D. J. (Daniel John) Cunningham.

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MANUAL OF ANATOMY



.PUBLISHED BY THE JOINT COMMITTEE OF HENRY FROWDE AND HODDER & STOUGHTON
AT THE OXFORD PRESS WAREHOUSE, FALCON SQUARE, LONDON, E.C.



MANUAL



OF



Practical Anatomy



BY



The Late D. J. CUNNINGHAM

M.D. (eDIN. ET duel.), D.SC, LL. D. (ST. AND. ET GLAS.), D.C.L. (OXON.), F.R.S.
LATE PROFES%OR OF ANATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH



Fl FTH EDITION



EDITED BY ARTHUR ROBINSON

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH



VOLUME SECOND
THORAX; HEAD AND NECK



WITH 236 ILLUSTRATIONS



NEW YORK
WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY

MDCCCCXII



cm 2.

\l- 2-



PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION



The main object of this preface is to thank those who have
so kindly assisted me in the production of the book. At the
same time, it may be pointed out that the reasons for the
adoption of the Basle nomenclature were fully stated in vol. i.,
and that the alterations which have been made in the plans
of dissection in vol. ii. are not less numerous than those made
in vol. i. The alterations include changes in the method of
dissecting the face, the posterior triangle, and the deeper
parts of the neck. Two plans of dissection to display the
middle ear and its surroundings are described. They can be
carried out on opposite sides of the head, and the steps of
the second method are those followed by the surgeon operat-
ing for the relief of mastoid and middle ear disease. The
dissection of the thorax has been very largely re-arranged
with the object of giving the dissector an opportunity of
studying the relative positions of the organs in the medi-
astinum whilst they are practically undisturbed.

The various plans of dissection described were decided
upon, after many trials, as those best adapted to give the
student a clear idea of the relative positions of important
structures ; and I am greatly indebted to my first and second
assistants. Dr. E. B. Jamieson and Mr. T. B. Johnston, and
to Professor R. B. Thomson of Cape Town, for the trouble
they have taken and the help they have given in devising,
modifying, and testing new plans of work.

I am indebted also to Dr. Jamieson for dissections of the
brain and heart ; to Mr. Johnston for the dissections of the
parotid gland ; to Mr. W. W. Carlow for a dissection of the
mediastinum ; and to Messrs. M. Barseghian, R. C. Rogers,

V



vi PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION

and F. M. Halley for other dissections upon which they
have expended time and skill, and which have been used
in the preparation of the new illustrations.

I wish also to thank Professor Arthur Thomson for per-
mission to use the illustrations of his beautiful dissections of
the eye ; Professor A. M. Paterson for permission to use two
diagrams illustrating the connections of some of the cranial
nerves ; and Dr. Logan Turner for the loan of the specimens
from which the illustrations of the dissection of the mastoid
region and middle ear were made.

All the new illustrations are from drawings made by Mr.
J. T. Murray. They are characteristic of his excellent work,
and I am indebted to him for the care and skill he has ex-
pended on their production.

The new indices and the glossary are the work of Mr. J.
Keogh Murphy, F.R.C.S. I believe they will prove to be of
great service ; and I desire to thank him not only for the
time and trouble he has spent upon them, but also for many
useful suggestions which he has made during the progress of
the work.

ARTHUR ROBINSON.

Edinburgh, July 1912.



CONTENTS



THORAX.



Introductory,
Thoracic Wall,
Thoracic Cavity,
Thoracic Joints,



PAGE
I

3

TO
112



HEAD AND NECK.

Face and Frontal Region of Head,

Side of the Neck,

Posterior Triangle,

The Scalp and the Superficial Structures of the

Temporal Region, ....
The Dissection of the Back, .
Removal of the Brain, . . .

