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10. Short head of biceps muscle.

11. External intermuscular septum and vastus

externus muscle.







THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section VIII. No. 12



LOWER LIMB.

ABTIOTTLATIONS, KNEE JOINT-No. 5,

HEAD OF TIBIA, WITH STRUCTURES IN POSITION.

A section has been made through the joint, and the lower end of the femur removed by dividing the
crucial ligaments.

I. Behind the ligamentum patellae is a pad of fat, covered by synovial membrane, from which a slender
process passes to the intercondylar notch, the ligamentum mucosum. From its margin two folds pass out-
wards on each side, the ligamenta alaria. This fold covers the transverse ligament, which joins together the
anterior ends of the semilunar cartilages.

II. The semilunar cartilages deepen the hollow for receiving the condyle of the femur on each side.
They are narrow curved strips of fibro-cartilage, covered with synovial membrane on each side. The outer
cartilage is nearly circular, while the inner is more semicircular in outline. They are firmly attached at each
end to the head of the tibia, and also along the convex margin by the coronary ligaments, which pass to the
margin of the head of that bone.

The margin of the internal cartilage is attached to the flat internal lateral ligament, but the external
cartilage is separated from the external lateral ligament by the tendon of the popliteus muscle.

III. Attached to the head of the tibia in the mesial plane, from before backwards, lie (1) the anterior
end of the internal semilunar cartilage ; (2) the anterior crucial ligament ; (3) anterior end of the external semi-
lunar cartilage ; (4) posterior end of the same cartilage ; (5) posterior horn of internal semilunar ; (6) posterior
crucial ligament.

IV. The relation of the popliteal vessels to the posterior ligament of ihe joint should be noticed t
artery lying nearest to the ligament, but separated from it by some fatty tissue.



1. Ligamentum patellae.

2. Rctropatellar pad of fat.

3. Ligamentum mucosum.

4. Anterior end of internal semi-

lunar cartilage.

5. Anterior end of external semi-

lunar cartilage.

6. Anterior crucial ligament.



The figures indicate

7. Posterior crucial ligament.



14. Tendon of popliteus.



I JL VWWJ.AVJ- VJ VAVyJ.l*A A.4C- CV1A1 Vil W A * .LVUU\S1* \J 1 L/V/ LI 1* UC U*9*

8. Posterior ligament of the knee- 1 5. Internal lateral ligament. C



joint.
9. Popliteal artery.

10. Popliteal vein.

1 1 . Internal popliteal nerve.

12. Tendon of biceps.

13. External lateral ligament.



1 6. Sartorius tendon.

17. Gracilis tendon. 2

18. Semitendinosus tendon.

19. Semimembranosus tendon^



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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section YIll-No. 13



LOWER LIMB.

POPLITEAL SPACE. No* 1.

THE SKIN AND SUPERFICIAL FASCIA HAVE" BEEN REMOVED, TO SHOW THE DEEP FASCIA AND THE
CUTANEOUS NERVES AND VESSELS IN THE POPLITEAL REGION OF THE LEFT LIMB.

In the roof of the popliteal space are found cutaneous branches of the smMl sciatic nerve*
and the external and internal popliteal veins. The former vessel usually terminates by piercing the
deep fascia about the middle of the space and joining the popliteal vein, which lies deeply.

Where it passes through the rigid opening in the deep fascia, it is liable to be constricted,
and a varicose condition results, as shown here.

It is connected by cross-channels with the internal popliteal vein, which here is seen passing
upwards behind the internal condyle of the femur.

The deep fascia is of considerable strength, and is composed largely of fibres passing across
the limb, which retain the muscles and other structures in position.

Branches of the small sciatic nerve pierce the deep fascia at intervals, and extend down to the
middle of the calf.



The figures Indicate

1. External or short saphenous vein.

2. and 3. Communicating channels.

