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theodolite, or other instrument for meas-
uring angles of azimuth, Mr. S. places a
three-sided prism; this produces a single
reflection, and enables the observer to
read the divisions on the card, at the stime
time, by raising his eye partly above the
angular edge of the prism, he sees the
subject of observation by direct vision.
In this manner the line of collimation be-
comes the index to the card divisions, and
the azimuth or bearing may be taken and
read off at one observation.

By the application of a four sided pyr-
amid, on the same principle, to a plumb-
line, spirit-level, or the divisions of a the-
odolite, or other instrument, Mr. S. is
enabled to see the object by direct vision;
the position of the plumb-line, etc., by
means of one reflecting or inciii!^d sur-
face, and to read off the divisions by the
other reflecting surface.



The adaptation of these prismatic re-
flectors to the telescope, Hadley's sextant,
and similar instruments, enables an obser-
ver to obtain the angles of azimuth, and
altitude, without the usual necessity of
assistants. Where a magnifying power is
required, Mr. S. produces it, by making
certain surfaces of the prism convex.

ON A METHOD OF FREEZING AT A

DISTANCE.
BY WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON, M. D.

Sec. R. S. Piiil. Trans, lor 1813.

If an attempt were made to freeze
water by mere evaporation in the vacuum
of an air pump, (Ur. W. observes,) the
receiver must be of large dimensions in
proportion to the quantity of water em-
ployed, otherwise its capacity would set
too confined a limit to the quantity of va-
pour that will rise, and consequently to
the degree of cold produced. Accord-
ing to the commonly received estimates
as to the respective quantities of heat in
ice, water, and steam, 33 grains of water
at 62° must lose about 5 grains by evapo-
ration, in order to convert the remainder
into ice, (making no allowance for the ac-
cession of heat from the surrounding bod-
ies,) and as water expands to ISOO times
its former bulk when it assumes the gas-
eous state, these 5 grains require a dry
vacuum of 5 + 1800 == 9000 grains of
water.

To avoid the necessity of so large a
vacuum, Mr. Leslie has most ingeniously
employed an extensive surface of some
substance that strongly absorbs and con-
denses the vapour of water, (sulphuric acid
in preference to any other,) which, by ex-
tracting from the receiver the aqueous va-
pour as fast as formed, keeps up a vacuum
within it, and thus allows the congelation of
a large quantity of Vv'ater in a moderate
space. Dr. W. has employed another way
of applying the same principle of pre-
serving a vacuum round the water to be
frozen in the little apparatus here describ-
ed. This is no other than the common
glass toy called ihe inilse glass, and con-
sists of a bulb of glass blown at each end
of a piece of a glass tube, and bent at
right angles to the tube.

One of the bulbs is half-filled with
water, and the other hermetically sealed
at the moment that the whole is kept fill-



54



MISCELLANEOUS.



ed with steam by heating over a lamp a
considerable time, till all the air is expell-
ed, so that when the glass is cooled, one
bidb remains half-full of water, and the
other bulb, and the intevening lube are
perfectly empty ot air.

Now, if the empty bulb is immersed in
a mixture of salt and snow, the aqueous
vapour proceeding from the water in the
other bulb is congealed as fast as it is pro-
duced, and in a few minutes the water is
frozen solid. The distance between the
two bulbs may be very considerable with-
out impairing the eflect. Dr. W. has giv-
en this little instrument the name of
Cryophorus, or Frost JBearer.

A PLAN OF A FRUIT ROOM, wn H SOME

ACCOUxSIT OF IT.

BY JOHN MAHF^R. — Horticultural Transactions,

Vol. 2, part 1.

This fruit room consists of a nest of
drawers occupying one side of it from the
floor to the ceiling; the drawers are num-
bered, so that the fruit contained in each
may be registered in a book, and its pro-
gressive delivery for the table or kitchen,
accurately noted. The lower drawers
have close bottoms, and are called sweat-
ing drawers, the fruit being put into them
as soon as gathered. In ten days or a
fortnight, as the apples and pears come
forward they are sorted, and the other
drawers are prepared to receive them, by
covering the bottom of each with very
clean wheat straw, thoroughly dried and
ventilated, the bottom of these drawers is
made of trellis-work. The room is di-
rected to have slides both in the door and
window to admit a circulation of air in
fine weather; but in damp and rains, the
rooms should be closely shut.

ON THE TRANSPLANTATION OF BLOSSOM-

BUDS.
J3Y T. A. KNIGHT, ESQll.— Horticultural 'trans-
actions. Vol. 2, part 1.