The Anterior Part of the Neck,
Temporal and Infratemporal Regions,
Submaxillary Region, ....
Otic Ganglion and Tensor Palati, .
The Great Vessels and Nerves of the Neck,
The Lateral Part of the Middle Cranial Fossa,
Dissection of the Orbit,
Prevertebral Region, .
The Joints of the Neck,
Mouth and Pharynx,
Carotid Canal,
Nervus Maxillaris,
Nasal Cavities,



117
142
142

152
161
200
222
265
279
292
294
325

•^ '-* ■->

350
356
364
385
386

389



Vlll



CONTENTS



Spheno - Palatine Ganglion

Artery,
The Larynx,
The Tongue,



AND Internal Maxillary



402
406
429



ENCEPHALON— THE BRAIN.

Membranes and Blood Vessels of the Brain,
Base of Brain, .....
The Cerebrum, .....
The Mesencephalon, ....
Basal Ganglia of the Cerebral Hemispheres,
The Parts of the Brain which lie in the Posterior
Cranial Fossa, ......



439

452

459
506
512

520



THE AUDITORY APPARATUS.

External Meatus, .....

Membrana Tympani, .....

Tympanic Cavity or Middle Ear,

Auditory Ossicles, .....

Auditory Tube, . . . .

Intrapetrous Part of the Facial Nerve and the Acustic
Nerve, .......

-Vestibulum, ......

Canales Semicirculares Ossei,

The Cochlea, ......



547
549
550
555
559

562
566

567
567



BULBUS OCULL

General Structure of the Eyeball,

The Sclera,

The Cornea,

Tunica Vasculosa Oculi,

The Retina,

The Vitreous Body,

Lens Crystallina,

Chambers of the Eyeball,



571
572
573
574
579
581

583
584



INDEX,



585



A GLOSSARY



OF THE



INTERNATIONAL (B.N.A.)
ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY



GENERAL TERMS.
Terms indicating Situation and Direction.



Longitudinalis Longitudinal
Verticalis Vertical



Anterior
Posterior
Ventral



Dorsal
Cranial



Caudal
Superior

Inferior
Proximalis

Distalis
Sagittalis

Frontalis



}



Referring to the long axis of the body.
/-Referring to the position of the long
I axis of the body in the erect posture.
/' Referring to the front and back of the
\ body or the limbs.
^Referring to the anterior and posterior
aspects, respectively, of the body,
\ and to the flexor and extensor
{ aspects of the limbs, respectively.
/'Referring to position nearer the head
I or the tail end of the long axis.
"'l Used only in reference to parts of
I, the head, neck, or body.
Used in reference to the head, neck,
and body. Equivalent to cranial
and caudal respectively.
Used only in reference to the limbs.
Proximal nearer the attached end.
Distal J '^ Distal nearer the free end,

/-Used in reference to planes parallel
I with the sagittal suture of the
Sagittal -, ^^^^Y, i.e. vertical antero-posterior

I planes.

rUsed in reference to planes parallel
Frontal \ with the coronal suture of the skull,

\ i.e. transverse vertical planes.

ix



Anterior
Posterior
Ventral



Dorsal

Cranial



Caudal J
Superior ^

Inferior j
Proximal



} 1



GLOSSARY



Horizontalis


Horizontal


Medianus


Median


Medialis


Medial '


Lateralis


Lateral J


Intermedius


Intermediate


Superficialis

Profundus

Externus


Superficial \
Deep i
External ■-


Internus
Ulnaris


Internal ,
Ulnar \


Radial is
Tibial


Radial
Tibial ^


Fibular


Fibular]



Used in reference to planes at right

angles to vertical planes.
Referring to the median vertical

antero-posterior plane of the body.
■Referring to structures relatively

nearer to or further away from the

median plane.
"Referring to structures situated be-
tween more medial and more

lateral structures.
Referring to structures nearer to and

further away from the surface.
Referring, with few exceptions, to the

walls of cavities and hollow organs.