4. Internal or long saphenous vein.

5. Aperture in the deep fascia transmitting the vein.

6. and 7. Branches of small sciatic nerve.

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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section VIII. No. 14



LOWER LIMB.

POPLITEAL SPACE. No. 2.



The usual description of the popliteal space as a diamond-shaped area is hardly accurate
As there is practically no natural interval between the two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, the
space is more triangular in shape.

The upper and outer boundary is formed by the biceps muscle, and the upper and inner by
the semimembranosus, a fleshy mass, on which lies the tendon of the semitendinosua, while further
to the inner side are seen the adductor gracilis and the sartorius muscles.

The fleshy mass of the gastrocnemius fills up the lower part of the space.

Lying most superficially is the external popliteal nerve, close to the inner margin of the biceps,
while the short saplienous nerve is formed high up in the space in this specimen, by the junction
of two branches, or rami communicantes, from the external and internal popliteal nerves.

A vein of some size accompanies the nerve.

The other contents of the space are hidden from view by the belly of the semimembranosus. S 5



1. Biceps flexor cruris muscle.

2. Semitendinosus muscle.

3. Setmraembranosus muscle.

4. Adductor gracilis muscle.

5. Sartorius muscle.



The figures Indicate

6. and 7. Inner and outer heads of gastrocnemius
muscle.

8. Bifurcation of great sciatic nerve.

9. External or short saphenous nerve.
10. External popliteal nerve.



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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section VIII. No. 16



LOWER LIMB.

POPLITEAL SPACE No. 3.



BIOLOGY LIBRARY

THE GENERAL LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY ,RNIA

Y, CAUKO*NIA 947-30



PORTIONS OP THE SEMIMEMBRANOSUS AND SEMITENDINOSUS MUSCLES HAVE BEEN REMOVED

TO SHOW THE DEEPER LYING STRUCTURES.

The popliteal vessels are seen to lie under cover of the semimembranosus in the upper part of
the space, with the internal popliteal nerve on their outer side.

At this level, they lie upon the popliteal surface of the femur, and to the inner side of this is
seen the tendon of the adductor magnus muscle, with the superior internal articular artery passing
inwards under it to the vastus internus muscle. There is a large bursa between the tendon of the
semimembranosus and the back of the internal condyle, usually communicating with the knee-joint.

As the vessels and nerve pass downwards, they assume different relations, and come to lie in
line from before backwards, the nerve being most superficial, and the artery remaining deepest in
the space. This is their position as they pass between the heads of the gastrocnemius.



1. Semitendinosus (divided).

2. Semimembranosus (divided),

3. Sartorius.

4. Adductor gracihs.

5. Gastrocnemius.

6. Biceps

F. Popliteal*vein.



The figures indicate

8. Popliteal artery.

9. Internal popliteal nerve.

10. External popliteal nerve.

11. Short saphenous nerve.

12. Long saphenous vein divided, with corresponding

nerve beside it.

13. Adductor magnua.



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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY. Section VIII -

- BIOLOGY LIBRARY

LOWER LIMB. TBB GENERAT - "' - RARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
POPLITEAL SPACE No. 4. I^OUSY, CAUFOSNIA 94720

THE UPPER PART OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE HAS BEEN REMOVED, IN ADDITION

TO THE FORMER DISSECTION.

The heads of the gastrocnemius are attached, the outer to the outer surface of the external
condyle, and the inner above the internal condyle of the femur.

Under cover of the upper part of the muscle lie the plantaris, soleus, and popliteus muscles, and
the popliteal vessels and internal popliteal nerve, with several branches.

The plantaris is attached to the back of the external condyle, and its short muscle belly is
inserted into a long slender tendon.

The semimembranosus is inserted mainly into a horizontal groove on the back of the internal
tuberosity of the tibia, but a strong slip is seen passing upwards and outwards as part of the
posterior ligament of the knee, and it is also inserted into the fascia covering the popliteus muscle.