The experiment 'of transposing buds
from the branches of one plant, to the
scions growing from the root of another,
was first practised on roses, in 1810, in
the month of August; and the success
with which this was attended, led to a
number of similar experiments upon the
pear and peach tree.

An old unproductive pear tree on a



north-west wall, was pruned so close as to
occasion the protrusion of many strong
succulent shoots, and into these were in-
serted blossom-buds of the St. Germain,
and long green pears; some of these veg-
etated and afforded leaves the same year,
but others, not till the following year, but
those buds succeeded best, which were
inserted into the bases of the abortive
branches of blossoms of the preceding
y^ear. Similar experiments were made
upon the seedling peach trees under glass,
with equal success, and the buds of the
peach tree were afterwards found to set
perfectly in the open air.



ON THE PROPER STOCK FOR THE MOOR-
PARK APRICOT.

BY T. A. KNIGHT, ESQR Horticultural Trans-
actions, Vol. 2. part 1.

In some experiments with a view of
ascertaining the advantages, or disadvan-
tages of stocks of different species in the
culture of the peach, the nectarine, and
the apricot, made by Mr. Knight, the fol-
lowing {circumstance occurred. A single
plant of the Moor-Park Apricot obtained
sixteen or seventeen years before, by
grafting upon an apricot stock, retains a
smooth and polished surface, and the old
tree presents a perfect degree of health
and vigour ; while the other Moor-Park
Apricots in the garden, like those in most
others, become in a few years diseased
and debilitated, and exhibit in spaces near
the head of the stock, lifeless alburnum,
beneath a rough bark. So different was
the appearance of the Moor-Park, or the
Apricot stock from all the other trees of
the same kind in the garden, that its spe-
cific identity was at first view, doubted by
some gardeners.



ON THE GOOD EFFECTS OF WATERING THE
FROZEN BRANCHES OF PEACH AND NEC-
TARINE TREES VERY EARLY IN THE
MORNING.
By G. H. NOEHDEN Hort. Trans. Vol. 2, part 1.

This method was resorted to in the
garden of .lames Stuart Wortley, Esqr.
near Sheffield, in order to counteract the
effects of spring frosts. The garden lies
very high above the level of the sea, and
is consequently without the advantage of
a sheltered situation, but the local position
is not otherwise unfavourable, as it slopes



ON THE EARLY PUBERTY OF THE PEACH TREE.



55



a little to the eastward on the side of a
high hill. Though much of the produce
of this superior garden is altrihnted to the
attentive pruning, yet Mr. Wortley was
equally fortunate in the preservation of
his peaches and nectarines in ISIO and
1811, when that kind of fruit was entirely
destroyed hy the frost in neighbouring
gardens. The gardener applieil cold water
at the blooming and setting of the fruit in
the following manner: if upon visiting the
trees before the sun is up in ihe morning,
after a frosty night; he finds that there is
any appearance of frost in the bloom or
j'-oung fruit, he waters the bloom or young
fruit thoroughly with cold water, from the
garden engine, and even if the blossoms
and young fruit are discolored this opera-
tion recovers them provided it he done
before the sun comes upon them, and he
has sometimes occasion to water particu-
lar parts of the trees more than once in
the same morning, before he can get en-
tirely rid of the effects of the frost. This
method was first discovered by an acci-
dent, watering cabbage plants among some
rows of kidney beans, early in a frosty
morning, part of the water was spilled on
the beans, and these beans were found
immediately to recover from the effect of
the frost; the extent of wall on which the
fruit was in this manner successfully pre-
served was 172 yards.



ON THE EARLY PUBERTY OF THE PEACH

TREE.
By T. A. KNIGHT, Esqr. Hort. Trans. Vol 2. part 1.

Mr. Knight snbjected peach seeds to an
artificial heat in February, and the plants
appeared above the soil early in March
and were kept under glass during the
whole summer and autumn, but without
any artificial heat after the end of May.
As many lateral shoots were suffered to
remain upon the plant, as could present
their foliage to the light, and these were
shortened while very young to the 4th or
5th leaf, and the buds in the axillae of
these leaves were destroyed as soon as
they became visible, so that none of the
sap generated by these leaves might be
uselessly expended; the pots were filled
with green turf of a rich meadow which
had been overflowed, and were thrice
changed during the summer and new por-
tions of the living turf, added at the same



time. The summer proving cold and cloudy
all hope of success was relinquished for
that year, and artificial heat in autumn
was not applied; yet late in the autumn
three of the seven plants uncx]:)ectedly
formed blossom buds, and these buds pre-
sented so vigorous and healthy a charac-
ter, as to leave no doubt of their being
capable of producing fiuit.

