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Observer and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) online

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Ink, nothing but a little gum is required to
retard the precipitation of the feculae. —
same.

On Preparation of Borax for the
blow-pipe. — Take one ounce of borax,
coarsely pounded, put it into a clean cru-
cible, and cover it loosely, put the whole
into a furnace, and watch it till it ceases
to swell, then augment the heat, and when
the whole fuses quietly, take it out, and
pour it into a wedgevvood-ware or metallic
mortar, and when cold, reduce it to an
impalpable powder, in which state it is to
be used. — same.



Composition of the Bronze of the
Jincients. — The proportion consists of 88
parts of copper and 12 of tin, and this ad-
mixture of the metals has been employed
by nations very re?Tiote from each other.
— same.



depth of an inch, care being taken not to
wound or bruise the rind in the operation.
The cabbages are then suspended by means
of a cord, tied round that portion of the
stem next the cabbage.

That portion of the stem from which the
pith is taken being uppermost, is regularly
filled with water every morning. — same.

Tainted Meat may be perfectly re-
covered by first rubbing it with charcoal
powder and then boiling it in water with
small pieces of charcoal.

Rancid Oil may also be rendered sweet
by it.

Stagnant Water boiled with charcoal
will be found to possess the properties of
spring water.

// may also be used medicinally to ad-
vantage in cases of Putrefaction, Gan-
gre7ie, Putred jevers 8,-q,., in which case
it should be used freshly made or put in
close vessels immediately after being pre-
pared to be used as occasion may require,
it is considered a powerful anteseptic. —
same.



Method of cleaning Brass Ornaments.
— Brass Ornaments that have not been
gilt or lacquered may be cleaned, and a
very brilliant color given to them by
wasliing them with alum boiled in strong
ley, in the proportion of an ounce to a
pint, and afterwards
fine tripoli. — same



rubbing them with



Burning Glass. — Sir Isaac Newton
presented a burning glass to the Royal
Society, which consisted of seven con-
cave glasses, so placed that all their foce
join in one physical point. This instru-
ment vitrifies brick or tile in one second,
and melts gold in half a jninute.

Method to prevent the escape of gas
from barrels and other vessels. — This is
effected by placing a piece of air-tight sub-
stance around the bung so as to prevent
the air from passing through the pores of
the wood or between the bung and the
vessel. — same.

Preservation of Cabbages. — The cab-
bage is cut so as to leave about two inches
or more of the stem attached to it ; after
which the pith is scooped out to about the



DEFINITION OF TERMS.

Beginning ivith the letter C.

Calcination. — In Chemistry such a
management of bodies by fire as renders
them reducible to a caix or cinder.

As most metals were reducible to this
form the term calces of metals was long
appropriated to them; but in science the
term is supplanted by the characteristic
appellation of oxide, which expresses the
peculiar change that occurs in calcining
metallic bodies by the absorption of oxy-
gen. Calcination and oxidation are not
strictly synonymous, even when applied
to metals, since the true sense of the for-
mer implies the agency of fire, but the
metals may be oxydated by the action of
the acid, as well as that by heat and air.

Caloric. — A word used to denote that
substance by which the phenomena of
heat are produced.

When caloric elevates bodies above the
temperature of the surrounding medium,
it is known by the name of sensible heat,
and which may be measured by a common
thermometer, or Wedgwood's pyrometer.

The absolute heat (or whole quantity of
caloric existing in a body) may be ascer-
tained by the calorimeter of La Place.



■m



DEFINITION OF TERMS.



71



Calyx — Among botanists, a general
term expressing the cup of a flovver,or that
part of a plant which surround and sup-

J ports the other parts of the flower.
Camphoric %^cid^ls the result of the
change produced on camphor by distilling
nitric acid several times from it. It crys-
tallizes in parallelopipeds, is efflorescent,
soluble in water and volatile in a strong
heat.

Caoutchouc — (Gum Elastic or Indian
rubber) is the produce of several trees in
South America and the East Indies. It is
partly soluble in volatile oils and entirely
so in Naphtha, melted spermaceti and in
nitric ether.

! Capillary Tubes. — In Physics little
pipes, whose canals are extremely narrow.
The principle which causes water or other
fluid substance to ascend in those tubes as
in a sponge, or the interstices of linen
cloth and many other substances is called
capillary attraction.