JVo^ to be used as synonymous with

medial and lateral.
Used in reference to the medial and

lateral borders of the forearm,

respectively.
Used in reference to the medial and

lateral borders of the leg, re-
spectively.



THE BONES.



B.N. A. Terminology.

Vertebrae

Fovea costalis superior

Fovea costalis inferior

Fovea costalis transversalis
Radix arcus vertebrae

Atlas

Fovea dentis

Epistropheus

Dens

Sternum

Corpus sterni
Processus xiphoideus
Incisura jugularis
Planum sternale

Ossa Cranii.
Os frontale

Spina frontalis
Processus zygomaticus
Facies cerebralis
Facies frontalis



Old Terminology,

Vertebrae

Incomplete facet for head of rib,

upper
Incomplete facet for head of rib,

lower
Facet for tubercle of the rib
Pedicle

Atlas

Facet for odontoid process

Axis

Odontoid process

Sternum

Gladiolus
Ensiform process
Supra-sternal notch
Anterior surface

Bones of SkulL

Frontal

Nasal spine

External angular process
Internal surface
Frontal surface



GLOSSARY



XI



B.N. A. Terminology.

Os parietale

Lineae temporales
Sulcus transversus
Sulcus sagittalis

Os occipitale

Canalis hypoglossi
Foramen occipitale magnum
Canalis condyloideus
Sulcus transversus
Sulcus sagittalis
Clivus

Linea nuchse suprema
Linea nuchce superior
Linea nuchae inferior

Os sphenoidale

Crista infratemporalis

Sulcus chiasmatis

Crista sphenoidalis

Spina angularis

Lamina medialis processus ptery-
goids

Lamina lateralis processus ptery-
goidei

Canalis pterygoideus [Vidii]

Fossa hypophyseos

Sulcus caroticus

Conchas sphenoidales

Hamulus pterygoideus

Canalis pharyngeus

Tuberculum sellte

Fissura orbitalis superior

Os temporale

Canalis facialis [Fallopii]
Hiatus canalis facialis
Vagina processus styloidei
Incisura mastoidea
Impressio trigemini
Eminentia arcuata

Sulcus sigmoideus
Fissura petrotympanica
Fossa mandibularis
Semicanalis tubee auditivae

Os ethmoidale

Labyrinthus ethmoidalis
Lamina papyracea
Processus uncinatus



Old Terminology.

Parietal

Temporal ridges
Groove for lateral sinus
Groove for sup. long, sinus

Occipital

Anterior condyloid foramen
Foramen magnum
Posterior condyloid foramen
Groove for lateral sinus
Groove for sup. long, sinus
Median part of upper surface of

basi occipital
Highest curved line
Superior curved line
Inferior curved line

Sphenoid

Pterygoid ridge
Optic groove
Ethmoidal crest
Spinous process
Internal pterygoid plate

External pterygoid plate

A^idian canal
Pituitary fossa
Cavernous groove
Sphenoidal turbinal bones
Hamular process
Pterygo-palatine canal
Olivary eminence
Sphenoidal fissure

Temporal Bone

Aqueduct of Fallopius

Hiatus Fallopii

Vaginal process of tympanic bone

Digastric fossa

Impression for Gasserian ganglion

Eminence for sup. semicircular

canal
Fossa sigmoid ea
Glaserian fissure
Glenoid cavity
Eustachian tube

Ethmoid

Lateral mass
Os planum
Unciform process



xu



GLOSSARY



B.N. A. Terminology.

Os lacrimale

Hamulus lacrimalis
Crista lacrimalis posterior

Os nasale

Sulcus ethmoidalis

Maxilla

Facies anterior
Facies infra-temporalis
Sinus maxillaris
Processus frontalis
Processus zygomaticus
Canales alveolares
Canalis naso-lacrimalis
Os incisivum
Foramen incisivum

Os palatinum

Pars perpendicularis
Crista conchalis
Crista ethmoidalis
Pars horizontalis

Os zygomaticum

Processus temporalis
Processus fronto-sphenoidalis
Foramen zygomatico-orbitale
Foramen zygomatico-faciale

Mandibula

Spina mentalis
Linea obliqua
Linea mylohyoidea
Incisura niandibulse
Foramen mandibulare
Canalis mandibulse
Protuberantia mentalis



Old Terminology.