The popliteal artery rests successively upon the popliteal surface of the femur, the posterior
ligament of the knee-joint, and the strong fascia covering the popliteus muscle.

The inferior internal articular vessels are seen passing obliquely downwards and inwards alon?
the upper border of the popliteus muscle accompanied by an articular branch from the internal
popliteal nerve.

The structures seen here are of the greatest importance in connection with swellings in the
popliteal region, such as aneurism, neuroma, and enlarged bursae.



1. Biceps flexor cruris muscle.

2. Semitendinosus (divided).

3. Semimembranosus (divided).

4. Sartorius muscle.

5. Adductor gracilis.

6. Heads of gastrocnemius,

7. Soleus muscle.

8 Plantaris muscle.



The figures indicate

9. Popliteus muscle.

10. External popliteal nerve.

11. Internal popliteal nerve. Some muscular branches

the gastrocnemius have been divided.

12. Popliteal vein, with the artery on its inner side.

13. Superior internal articular vessels.

14. Inferior internal articular vessels and nerve.

15. Head of fibula.



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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.

LOWER LIMB.

PEONT OF LEO No. 1.



BIOLOGY

Section Till-No. 17

I **CE-VriUl U TOARY

ff.N



On the outer side of the leg lies the peroneal group of muscles, consisting of the peroneous longus and
peroneus brevis. These are separated by intermuscular septa from the posterior and anterior sets of muscles.
The anterior set consists of the tibialis anticus and extensor longus digitorum and peroneus tertius muscles,
which lie superficially, and of the extensor longus hallucis which lies deeply.

Peroneal muscles. The peroneus longus arises from the head and upper two-thirds of the peroneal
surface of the fibula, and the peroneus brevis from the lower part of that bone, and from the septa. The
iendon of the peroneus longus at the ankle Her, behind and external to that of the peroneus brevis, and the
latter tendon passes forwards to be inserted into the base of the fifth metatarsal, while the peroneus longus
tendon passes into the sole of the foot.

The peroneus tertius tendon is inserted into the upper aspect of the base of the fifth metatarsal.

The musculo cutaneous nerve becomes cutaneous in the interval between the peroneal and -extensor
muscles, piercing the deep fascia in the lower third of the leg.

The interval between the extensor longus digitorum and tibialis anticus muscles is indistinct in the upper
part, but the position of the anterior peroneal intermuscular septum is indicated on the surface by a linear
depression, whitish in colour.

The extensor longus digitorum and peroneus tertius muscles have practically one muscle belly, from which
the tendon of peroneus tertius detaches itself just above the ankle joint.

The belly of the extensor brevis digitorum muscle, on the dorsum of the foot, arises from and conceals the
front of the os calcis. It forms a distinct prominence which can be recognised beneath the skin, and which i
sometimes mistaken for a pathological swelling.



Muscles and tendons 1. Soleus.

2. Peroneus longus.

3. Peroneus brevis.

4. Extensor longus digitorum.

5. Tibialis anticus.

6. Peroneus tertius.

7. Extensor brevis digitorum.

8. Extensor longus hallucis.



The figures indicate

Muscles and tendons 9. Peroneus brevis.

Ligaments, etc. 10. Anterior annular ligament.-

11. Anterior peroneal septum.

Nerves and vesselB-^-12. Musculo-cutaneous nerve.

13. Anterior peroneal vessels.

14. Dorsalis pedia vessels.

15. External saphenoua nerve*

vein



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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.

LOWER LIMB.

FRONT OF LEG No. 2.



Section VIII. No. 18



PORTIONS OF THE TIBIALIS ANTICUS AND EXTENSOR LONGUS DIGITORUM MUSCLES HAVE BEEN
REMOVED, IN ORDER TO EXPOSE THE DEEPER STRUCTURES.