Observations. — i'iiis experiment shows
how much may be effected by judicious
training which enables the gardener to ac-
complish many objects in a shorter space
of time than would be otherwise required.
The bearing of the peach tree may be al-
ways actuated by shortening the branches.



Directions for covering the soil in Hot
Beds and Pineries, and on the proper
time for sowi7ig small seeds, hy Mr.
Henderson, Bred leu Castle.

Memoirs of Caledonian Hort. Society, Vol. 1, part 2.

The advantages resulting from cover-
ing the beds of hot houses and pineries
with fine drifted river or sea sand, three
inches deep are stated to be extirpating
the Slater, or wood louse, the nature of
the sand preventing this insect from con-
cealing itself from the ra}' s of the sun: keep-
ing down the s(eam in dung hot beds, and
aflording to the fruit as warm and dry a bed
as tiles or slates. This covering also retains
the moisture in the beds longer than any
other, and is itself sooner dry, and always
gives the house a clean and neat appear-
ance, and will be found a great preven-
tive of that alarming evil the mildew.
The remainder of the paper relates to the
most proper time for sowing the smaller
seeds, of both flowers and shrubs; which
is recommended to be done at such times
as the insects that feed upon them, do not
produce their young from the eggs crys-
alides of the former year.

Attention to this circumstance is thought
of more importance to securing a crop,
than any particular mode of culture what'
ever.

Observations. — The direction for cov-
ering the beds in hot houses with fine sand
is among the most valuable improvements
in garden management of the present day.
And as difl'erent insects are hatched at
different periods, it will be advantageous
to prevent any seed from vegetating at the



56



METHOD OF PEESERVING APPLES AND" PEAKS.



precise time its enemy is prepared to tle-
stroy it.



METHOD OF PnESEUVING APPLES AND
PEARS.

The fruit is to be gathered when it be-
gins to drop spontaneously; and in pluck-
ing it, the rule to be observed is to take
what appears ripest in the hand and raise
it level with the foot stalk, and if it parts
from the tree, to lay it carefully into the
basket, otherwise let it remain. In the
fruitery the fruit is to be laid in heaps, and
covered with clean cloths, and mats, in
order to its sweating, which is generally
effected in three or four days. They may
remain in the sweat three or four days
more, and are then to be wiped separately,
with clean cloths. Some glazed earthen
jars with covers are to be provided, and
some pure pit sand, which has been well
dried on a flue. A layer of sand an inch
thick, is to be put at the bottom of the jar
and then a layer of sand and fruit alter-
nately, till it be full; the jars are to be
closed, and kept in a dry cold place, but
free from frost. When fruit is wanted a
jar may be unpacked, and that part which
is ripe !nay be sent to the fruit room, and
the remainder repacked as before. By
this mode, some fruit will be preserved
till June, or July.

To destroy Wasps. — Make a roll of
damped gunpowder on the end of a small
stick, light this-under their nests when on
a bush or tree, or into the entrance, when
in the ground, this stupifies them, they
can while in this state, be mixed up with
the ground which is made in a state of
mortar by adding a sufficient quantity of
water, which completely destroys them.

Green Flies can be destroyed by water-
ing trees infested by them with water, in
which lime (a peck of lime to a hogshead
of water,) has been previously mixed for
twenty-four hours, the water is drawn off,
and a pound of common soda added to the
water before applying it to the trees.

It is said they can be destroyed by en-
ticing them into bottles by means of jam,
or jelly.

Observations. — The soda might possi-
bly destroy the leaves as well as" the flies.



Coloured Vinegar, Wine, and many
other liquors may be rendered transparent
by animal charcoal, a litre (1§ Ale pints)
of liquor to 45 grammes (eleven drams,
thirty five grains Trov) of charcoal; mix
without heat for two or three days, stir-
ring them frequently, then filtrate.

The animal charcoal is prepared by fil-
ling a crucible with the most solid com-
pact oxhones, and luting on a cover with
a small hole drilled through. Heat is ap-
plied, at first moderate, as long as any
inflammable vapour issues through thehole,
and then pretty briskly for a short time.
When the crucible is cold the charcoal is
reduced to fine powder and kept for use.
Ivory black is said to answer equally well.



