations and Ligaments of the Pelvis

Lumbo-sacral Joints

Sacro-iliac Joint
Symphysis Pubis ....
Articulations of the Inferior Extremity

The Hip-joint ....

The Knee-joint

The Tibio-tibular Joints .

The Joints of the Foot

The Ankle-joint

The Intertarsal Joints

The Tarso-metatarsal Joints

Intermetatarsal Joints

Metatarso-phalangeal Joints

Interphalangeal Joints



317
317
318
320
320
323
326
328
329
332
332
333
334
334
335
335
337
339

342
349
35 1
351
354
359
360
360
361



Professor A. Mi:i.\ ii.i.k Pati l



Appendicular Muscles . . .
Fasciae and Superficial M ; the
Back



365



365



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Fasciae of the Back .... 365

The Superficial Muscles of the Back . 365
The Fasciae and Muscles of the Pectoral

Region ...... 369

Fasciae of the Pectoral Region . ■ 369

Muscles of tlic Pectoral Eegion . . 369

Fasciae and Muscles of the Shoulder . 373
Muscles of the Shoulder . . .373

Fasciae and Muscles of the Arm . . 378 [
Fascia 3 and Muscles of the Forearm and

Hand .... .382

The Muscles of the Front and Medial

Aspect of the Forearm . . . 385

Superficial Muscles .... 385

Intermediate Layer .... 388

Deep Layer 388

Short Muscles of the Hand . . .391

Muscles of the Thumb .... 392

Muscles of the Little Finger . . . 393

The Interosseous Muscles of the Hand . 394
The Muscles on the Dorsal Surface of the

Forearm 395

Superficial Muscles .... 396

Deep Muscles 398

The Lower Limb 402

Fascise and Muscles of the Thigh and

Buttock 402

Fascia? of the Thigh and Buttock . . 402

Muscles of the Thigh and Buttock . 405

The Muscles on the Anterior Aspect of

the Thigh . . . . .405
The Muscles on the Medial Side of the

Thigh 411

The Muscles of the Buttock . . . 414
The Muscles on the Posterior Aspect of

the Thigh 418

The Fasciae and Muscles of the Leg and

Foot 422

Fasciae of the Leg and Foot . . . 422
The Muscles on the Front of the Leg and

Dorsum of the Foot . . . 424

THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Elements op the Central Nervous

System 497

Outline of Development of the Central

Nervous System .... 499

Neurone Theory 503

Nerve Components . . . 505

Nerve-cells 506

Nerve-fibres ...... 508

Neuroglia 511

The Nature of the Brain . . . 512

The Spinal Medulla .... 517

Internal Structure of Spinal Medulla 523
Characters presented by the Spinal

Medulla in its Different Regions . 524
Component Parts of the Gray Matter

of the Spinal Medulla . . . 527
Component Parts of the White Matter

of the Spinal Medulla . . . 531

The Encephalon or Brain . . 539

General Appearance of the Brain . 539
Parts of Encephalon derived from the

Hind-brain 543

Medulla Oblongata .... 543

Pons 548

The Fourth Ventricle . . . 549
Internal Structure of Medulla Ob-
longata and Pons . . . .551

Internal Structure of the Pons . 565



PAGE

The Muscleson the Lateral Side of the Leg 426
The Muscles on the Posterior Aspect of

1 he Leg 428

The Muscles in the Sole of the Foot . 432

Axial Muscles 437

The Fascia? and Muscles of the Back . 437

The Fasciae of the Back .... 437

The Muscles of the Back . . . 438

First Group 438

Second Group ..... 439

Third Group 442

Fourth Group 444

The Fasciae and Muscles of the Head

and Neck 446

Fascia? of the Head and Neck . . 446
The Muscles of the Head . . .448

Superficial Muscles .... 448
The Muscles of the Scalp . . .448
The Muscles of the Face . . .450

The Fasciae and Muscles of the Orbit . 452

Muscles of Mastication .... 454
The Muscles of the Neck . . .458

The Muscles of the Hyoid Bone . . 458

The Muscles of the Tongue . . . 462

The Muscles of the Pharynx . . . 464

The Muscles of the Soft Palate . . 466
Deep Lateral and Praevertebral Muscles

of the Neck 467

The Muscles of the Thorax . .. . 470

Muscles of Respiration .... 470

Fasciae and Muscles of the AbdominalWall 474

Fascia? of the Abdominal Wall . . 474

The Muscles of the Abdominal Wall . 476
Fascia? and Muscles of the Perineum

and Pelvis 485

Fascia? of the Perineum .... 485

The Muscles of the Perineum . . 486

The Fascia? of the Pelvis . . . 489

Muscles of the Pelvis .... 493
The Development and Morphology of

the Skeletal Muscles . . . 495

Professor G. Elliot Smith.



