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supply food for the silk worm is at pre-
sent a contested point; it is suggested that
persons who have the power to make the
following experiments, will do so the fol-
lowing season, and publish the result for
the benefit of others.

1st. Feed them separately, one parcel
of worms entirel}^ upon one kind of leaves,
and another parcel entirely upon the other
kind, and note the relative health of the
worm also the quality and quantity of silk
produced from the same number of worms.

2nd. Feed two other parcels, one of
them the first half of the season upon one
kind of leaves, and the other half upon the
other kind of leaves.

3d. Reverse the timeof feeding the other
parcel, with each respective kind of leaves

4th. Place an equal quantity of each
kind of leaves, together with another par-
cel of worms, during the season, and ob-
serve which kind is preferred, and the
relative value and quantity of silk, and
health of the worms in each parcel, includ-
ing the whole stated above.

5th. Make an estimate of the relative
labour and expense, of gathering the dif-
ferent kinds of leaves to produce a given
quantity of silk.

The experiments might probabl)^ be
extended, so as to furnish other valuable
information. — Rd. Ob. 4* Hec.



eOA^TSATS ofJ^lo. '5. J'^oh S. of OMSEMirmn ^* KECORn,

A concise view of llie Theory of Vegetalion, illustrated in the culture of the Melon 49

Improved Wheels and Axles of C:irringeB, to prevent accidents 50

On the Analysis of Vegetable and Animal matter.. . 51

On a mode of Training Vines 52

On I'otatoes 53

On certain improvements in Matliematicul Instruments 53

On a method of Freezing at a Distance 53

On a plan of a Fruit Itoom 54

On the Transplantation of Blossom Buds 54

On the proper slock for the Moore Park. Apricot 54

On the good effects of Watering the Frozen branches of Fruit Trees 54

On the early puberty of the Peacli Tree 55

Directions for covering the soil in Hot Beds, and sowing small seeds 55

Method of preserving Apples and l^ears 56

On a process to destroy Wasps 56

On the manner of destroying Green Flies • 56

A method for removing colour from Vinegar, Wine, an J many other Liquors 56

Process to make Indelible Ink 56

A Treatise upon Electricity ^ 57

Definition of Terms beginning with the Letter B, extending to Bau 58

On a process to preserve Beef and Pork 61

Sir H. Davy's Agricnltural Chemistry ^J

Chinese Mulberry, Italian (or white) mulberry silk-worm and silk 64



OBSERYER AND RECOR

OF AGRICULTURE, SCIENCE, AND ART.

EDITED BY D. PEIRCE.



No. 5.]



Pliiladclptiin, Monday, February 4, 1S39.



[Vol. I.



The object of this paper is to concentrate and preserve, in a form suitable for future
reference, the most useful and interesting articles on the aforesaid subject?. Each num-
ber will contain sixteen octavo pages, printed on good paper, and when a suffi-
cient amount is published to form a volume of convenient size, an alphabetical t-able
of contents will be published and forwarded to subscribers, in order for binding.
This number, shows the general plan of the work.

Published monthly, for omi: dollar a year, payable in advance; six copies to the
same address for five dollars. {]CJ^ lietters may be addressed to the Editor, in every
instance post paid, No. 45 Cherry street, care of T. E. Chapman.



Subscriptions received at T. B. To-^vii's Printing Office, corner ith & Race st —
45 Cherry St.— and by W. J. IVelding, 9,7 South Fifth



■T.E. Chapman'' s Bookstore,



BRUNONIAN SYSTEM.

Continued Jrom page 61, of No. 4.

To illustrate still farther the nature of
these two forms of disease we must ob-
serve their respective causes, Sthenia o'r
excessive strength, is simply the effect of
many or powerful stimuli acting on the
system. Asthenia is the immediate effect
of withdrawing these ; but asthenia is
not so simple as its opposite state for
debility varies in its nature according to
its various causes, — 1st By abstraction of
exciting powers is produced a species of
debility named direct. — 2nd By long or
violent application of strong exciting pow-
ers, the excitability is exhausted; both the
excitement anrl the strength fail; this
species of debility is named indirect. —
3rd When the exciting powers are with-
drawn, and the direct debility produced,
it is at the same time combined with a
new species. By merely withdrawing the
stimuli, such weakness would be produced
as should be temporary only, and might
be done away by restoring the usual ex-
citing powers; but where the stimuli are
withdrawn, excitability is accumulated,
and when it is accumulated to an undue
degree, it cannot bear the usual stimuli,
and will not give out the healthy degree
of excitement. Thus, direct debility
caused by the absence of exciting power,
is attended with accumulation of excita-
bility. In direct debility, caused by su-
perabundant stimuli is attended with ex-
hausted excitability. The former is most
easily cured, as we have but to apply



stimuli and raise the excitement; the lat
ter is cured with difficulty; for the excita-
bility, being in same degree exhausted,
the system is less susceptible, and has less
excitability to operate upon for the restora-
tion of health. The abstraction of stimuli
is the immediate cause of weakness; high
excitement is a state of the system which
the excitability cannot long endure with-
out being exhausted, so that stimuli them-
selves produce ultimate weakness. Since,
therefore, high excitement is temporary
only, and has but one cause while weak-
ness is a permanent state, and has many
causes, the diseases of debility must in a
ver}^ great proportion exceed in number
the diseases of excessive strength; and
diseases of excessive strength must ulti-
mately end there.

