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Observer and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) online

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eighth part of its weight of charcoal pow-
der; and keep it for some hours red hot in
a crucible, and it will be converted into
sulphuret of Barytes. Dissolve the sul-
phuret in water, and pour nitric acid into



DEFINITION OF TERMS.



59



the solution, and the sulphur will be pre-
cipitated. The solution, which consists
of nitic acid combined with barytes, is to
be filtered and evaporated slowly till it
crystalHzes. Put the crystal into a cruci-
ble, and expose it to a strong heat; the
nitric acid is driven off, and the barytes
remains in its purity.

Jinother uiet/iod pointed out by Dr.
Hope. Decompose the sulphate of barytes,
by heating it strongly along with charcoal
powder. The product is to be treated
with water to dissolve every thing that is
soluble, and the liquid being filtered, is
to be mixed with a solution of carbonate of
soda. A white powder falls. Wash this
powder; make it up into balls with char-
coal, and heat it strongly in a crucible.
When these balls are treated with boiling
water a portion of barytes is dissolved,
which crystallises as the water cools. It
is a grayish white porous body, which
may very easily be reduced to powder. It
has a harsh and more caustic taste than
lime, and when taken into the stomach
proves a most violent poison.

Belles-Lettres, a word absurdly intro-
duced from the French. The French
writers themselves have no determinate
idea affixed to this phrase; som'e applying
it to polite literature only, and some ex-
tending it to the whole scope of human
learning, even to the mathematics.

Beta, a genus of the pentandria digy-
nia class and order of plants; and in the
natural method ranking under the 12th
order, holoraceae. The calyx has five
leaves; there is no corolla; the seeds are
kidney shaped, and situated within the
base of the calyx. There are four species,
vizi 1st, Beta cicla the root of scarcity.
The Beta hortensis, or common white beet,
is a variety of this; 2d, the Beta maritima,
the sea beet: 3d, Beta apatula, a native of
Madeira; 4th, Beta vulgaris, the red beet
with a pyramidal root, has large thick
succulent leaves, which are for the most
part of a dark green or purple color, the
roots are large and of a deep red, the larg-
er these roots grow, the more tender they
are, and the deeper the color, the more
they are esteemed; the varieties of this
species are the common red beet, the tur-
nip rooted beet, and the green leaved red
beet. On many parts of the continent of
Europe, the beet root has been used for



the purpose of extracting sugar from it,
(see pages 5, 6, 20, 36, which relate to
beets and sugar). According to Achard,
the quantity of beet in Prussia that will
yield one pound of sugar is twenty pounds;
one hundred pounds of raw sugar give
fifty five of refined, and twenty five
pounds of molasses. It is computed by
the same gentleman, who has employed
much time in the pursuit, that a German
square mile of land, that is, sixteen square
miles English, properly cultivated, would
produce white beet sufficient to furnish
the whole Prussian dominions with sugar.

Bice or Bise, among painters, a blue
colour prepared from the Lapis Armenus.

Bice bears the best body of all bright
blues used in common work, as house
painting, &c. but it is the palest in color.
It works indifferently well, but inclines a
little to sandy, and therefore requires good
grinding. Next to ultramarine, which is
too dear to be used in common work it
lies best near the eye of all other blues.

Boiling or ebullition, in Physics, the
agitation of a fluid body, arising from the
application of fire, &c. The following
table shows the boiling point of several
iquids.



Bodies.


Boiling point


Ether,


98° Fahr.


Amonia,


140 "


Alcohol,


176 ''


Water,


212 ^<


Muriat of lime,


230 ''


Nitric Acid,


248 "


Sulphuric Acid,


590



Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 12 of 35)