Capsule — Among botanists, a species
of pericarpium or seed vessels, Caput
Mortum in Chemistry, that thick dry
matter which remains after distillation of
any thing but of minerals especiall}'.

Carbon — Or the radical of carbonic
acid, has not, unless the diamond is admit-
ted as such, been j-et obtained in a separate
state. It; is infusible and indissoluble by
caloric and is hence esteemed the most re-
fractory substance in nature. Its specific
gravity is about 3.5.

When the diamond is burnt in oxygen
by the solar rays carbonic acid is produc-
ed without residue. One part of diamond
absorbing four of oxygen and producing
fire or carbonic acid.

In proportion as substances contain pure
combustible matter will, in fact, be the
difficulty of their combustion, their first
degrees of oxygenation proceeding slowly.
Thus plumbago, and anthracolite, Kilken-
ny coal, the brilliant charcoal of certain
vegetables will not burn except at a very
high temperature.

The diamond is therefore considered as
pure carbon, plumbago, carbon oxygeniz-
ed in the first degree.

Charcoal — An oxyde of the second de-
gree, obtained from various substances in
the animal, vegetable, and mineral king-
doms, generally by volatilizing their other
constituent parts.



When obtained in a slate of pur i'y it
resists the strongest heat in closed vessels

It decomposes sulphuric acid from its
affinity with oxygen exceeding that oi
sulphur. It decomposes nitric acid with
great rapidity : and if the charcoal is first
powdered, and the acid strong and allow-
ed to run down the side of the vessel, to
mix with the charcoal, it burns with ra-
pidity, vvitli a beautiful flame, throwing up
the powder so as to resemble a beautiful
lire-work.

With nitrate of pot-ash it detonates in
a hot crucible, leaving a fixed alkali be-
hind. It is dissolved by the alkalies, and
by the suljihurets of alkali, both in the
dry and moist way. It does not unite with
metals but restores their oxydes to a me-
tallic state.

Charcoal possesses the power of absorb-
ing several gasses which thus condensed
retain their properties and even exert
them in some instances more powerfully.
It decomposes water at the common tem-
perature, carbonic acid and carbonated hy-
drogen being separated. If burnt in con-
tact with coni'iion air its acidifiable l)ase at-
tracts oxj'gen, and this peculiar acid is
formed, which, with a certain proportion
of caloric, assumes a gasseous form. If
burnt in oxygen gas, its peculiar acid is
plentifully formed, the charcoal burning
with considerable increased rapidity and
if the lighter charcoal made from bark is
used a very brilliant effect is produced
from the numerous vivid coruscating
sparks.

Carbonates — Are neutral salts compos-
ed of the carbonic acid and certain bases,
thus carbonate of ammonia, or mild vola-
tile alkali consists of carbonic acid and
pure or caustic ammonia, owing to the
weakness of this acid, the characters of
their bases are generally, most predomi-
nant.

The carbonates are not acted on by light
or oxygen or nitrogen; nor do they deli-
quesce with the moisture of the atmos-
phere.

All the other acids have a greater attrac-
tion for the earthy and alkaline bases than
carbonic.

Car?nine — A powder of a very beauti-
ful red color, bordering on purple, and
used by ])ainters in minature though but
rarely because of its great price.



■7?



DEFINITION OF TEKMS.



The mode of preparing this color is
kept from the public. It is said to be ex-
tracted from cochineal by means of water
wherein chovan and antour have been in-
fused; some add rocoLi but this gives it too
much of the opal cast.

Others make carmine of Brazil wood,
ferncmbouc, and leaf gold beaten in a mor-
tar, and steeped in white wine vinegar;
the scum arising from this mixture, upon
boiling when dried, makes carmine; but
this kind is vastly inferior to the former.
There is another carmine, made of Brazil
wood and fernembouc, by a different pre-
paration.

Carton or Cartoon — In painting, a
design drawn on strong paper to be after-
wards calked through, and transferred on
the fresh plaster of a wall to be painted in
fresco. Carton is also used for a design
colored for working in Mosaic, Tapestry

Case Hardemn



Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 14 of 35)