The extensor longus hallucis muscle takes origin from the middle two-fourths of the anterior
surface of the shaft of the fibula, behind the extensor longus digitorum and from the interosseous
membrane, and it is inserted into the base of the terminal, and frequently also into the proximal,
phalanx of the great toe.

The anterior tibial artery comes into this region by passing through an opening in the inter-
osseus membrane, between the bones of the leg, and passes down on the interosseus membrane and
on the tibia to the front of the ankle-joint.

It is therefore deeply placed in the upper part of the leg, between the tibialis anticus on the
inner side, and the extensor longus digitorum and extensor longus hallucis on the outer, but, lower
down, the latter muscle crosses it, and its tendon lies to the inner side of the artery at the ankle.

The artery gives off an anterior tibial recurrent' branch, as well as muscular branches, and, near
the ankle, gives off two malleolar branches.

The anterior tibial nerve, a branch of the external popliteal, begins at the neck of the fibula, and
joins the corresponding artery by piercing the extensor longus digitorum muscle. It runs down in
company with the artery, giving brandies to all the muscles m this compartment of the leg, and an
articular branch to the ankle-joint.

The relations of the nerve and artery in the lower part are seen in the view of the Dorsum of the
Foot. No. 3.



The figures indicate

Muscles. 1. Tibialis anticus, origin. 7. Anterior tibial nerve. ,_

2. Peroneus brevis. 8. Interosseous membrane.

3. Peroneus tertius. 9. Tendon of extensor longus digitorum. >

4. Extensor longus hallucis. 10. Tendon of tibialis anticus. -?

5. Extensor longus digitorum. 11. Musculo-cutaneous nerve.
Vessels, etc. 6. Anterior tibial vessels. 12. Anterior peroneal vessels.







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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section YIH No. 19



LOWER LIMB.

DORSUM OF FOOT No. 1.

THE SUPERFICIAL STRUCTURES ARE EXPOSED, LYING ON THE DEEP FASCIA.

1. Cutaneous nerves. The cutaneous part of the musculo-cutaneous nerve pierces the deep fascia in the
lower third of the leg, and divides into two portions, inner and outer. The outer is here very small, and, as
often occurs, its place is largely taken by a large branch from the external saphenous nerve which supplies the
outer two and a half toes. The inner division supplies the inner side of the great toe, and the adjacent sides
of the second and third toes, and communicates with the internal saphenous nerve on the inner side of the foot,
and with a branch of the anterior tibial nerve which appears in the interval between the first and second toes,
ftnd supplies their adjacent sides.

The external saphenous nerve passes below the external malleolus, and extends along the outer side of the
toot and little toe.

The internal saphenous nerve is much smaller, and passes in front of the internal malleolus to the middle
of the inner side of the foot.

2. Superficial veins. At the base of the toes is a venous arch which receives digital tributaries, and in
this case gives origin on the inner side to the internal saphenous vein, -and usually, but not here, on the outer
side to the external saphenous vein, These veins pass up the leg in company with the nerves which bear the
&ame names.

3. Deep fascia. The deep fascia forms a strong covering for the muscles, etc., of the lower part of the
leg, and is specially thickened in places to form the anterior annular ligament (see No. 2).



The figures Indicate



\. Anterior annular ligament, upper band.

2. Anterior annular ligament, lower band.

3. Extensor communis digitorum tendon.

4. Tibialis anticus tendon.
f>, Peroneus brevis tendon.

0, Extensor proprius hallucis tendon.

if. Musculo-cutaijcovis nerve.



8, External saphenous nerve.

9. Branch of anterior tibial nerve.

10. Venous arch on dorsum of foot,

11. External saphenous vein.

1 2. External malleolus.

1.3. Base of fifth metatarsal bone.



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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section YIIL No. 20



LOWER LIMB.

DOBSUM OF FOOT. No. 2.

THE DEEP FASCIA HAS BEEN REMOVED, LEAVING THE TWO PORTIONS OF THE ANTERIOR ANNULAtt

LIGAMENT I POSITION.