Lachrymal Bone

Hamular process
Lachrymal crest

Nasal Bone

Groove for nasal nerve

Superior Maxillary Bone

Facial or external surface
Zygomatic surface
Antrum of Highmore
Nasal process
Malar process
Posterior dental canals
Lacrimal groove
Premaxilla
Anterior palatine foramen

Palate Bone

Vertical plate
Inferior turbinate crest
Superior turbinate crest
Horizontal plate

Malar Bone

Zygomatic process
Frontal process
Tempora-malar canal
Malar foramen

Inferior Maxillary Bone

Genial tubercle or spine
External oblique line
Interna] oblique line
Sigmoid notch
Inferior dental foramen
Inferior dental canal
Mental process



The Skull as a Whole.



Ossa suturarum

Foveolse granulares (Pacchioni)

Fossa pterygo-palatina

Canalis pterygo-palatinus

Foramen lacerum

Choanae

Fissura orbitalis superior

Fissura orbitalis inferior



Wormian bones
Pacchionian depressions
Spheno-maxillary fossa
Posterior palatine canal
Foramen lacerum medium
Posterior nares
Sphenoidal fissure
Spheno-maxillary fissure



GLOSSARY



Xlll



Upper Extremity.

B.N. A. Terminology. Old Termlnology.

Clavicula Clavicle



\



Tuberositas coracoidea
Tuberositas costalis

Scapula

Incisura scapularis
Angulus lateralis
Angulus medialis

Humerus

Sulcus intertubercularis
Crista tuberculi majoris
Crista tuberculi minoris
Facies anterior medialis
Facies anterior lateralis
Margo medialis
Margo lateralis
Sulcus nervi radialis
Capitulum

Epicondylus medialis
Epicondylus lateralis

Ulna

Incisura semilunaris
Incisura radialis
Crista interossea
Facies dorsalis
Facies volaris
Facies medialis
Margo dorsalis
Margo volaris

Radius

Tuberositas radii
Incisura ulnaris
Crista interossea
Facies dorsalis
Facies volaris
Facies lateralis
Margo dorsalis
Margo volaris

Carpus

Os naviculare

Os lunatum

Os triquetrum

Os multangulum majus

Os multangulum minus

Os capitatum

Os hamatum



Impression for conoid ligament
Impression for rhomboid ligament

Scapula

Supra-scapular notch
Anterior or lateral angle
Superior angle

Humerus

Bicipital groove

External lip

Internal lip
Internal surface
External surface
Internal border
External border
Musculo-spiral groove
Capitellum
Internal condyle
External condyle

Ulna

Greater sigmoid cavity
Lesser sigmoid cavity
External or interosseous border
Posterior surface
Anterior surface
Internal surface
Posterior border
Anterior border

Radius

Bicipital tuberosity

Sigmoid cavity

Internal or interosseous border

Posterior surface

Anterior surface

External surface

Posterior border

Anterior border

Carpus
Scaphoid
Semilunar
Cuneiform
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Os magnum
Unciform



XIV



GLOSSARY



Lower Extremity.



B.N. A. Terminology.