The Cerebellum

, The Structure and Connexions of the

Cerebellum

The Mesencephalon . . . .
Internal Structure of the Mesence-
phalon

The Deep Connexions of the Cerebral
Nerves attached to the Medulla
Oblongata, Pons, and Mesence-
phalon

Prosencephalon or Fore-brain

Development of Parts derived from

Fore -brain ....
Parts derived from the Dience

phalon

Thalamus

Hypothalamic Region

Pineal Body ....

Trigonum Habenula?

Corpora Mamillaria .

Hypophysis

Third Ventricle ...

Cerebral Connexions of the Optic

Tract l

Parts derived from the Telencephalon
Cerebral Hemispheres
The Connexions of the Olfactory
Nerves .



570

576
581

584



592
607



609
609
613
614
614
615
615
616

619

620
620

623



CONTENTS.



XI



The Cerebral Commissures and the

Septum Pellucidum . . . 628
The Corpus Callosum . . . 629
The Lateral Ventricle . . . 632
Basal Ganglia of the Cerebral Hemi-
sphere 637

Intimate Structure of Cerebral Hemi-
sphere 644

The Cerebral Cortex .... 644

The Neopallium .... 645
The White Matter of the Cerebral

Hemispheres 647

THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Spinal Nerves 677

Development of the Peripheral Nerves . 679

Development of the Sympathetic System 681

Development of the Cerebral Nerves . 682

The Spinal Nerves 685

Posterior Kami of the Spinal Nerves . 687
Posterior Eami of the Cervical Nerves . 688
Posterior Eami of the Thoracic Nerves . 690
Posterior Eami of the Lumbar Nerves . 690
Posterior Eami of the Sacral and Coccy-
geal Nerves 691

Morphology of the Posterior Eami . 691

Anterior Eami of the Spinal Nerves . 692

Cervical Nerves 692

Cervical Plexus ..... 694

Phrenic Nerve 699

Morphology of the Cervical Plexus . 700

Brachial Plexus ..... 700

Branches of Brachial Plexus . . 701

Anterior Thoracic Nerves . . 703

Musculo-cutaneous Nerve . . 704

Median Nerve 705

Ulnar Nerve 708

Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Fore-
arm ...... 709

Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the

Arm 710

Axillary Nerve 710

Radial Nerve 710

Superficial Eamus of Eadial Nerve . 712

Deep Eamus of Eadial Nerve . . 712

Subscapular Nerves .... 713

Thoracic Nerves 713

Lumbo-sacral Plexus . . . .718

Lumbar Plexus 719

Obturator Nerve .... 722

Femoral Nerve ..... 724

Sacral Plexus 727

Sciatic Nerve 728

The Nerves of Distribution from the

Sacral Plexus .... 728



The Sulci and Gyri of the Cerebral

Hemispheres .
The Acoustic Area and Fibre Tracts
The Visual Area and Fibre Tracts
The Parietal Eegion of the Brain
The Frontal Eegion .
"Weight of the Brain .
Meninges of the Encephalon and Spinal
Medulla ....
Dura Mater ....
Arachnoidea ....
Pia Mater



653
657
658
662
665
667

667
667
670
673



Professor A Melville Paterson.



Common Peroneal Nerve .

Deep Peroneal Nerve

Superficial Peroneal Nerve

Tibial Nerve ....

Medial Plantar Nerve

Lateral Plantar Nerve
Pudendal Plexus ....

Pudendal Nerve
Morphology of the Pudendal Plexus
Morphology of the Limb-plexuses .
Distribution of Spinal Nerves to Muscles

and Skin of Limbs
Variations in Position of the Limb

plexuses ....

Significance of the Limb-plexuses .
Sympathetic Nervous System .
Cervical Part of Sympathetic Trunk

Superior Cervical Ganglion

Middle Cervical Ganglion

Inferior Cervical Ganglion
Thoracic Part of Sympathetic Trunk
Abdominal Part of Sympathetic Trunk
Pelvic Part of Sympathetic Trunk
Sympathetic Plexuses .