The anterior ^nnular ligament consists of two parts, an upper and a lower. The upper is a
broad "band which stretches across the front of the leg, above the ankle, and is attached externally to
the fibula and internally to the tibia.

The lower part is Y-shaped, and is attached externally to the front of the os calcis. It divides
into two bands, which are attached, the upper to the internal malleolus, while the lower blends with
the plantar fascia on he inner side of the foot.

The tendons of the long extensor muscles are retained in position by these bands, and pass through
channels in them, which are lined by synovial membrane.

In the upper portion there is one such channel for the tendon of the tibialis anticus on the inner
side, and one for the other extensor tendons on the outer.

In the lower poroion there are three separate channels, an inner for the tendon of the tibialis
anticus, a middle one for the extensor longus hallucis, and an outer one for the extensor longus
digitorimi and peroneus tertius tendons.

Vessels. The anterior division of the peroneal artery is seen coming to the front of the ankle
between the two bones of the leg, to take part in the anastomosis on the outer side of the ankle.
The dorsalis pedi3 is seen lying on the dorsum of the foot between the tendons of the extensor longus
hallucis and extensor longus digitorum muscles. S3 | c

The figures Indicate



1 . Anterior annular ligament, upper portipn.

2. Anterior annular ligament, lower portion.

3. Peroneus tertius muscle.

4. Extensor longus didtorum tendon

5. Extensor longus hallucis tendon.

6. Tibialis anticus tendon.



7. Peroneus brevis tendon.

8. Extensor brevis digitorum muscle.

9. Dorsalis pedis artery.

10. Anterior tibial nerve, terminal branch.

1 1 . Anterior peroneal vessels.

1 2. External saphenous nerve.




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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section VIII. No. 21



LOWER LIMB.



DOBSUM OP POOT No. 3.



THE TENDONS ON THE FRONT OF THE ANKLE HAVE BEEN TAKEN AWAY, AND A PORTION OF THE
EXTENSOR BREVIS DIGITORUM HAS BEEN REMOVED, TO SHOW THE DEEPER STRUCTURES.

The anterior tibial nerve ends by dividing into an internal and an external branch. The
internal branch passes forwards on the outer side of the dorsalis pedis artery, gives a branch which
passes outwards and supplies the tarso-metatarsal and the metatarso-phalangeul joints, and then
becomes cutaneous in the first intermetatarsal space.

The external branch passes outwards under the extensor brevis digitorum and supplies that
muscle and the adjacent joints.

Twigs Avhich pass from the nerve to the first and second dorsal interosseous muscles are said to
be sensory in character, and not motor to these muscles.

The malleolaf branches of the anterior tibiai artery are seen, the external passing outwards to
anastomose with the anterior division of the peroneal artery, and the inner passing to anastomose with
internal calcanean branches on the inner side of the heel.

The relation of the anterior tibial nerve and artery in the lower part of the leg is seen. The
nerve lies in front of the artery above, but passes again to its outer side in front of the ankle-joint,
and gives off a fine articular branch to the ankle just before dividing into its terminal branches.



The figures indicate:



Muscles, etc.



Nerves.



1 . Extensor brevis digitorum.

2. Peronens tertius.

3. Extensor longus digitorura.

4. Peroneus brevis.

5. Tibialis anticus.

6. External saphenous.



Nerves. 7. Anterior tibial.

8. Anterior tibia), outer division.

9. Anterior tibial, inner division.
Vessels. 10. Anterior* tibial vessels

11. Anterior peroneal vessels.

12. Tarsal vessels.




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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section VIII. No. 22



LOWER LIMB.

INNER SIDE OP ANKLE- No^i^.

INTERNAL ANNULAR LIGAMENT AND THE STRUCTURES RELATED TO IT.