Os coxse

Linea glutsea anterior
Linea glutaea posterior
Linea terminalis
Spina ischiadica
Incisura ischiadica major
Incisura ischiadica minor
Tuberculum pubicum
Ramus inferior oss. pubis
Ramus superior oss. pubis
Ramus superior ossis ischii
Ramus inferior oss. ischii
Pecten ossis pubis
Facies symphyseos

Pelvis

Pelvis major

Pelvis minor

Apertura pelvis minoris superior

Apertura pelvis minoris inferior

Femur

Fossa trochanterica
Linea intertrochanterica
Crista intertrochanterica
Condylus medialis
Condylus lateralis
Epicondylus medialis
Epicondylus lateralis

Tibia

Condylus medialis
Condylus lateralis
Eminentia intercondyloidea
Tuberositas tibise
Malleolus medialis

Fibula

Malleolus lateralis



Old Terminology,

Innominate Bone

Middle curved line

Superior curved line

Margin of inlet of true pelvis

Spine of the ischium

Great sacro-sciatic notch

Lesser sacro-sciatic notch

Spine of pubis

Descending ramus of pubis

Ascending ramus of pubis

Body of ischium

Ramus of ischium

Pubic part of ilio-pectineal line

Symphysis pubis

Pelvis

False pelvis
True pelvis
Pelvic inlet
Pelvic outlet

Femur

Digital fossa

Spiral line

Post, intertrochanteric line

Inner condyle

Outer condyle

Inner tuberosity

Outer tuberosity

Tibia

Internal tuberosity
External tuberosity
Spine
Tubercle
Internal malleolus

Fibula

External malleolus



Bones of the Foot.



Talus
Calcaneus

Tuber calcanei

Processus medialis tuberis calcanei

Processus lateralis tuberis calcanei

Os cuneiforme primum

Os cuneiforme secundum

Os cuneiforme tertium



Astragalus
Os calcis

Tuberosity of

Inner

Outer
Inner cuneiform
Middle cuneiform
Outer cuneiform



GLOSSARY



XV



THE LIGAMENTS.
Ligaments of the Spine.



B.N. A. Terminology.

Lig. longitudinale anterius

Lig. longitudinale posteiius

Lig. flava

Membrana tectoria

Articulatio atlanto-epistrophica

Lig. alaria

Lig. apicis dentis



Old Terminology.

Anterior common ligament
Posterior common ligament
Ligamenta subflava
Posterior occipito-axial ligament
Joint between the atlas and the axis
Odontoid or check ligaments
Suspensory ligament



The Ribs.

Lig. capituli costfe radiatum
Lig. sterno-costale interarticulare
Lig. sterno-costalia radiata
Lig. costoxiphoidea



Anterior costo-vertebral or stellate
ligament

Interarticular chondro-sternal liga-
ment

Anterior and posterior chondro-
sternal ligament

Chondro-xiphoid ligaments



Lig. temporo-mandibulare
Lig. spheno-mandibulare
Lig. stylo-mandibulare



The Jaw.



External lateral ligament of the jaw
Internal lateral ligament of the jaw
Stylo-maxillary ligament



Upper Extremity.



Lig. costo-claviculare

Labrum glenoidale

Articulatio radio-ulnaris proximalis

Lig. collaterale ulnare

Lig. collaterale radiale

Lig. annulare radii

Chorda obliqua

Articulatio radio-ulnaris distalis

Discus articularis

Recessus sacciformis

Lig. radio-carpeum volare

Lig. radio-carpeum dorsale

Lig. collaterale carpi ulnare

VOL. II — b



Rhomboid ligament

Glenoid ligament

Superior radio-ulnar joint

Internal lateral ligament of elbow-
joint

External lateral ligament

Orbicular ligament

Oblique ligament of ulna

Inferior radio-ulnar joint

Triangular fibro-cartilage

Membrana sacciformis

Anterior ligament of the radio-
carpal joint

Posterior ligament of the radio-
carpal joint

Internal lateral ligament of the
wrist joint



XVI



GLOSSARY



B.N. A. Terminology
Lig. collaterale carpi radiale



Old Terminology.

External lateral ligament of the

wrist joint
Carpal joints

Palmar ligaments of the metacarpo-
phalangeal joints
Lig. capitulorum (oss. metacar- Transverse metacarpal ligament

palium) transversa
Lig. collateralia Lateral phalangeal ligaments



Articulationes intercarpae
Lig. accessoria volaria



The Lower Extremity.