If ninety seven of a hundred diseases
arise from weakness the conclusion must
be of the first importance in practice.
Hence it is a general principle in the sys-
tem, that though there are many individual
diseases, there are but two states of the
system, and two general methods of cure;
and though it admits the difference be-
tween local and general diseases, yet it
does not allow that a local sthenic disease
can exist for any timo along with a general
asthenic diathesis or vise versa. For the
cure of all those diseases which stand above
the point of health nothing more is re-
quired than withdrawing the stimuli of
food, drink, heat, 4-c. or by evacuation
as bleeding, vomiting, purging, &c. For
all these diseases which stand below the



88



REMARKS UPON SALT OK HARD WATER.



P^yint of health, we use the natural stimuli
'tif diet, heef tea, wine, heat, Src or the
l^ss natural stimuli of the pliarmacopoeia,
the chiel of which are opium, ether, vola-
tile alkali, musk, camphor, brandy, and
other spirits. The cause of the one form
of disease is the cure of the other, in the
one we raise the excitement till it arrives
at the point of health; in the other we
depress it to the same point; having effect-
ed this by the powers of medicine, we
keep it there by attention to regimen; and
the great object in the Brunoiiian practice
is to hit the j)oint of health, neither to
stop short of this object nor to pass be-
yond it; for by either imprudence we ma)'^
do much harm. By profusion of stimuli
we may convert a disease of weakness
into disease of inflammation; by too severe
an abstraction of stimuli we may run into
the opposite excess, converting into dis-
ease of weakness what was originally a
disease of violent inflammation.

The use of stimuli in asthenic disease is
to be regulated by the cause and state of
disease. In all diseases of indirect weak-
ness, where excitability has been exhaust-
eil, the strength must be raised by the im-
mediate.application of the most powerful
stimuli, which aie to be slowly reduced in
quantity or strength, till moderate or ordi-
nary stimuli suffice for supporting the ex-
citement of health. In all cases of direct
weakness, where excitability is accumulat-
ed, the immediate application of powerful
stimuli would destroy. VN eak stimuli
must first be used, the superabundant ex-
citability must be gradually wasted, and
the (loses very slowly increased till we
risetothe point of health.

Dr. Brown's frequent prescriptions of
wine, spirits, and 0|)ium, to his patients
in asthenic diseases, with his repeated re-
commendations of these stimuli in his lec-
tures and writing-J, raised a very general
prejudice against his system and practice,
among those who knew nothing of either
but from vague report. They alleged that
though he might cure the disease of his
p\tienls, he would infallibly corrupt their
morals, by habituating them to such dan-
gerous medicines. From these charges
Dr. Bjdiloes vindicates the doctrine, in
he followitig words " The Brunonian
lystem has been frequently charged with
iateinperauce ;the objection is serious, but



I the view already given of its principles
' shows it to he groundless. No writer has
I insisted so much upon the dependence of
j life upon external causes, or so strongly
rstated the inevitable consequences of ex-
cess; and there are no means of promoting
morality upon which we can rely, except
knowledge of the true relations between
man and other beings or bodies. For by
this knowledge we are directly led to shun
what is hurtful, and pursue what is salu-
tary."

And what stronger motive of tempe-
rance can philosoph}'' itself inculcate than
the Brunonian doctrine does, when it
teaches, that every act of intemperance
and excess tends to exhaust the very prin-
ciple of life.



Remarks upon salt or hard water,

AND A process RECOMMENDED TO PRE-
PARE THE SAME FOR WASHING.

The reason why hard or sea-water, is
not so good a menstruum for washing as
rain or river-water is, depends on certain
earthy salts in the former, which are capa-
ble of curdling or decomposing soap,
in consetjuence of which, the acid of the
salt combines with the alkali of the soap,
while the earthy base of the salt combines
with the oil of the soap, making an insol-
uble compound, not only not possessed
of any detersive quality but absolutely
detrimental, by its tendency to adhere to
the surface of cloth, and thus protect it
from the action of such portion of the
soap as may remain undecomposed.

But all soluble earthy salts are readily
decomposed by carbonated or semi-caustic
alkali, and therefore the most obvious way
of brin



Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 13 of 35)