PROCESS TO MAKE INDELIBLE INK.
From the Journal of the Franklin Institute.

No. 1. For writing with quill pens.

Indian Ink, dissolved in water acidula-
ted with hydrocloric* acid of commerce,
and marking \h° Baume's areometer.

No. 2. For writing with metalic pens.

Indian Ink dissolved in water rendered
alkaline by caustic 5oda, and making 1°
on Baumes' areom.eter.

No. 3. For printing the indelible de-
signs and patterns.

Common printing ink, whitened with a
sufficient quantity of sulphate of barytes,
either artificial or natural, which has been
ground in water for a considerable time.
Mag. Pop. Science.

As Baume's areometer is but little used
in this country, it may be useful to state
that if water be taken at 1000 sp. gr.

1° on this instrument is 1007 sp. gr.

H do 1010 "

2 do 1014 ''

For the acidulated solution. To a pint
of water, add about three tea spoonfullsof
muriatic acid.

For the alkalized solution. To the same
quantity of water add 100 grains of pure,
caustic soda, of the kind prepared for
chemical purposes.

About 40 grains of Indian ink may be
dissolved in a pint of the solution. This
will make an Ink sufficiently black for
ordinary writing, but it is evident it may
very "easily be made darker or lighter at
pleasure.



* Mui'iatic acid, about sp.
French Chemists.



;r. 1 28, so called hj the



ELECTRICITY.



57



The Indian Ink should be of the best
quality, care should be taken that it be
uniformly good throughout the stick.

An inferior kind, hard, grilty,and posses-
sed of little colouring power, is sometimes
imposed upon the purchaser, by the de-
ceptive practice of attaching a little bit of
good ink at each end of the stick. A good
mode of examination, is to break the stick
in two; this defeats the above trick, and
exposes the fracture; that of good ink is
-brilliantj^angular and clean; the bad, dull
and earthy.



De



ELECTRICITY.

Extract from a treatise upon Electricity by J. A
Luc, Esqr., F. R. S Phil. Journ. No.ll26.

1. The electric' Jluid\ resides on all
terestrial bodies, every particle air includ-
ed ; being retained upom them by a
mutual attraction which however, differs
in degree, according to the bodies ; some
attract the electric fluid when it comes in
contact with them ; but then it adheres
strongly to the parts which receive it,
moving very slowly along the surface of
these bodies, which are therefore non-
eonducters: others receive it at more or
less distance, and it is propagated more or
less rapidly along their surfaces. Glass
though absolutely impenetrable to the
electric matter permits the electric fluid
(i. e. the electric matter united with vec-
tor) to move with a sensible progress along
its surface.

2. Friction excited between two bodies
has no other effect than that of disturbing
the natural equilibrium of the electric

\. fluid which tends always to produce

\\ among all bodies, according to its actual
(but local in a certain extent) quantity on
them, and in the ambient air. If both

. the bodies which Gyi^rcx^c frict ioji on each
other are good conducters, this distur-
bance, the equilibrium being constantly
restored, is not perceived ; but if one has
more disposition than the other to attract
the electric fluid thus agitated, with the
faculty of transmitting it to its remote
parts, when they are separated, either
suddenly, or in general_before the equili-
brium of the fluid can be restored between
them — one is ionnd positive as having ac-
quired a proportional quantity of electric
fluid greater than the ambient air, and

■. the other negative, as having lost that



quantity: both being supposed to have pre-
viously possessed the same electric state
as the a?nbie?it a\v,

3. The general effect, therefore, oi fric-
tion between two bodies is, that one never
becomes positive without the other being
made negative (or vice-versa.)

This evident proof, that all electric
phenomena whicli we are hitherto able to
produce at will, namely, by friction., pro-
ceed from the disturbance of the equili-
brium of only one fluid, will be afford-
ed by the experiments which I shall here
relate with another remark. The surest
mode of following the course of the elec-
tric fluid, when in motion is by means of
electroscopes ; and that made of gold leaf
being judged the most proper for this pur-
pose ; but as this would be torn in pieces
by the smallest machine in common use,
it became necessary for this ingenious
philosopher, to invent an apparatus for
himself.

The following brief description answers
to the result of his ingenuity. The ap-
paratus consists of a wooden base, sup-
porting two upright wooden pillars fitted
at their upper extremities to receive dif-
ferent spindles, which are separately in-
serted, and each turned by a winch handle.
The pritne conductor is composed of a
brass tube, stopped at each end, support-
ed by ^ glass pillar, covered with insulat-
ing varnish and fixed in the base.