The upper portion of the ligament has been removed to show the vessels, etc. under cover of it. A
portion of the abductor hallucis muscle has also been taken away to show the structures as they pass into the
sole of the foot.

The internal annular ligament is a strong band which' passes from the internal malleolus to the inner side of
the os calcis. Like the other annular ligaments, it is continuous with the adjacent portions of the deep fascia*
and it is also strengthened by fibres from the fascia covering the deep layer of muscles of the leg.

The internal calcanean vessels and nerves are seen coming through the ligament and are distributed to the
tissues of the heel.

Under cover of the ligament, and retained in position by it, are the tendons of the tibialis posticua, flexor
longus digitorum, and flexor longus hallucis muscles, while the posterior tibial vessels and nerve He between the
latter two tendons. The tendons are invested by separate synovial sheaths. The nerve lies on the outer side
of the artery, and the vessels and nerve divide at the lower border of the ligament into the internal and external
plantar branches.

The relations of the tendons in this region are of great importance in connection with the operation of
tenotomy for club foot, and the vessels and nerves should be noticed with reference to Syme's amputation of
the foot.



jl. Internal malleolus.

2. Tuberosity of scaphoid.

3. Os calcis.

4. Portion of deep fascia between

superficial and deep muscles of
the leg.

5. Lower part of internal annular

ligament.



The figures indicate

6. Tendon of tibialis posticus.

7. Tendon of flexor longus digi-

torum.

8. Tendon of flexor longus hal-

lucis.

9. Abductor hallucis muscle.

10. Musculus accesorius.

1 1. Tibialis anticus tendon.



12. Plantaris tendon.

13. Posterior tibial vessels.

14. External plantar vessels.

15. Internal plantar vessels.
1G and 17. Internal saphcnous

18. Internal saphenous nerve.

19. Posterior-tibia! nerve.

20. internal plantar nerve.



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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section VIII. No. 23



LOWER LIMB.

BACK OF LEO. No. 1.

THE SKIN, LAYERS OF FASCIA AND SUPERFICIAL STRUCTURES HAVE BEEN REMOVED.

TO SHOW THE MUSCLES.

The gastrocnemius muscle arises by two heads from the lower end of the femur (see Popliteal
Space, No. 2.). The inner head is the larger of the two and extends further down, and the two heads
ire inserted into a flattened, thin tendon, into which the fibres of the soleus muscle also are inserted.

This tendon narrows as it passes down, becomes thicker and forms the tendo Achiilis, which is
inserted into an impression on the back of the,os calcis, below a smooth area, which is in contact
with a bursa separating the tendon from the upper part of the bone.

The tendon of the plantaris makes its appearance below the middle of the leg on the inner side
of the tendo Achiilis, emerging from between the gastrocnemius and soleus, and it passes down by
the side of that tendon, to be inserted separately into the posterior part of the os calcis.

The outer margin of the tendo Achiilis receives fibres of the soleus muscle till within a
Distance of the heel.



The figures indicate



1. Inner head of gastrocnemius.

2. Outer bead of gastrocneraiue.

3. Soleus.



4, Tendon of gastrocnemius.

6. Plantaris.

6. Peroneus longus,




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THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY.



Section YlII.~No. 24



LOWER LIMB.

BACK OF LEG No. 2.



THE GASTROCNEMIUS, PLANTARIS, AND SOLEUS HAVE BEEN REFLECTED TO SHOW THE DEEPER LYING

GROUP OF MUSCLES.

The soleus arises from both of the bones of the leg, and from a fibrous arch between them. It
is attached to the head and to .the upper third of the posterior surface of the shaft of the fibula, and
to the oblique line of the tibia and to the inner border of the shaft in its upper half, and it is inserted
into the tendo Achillis.

The posterior tibial vessels and nerve pass down' between these two heads of origin, and are
covered by the fibrous arch from which also the muscle takes origin.

Under cover of the soleus lie the flexor longus digitorum on the inner side, the flexor longus


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