Lig. arcuatum

Lig. sacro-tuberosum

Processus falciformis
Lig. sacro-spinosum
Labrum glenoidale
Zona orbicularis
Ligamentum iliofemorale
Lig. ischio-capsulare
Lig. pubo-capsulare
Lig. popliteum obliquum
Lig. collaterale fibulare
Lig. collaterale tibiale
Lig. popliteum arcuatum
Meniscus lateralis
Meniscus medialis
Plica synovialis patellaris
Plicae alares

Articulatio tibio-fibularis
Lig. capituli fibulae

Syndesmosis tibio-fibularis

Lig. deltoideum

Lig. talo-fibulare anterius

Lig. talo-fibulare posterius

Lig. calcaneo-fibulare

Lig. talo-calcaneum laterale

Lig. talo-calcaneum mediale

Lig. calcaneo-naviculare plantare

Lig. talo-naviculare

Pars calcaneo-navicularis "j lig.

y bifur-
Pars calcaneo-cuboidea j catum



Subpubic ligament

Great sacro-sciatic ligament
Falciform process

Small sacro-sciatic ligament

Cotyloid ligament

Zonular band

Y-shaped ligament

Ischio-capsular band

Pubo-femoral ligament

Ligament of Winslow

Long external lateral ligament

Internal lateral ligament

Arcuate popliteal ligament

P^xternal semilunar cartilage

Internal semilunar cartilage

Lig. mucosum

Ligamenta alaria

Superior tibio-fibular articulation

Anterior and posterior superior
tibio-fibular ligaments

Inferior tibio-fibular articulation

Internal lateral ligament of ankle

Anterior fasciculus of external
lateral ligament

Posterior fasciculus of external
lateral ligament

Middle fasciculus of external lateral
ligament

External calcaneo-astragaloid liga-
ment

Internal calcaneo-astragaloid liga-
ment

Inferior calcaneo-navicular ligament

Astragalo-scaphoid ligament

Superior calcaneo- scaphoid liga-
ment

Internal calcaneo-cuboid ligament



GLOSSARY



xvii



THE MUSCLES.

Muscles of the Back.
Superficial.



B.N. A. Terminology.
Levator scapulas



Old Terminology.
Levator anguli scapulee



Serratus anterior



Muscles of the Chest.

Serratus ma^nus



Muscles of Upper Extremity.



Biceps brachii

Lacertus fibrosus
Brachialis
Triceps brachii

Caput mediale

Caput laterale
Pronator teres

Caput ulnare
Brachio-radialis
Supinator

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extensor indicis proprius
Extensor digiti quinti proprius
Abductor pollicis longus
Abductor pollicis brevis
Extensor pollicis brevis
Extensor pollicis longus
Lig. carpi transversum
Lig. carpi dorsale



Biceps

Bicipital fascia
Brachialis anticus
Triceps

Inner head

Outer head
Pronator radii teres

Coronoid head
Supinator longus
Supinator brevis
Extensor carpi radialis longior
Extensor carpi radialis brevior
Extensor indicis
Extensor minimi digiti
Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis
Abductor pollicis
Extensor primi internodii pollicis
Extensor secundi internodii pollicis
Anterior annular ligament
Posterior annular ligament



Muscles of Lower Extremity.



Tensor fascise latoe

Canalis adductorius (Hunteri)

Trigonum femorale (fossa Scarpse

major)
Canalis femoralis
Annulus femoralis
M. quadriceps femoris —

Rectus femoris

Vastus lateralis

Vastus intermedius

Vastus medialis

M. articularis genu
Tibialis anterior



Tensor fascise femoris
Hunter's canal
Scarpa's triangle

Crural canal
Crural ring
Quadriceps —

Rectus femoris

Vastus externus

Crureus

Vastus internus

Subcrureus
Tibialis anticus



XVlll



GLOSSARY



B.N. A. Terminology,

Tendo calcaneus
Tibialis posterior
Quadratus plantae
Lig. transversum cruris
Lig. cruciatum cruris
Lig. laciniatum
Retinaculum musculorum



nreorum superius
Retinaculum musculorum
naeorum inferius



pero-



pero-



Old Terminology.