One end of the conductor communicates
with the spindles by means of a very thin
slip of whale-bone covered with gilt paper,
fixed to a piece of brass that screws into
the conductor, so as to admit of being ad-
justed to the proper bearing on the spindle :-
'this adjustment must be acquired by ex-
periment. The other extremity commu-
nicates with a gold leaf electroscope.

The rubbers are of difierent kinds, but
all fixed to the apparatus in the same man-
ner: they principally consist of a very
elastic hrass lamina, and only differ in that
end which presses on the spindle. The
different kinds of rubbers must press
ao-ainst the spindles with different degrees
of force, and always yield readily to the
inequalities on the surfaces of the spind-
les.

For these purposes, the rubbers are fix-
ed horizontally into a proper pillar, and
part of the pressure occasioned by the ac-



58



ELECTRICITY.



tion of one or two additional brass springs, 'experiments, it may be laid down as a



pressing; on the main spring.

Another 2;old leaf electroscope is con-



fundanienlal truth, in terrestrial physics,
that friction has no other influence in elet



nected with the brass piece, into which trie phenomena, than that of disturbing
the rubbers are fixed. Many trials were the equilibrium of the eleetrie fluid in
made before tlie machine was brought to a 'such a manner, that one body, by acquir-



sufficiently small power. The following
are the dimensions when it nearly succeed-
ed, though still too strong ; the spindle is
a solid glass cylinder ver}' little more than
one fourth of .an inch in diameter, and
covered with sealing-wax at both ends,
for the purpose of insulating about three
fourths of an inch in length in the middle
where the friction is produced. The rub-
ber is simply a brass spring, bent at one
end to fit the upper part of the cylinder.
Small as this machine is, it was found
necessary to move it very slowly, to pre-
vent too great a motion of the electro-
scopes.

Mr. De Luc next states his experi-
ments with considerable precision and
minuteness. In the first the cylinder was
glass, and the rubber brass ; and it ap-



ing a certain portion of it above what it
had before, is rendered /?0527n'e, and that
the other is found negative^ as having lost
that quantity.

It is only when its equilibrium is dis-
turbed that it is manifested to us. The
electroscope is our first test of this distur-
bance; but if the bodies, either conduc-
tors themselves, or associated with C07i-
ductors, are of sufficient size, and the
electric fltaid between them has arrived to
a certain degree, it is manifested by a
spark darting from one to the other, and
the equilibrium is restored."

Observations. We cannot altogether
adopt the whole of Mr. De Luc's ingeni-
ous theories, which appear to us to want
the great merit of simplicity: his experi-
ments are interesting, and so far as they



peared that the former received electric are directed to the establishment of a
fluid from the latter by means of the fric- basis for the explanation of elementary
tion, and communicated it through the facts, they must be considered as highly



prime conductor to one of the electro-
scopes, which diverged positively, while
the other diverged negatively. In the
second experiment the communication be-
tween the rubber and the prime conductor,
was restored by means of a wire, and the
motion of both electroscopes immediately
ceased. In the third experiment, both
the rubber and the cylinder were glass, and
the latter obtained electric fluid from the
former.

Experiment fourth was made with glass
and sealing-wax ; 5th, with glass and In-
dian-rubber; 6th, with brass and sealing-
wax; 7th, with Indian-rubber and sealing-
wax; and the Sth, with some of the beads,
of the size and color of a cherry, worn by
Indian women, mounted instead of a
cylinder, and acted upon successively by
rubbers of brass and sealing-wax. From
all these experiments the author draws the
following conclusions,

" Such are the constant phenomena ob-
served at the fountain head of all the elective
effects which it is in our power to produce,
and they depend on friction, respecting
which various systems have been fabricat-
ed. Now from the whole tenor of these



important; but we do not think that his
hypothesis are such as materially facilitate
the connection of these facts with each
other, which in the investigation of so
abstruse a subject, is all that we have at
present a right to expect from any hypo-
thesis; for a theory, which shall in all
cases correctly represented the intimate
nature of the operations concerned, is
scarcely to be expected from the utmost
exertions of human intellect continued
and combined for many ages.

Retrospect.



DEFINITION OF TERMS.

Beginning at the letter B.
Barytes in Mineralogy and Chemistry,
an earth, discovered by Siieele in 1774
and may be obtained from ponderous spar,
or sulphate of barytes, as it is now called,
by the following process, for which we
are indebted to Vauquelin. Reduce the
mineral to a fine powder, mix it with the



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