Cceliac and Pelvic Plexuses
Cerebral Nerves

Olfactory Nerves

Optic Nerve

Oculo-motor Nerve .

Trochlear Nerve

Trigeminal Nerve

Abducens Nerve

Facial Nerve

Acoustic Nerve .

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Vagus Nerve

Thoracic Plexuses of

Accessory Nerve

Hypoglossal Nerve .
Development of Cerebral Nerves
Morphology of Cerebral Nerves



730
730
731
732
734
734
735
738
740
741

744

752
753

753
756
756
759
759
759
761
762
763
763
767
767
768
769
770
771
781
781
784
785
786
789
791
791
795
796



ORGANS OF SENSE AND THE INTEGUMENT.



Professor Robert Howden.



Olfactory Organ

Cartilages of Nose
Nasal Cavity ....
Organ op Sight .
Bidb of the Eye .
Sclera .....
Cornea .....
Vascular and Pigmented Tunic

Retina

Eefracting Media of Eyeball .

Eyelids

Lacrimal Apparatus . .
Development of the Eye
Auditory Organ .



799
800
801
806
806



810
814

819
821

824
825
827



External Ear

Auricle

External Acoustic Meatus
Tympanic Cavity ....

Tympanic Antrum and Mastoid Air
cells

Auditory Tube ....

Auditory Ossicles

Internal Ear

Osseous Labyrinth ....
Membranous Labyrinth .

Development of Labyrinth
Organs op Taste ....
The Integument or Skin .

b



827
827
830
832

836
837

838
843
843
846
853
854
856



Xll



CONTENTS.



Appendages of the Skin .
Development of the Skin
Appendages .



and its



THE VASCULAR SYSTEM.

Structure of Blood-vessels

The Heart

The Chamber.-? of the Heart .
Structure of the Heart .

Pericardium

Arteries

Pulmonary Artery ....
The Systemic Arteries .

Aorta

Thoracic Aorta ....
Abdominal Aorta ....
Branches of the Ascending Aorta .

Coronary Arteries
Branches of the Arch of the Aorta
Innominate Artery
The Arteries of the Head and Neck
Common Carotid Arteries
External Carotid Artery

Branches of External Carotid Artery
Internal Carotid Artery 3

Branches of Internal Carotid Artery
Vertebral Artery
Arteries of the Upper Extremity .
Subclavian Arteries

Branches of the Subclavian Artery
Axillary Artery ....
Branches of the Axillary Artery
Brachial Artery ....
Branches of Brachial Artery .
Radial Artery ....
Ulnar Artery ....
The Arterial Arches of the Wrist and

Hand

Branches of Descending Thoracic Aorta

Visceral Branches of the Descending

Thoracic Aorta ....

Parietal Branches of the Descending

Thoracic Aorta ....

Branches of Abdominal Aorta

The Paired Visceral Branches of the

Abdominal Aorta
The Unpaired or Single Visceral
Branches of the Abdominal Aorta
Parietal Branches of the Abdominal

Aorta

Common Iliac Arteries
Hypogastric Artery

Branches of the Posterior Division
Branches of the Anterior Division
Visceral Branches
Parietal Branches of the Anterior
Division ....

The Arteries of the Lower Extremity
The External Iliac Artery
The Femoral Artery
Popliteal Artery ....
Posterior Tibial Artery
Plantar Arteries
Anterior Tibial Artery

The Veins

The Pulmonary Veins .
Systemic Veins ....
Coronary Sinus and Veins of Heart
Superior Vena Cava and its Tribu
taries .....
Azygos Veins ....



858
861



870
873

S78
880
882
882



884
885
887
887



891
891
900
902
905
909
909
910
914
916
917
918
919
921

923
924

925

925
927

927

928

933

935
936
938
939
939

940

944
944
946
951
952
954
955
958
958
959
959



Endings of Nerves of General Sensa-
tion

Special End Organs .



863
863



960
960



Professor Arthur Robinson.

Innominate Veins .... 962
Veins of the Head and Neck . . .964
The Veins of the Scalp . . .967
Veins of the Orbit, Nose, and Infra-
temporal Region .... 968
Venous Sinuses and Veins of the

Cranium, and its Contents . . 969

Diploic and Meningeal Veins . . 969

Veins of the Brain .... 970

Sinuses of the Dura Mater . . 972



Online LibraryD. J. (Daniel John) CunninghamCunningham's Text-book of anatomy → online text (page 1 of 232)