Tendo Achillis

Tibialis posticus

Accessorius

Upper anterior annular ligament

Lower anterior annular ligament

Internal annular ligament

External annular ligament



Axial Muscles.
Muscles of the Back.



Serratus posterior superior
Serratus posterior inferior
Splenius cervicis
Sacro-spinalis
Ilio-costalis—

Lumborum

Dorsi

Cervicis
Longissimus —

Dorsi

Cervicis

Capitis
Spinalis —

Dorsi

Cervicis

Capitis
Semispinalis —

Dorsi

Cervicis

Capitis
Multifidus



Serratus posticus superior
Serratus posticus inferior
Splenius colli
Erector spinse
Ilio-costalis —

Sacro-lumbalis

Accessorius

Cervicalis ascendens
Longissimus —

Dorsi

Transversalis cervicis

Trachelo-mastoid
Spinalis —

Dorsi

Colli

Capitis
Semispinalis —

Dorsi

Colli

Complexus
Multifidus spin£e



Muscles of Head and Neck.



Epicranius
Galea aponeurotica
Procerus

Pars transversa (nasalis)
Pars alaris (nasalis)
Auricularis anterior
Auricularis posterior
Auricularis superior
Orbicularis oculi
Pars lacrimalis



Occipito-frontalis
Epicranial aponeurosis
Pyramidalis nasi
Compressor naris
Dilatores naris
Attrahens aurem
Retrahens aurem
Attollens aurem
Orbicularis palpebrarum
Tensor tarsi



GLOSSARY



XIX



B.N. A. Terminology.
Triangularis
Quadratus labii superioris —

Caput zygomaticum

Caput infraorbitale

Caput angulare
Zygomaticus
Caninus

Quadratus labii inferioris
Mentalis
Platysma
Sterno-thyreoid
Tliyreo-hyoid



Old Terminology.
Depressor anguli oris

Zygomaticus minor

Levator labii superioris

Levator labii superioris alceque nasi

Zygomaticus major

Levator anguli oris

Depressor labii inferioris

Levator menti

Platysma myoides

Sterno-thyroid

Thyro-hyoid



Muscles and Fascia of the Orbit.

Fascia bulbi Capsule of Tenon

Septum orbitale Palpebral ligaments

Rectus lateralis Rectus externus

Rectus medialis Rectus internus

Muscles of the Tongue.



Genio-glossus
Longitudinalis superior
Longitudinalis inferior
Transversus linguoe
Verticalis linguae



Genio-hyo-glossus
Superior lingualis
Inferior lingualis
Transverse fibres
Vertical fibres



Pharyngo-palatinus

INI. uvulae

Levator veli palatini
Tensor veli palatini
Glosso-palatinus



Muscles of the Pharynx.

Palato-pharyngeus
Azygos uvulae
Levator palati
Tensor palati
Palato-elossus



Deep Lateral Muscles of Neck.

Scalenus anterior Scalenus anticus

Scalenus posterior Scalenus posticus

Longus capitis Rectus capitis anticus major

Rectus capitis anterior Rectus capitis anticus minor

Muscles of Thorax.



Transversus thoracis




Triangularis sterni


Diaphragma pars lumbalis
Crus mediale "j
Crus intermedium -
Crus laterale




Diaphragm, lumbar part —

Crura and origins from arcuate
ligaments


Arcus lumbo - costalis


medialis



Online LibraryD. J. (Daniel John) CunninghamManual of practical anatomy (Volume v.2) → online text (page 1 of 58)