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erting their action on masses.

The different powers that have been
thus generally described, continually act
upon common matter so as to change its
form and produce arrangements fitted for
the purposes of life. Bodies are either
simple or compound. A body is said to
be simple when it is capable of being
resolved into any other forms of matter.
Thus gold, and silver, though they may
be melted by heat or dissolved in cor-
rosive menstrua, j-et are recovered un-
changed in their properties, and they are
said to be simple bodies.

A body is considered as compound,
when two or more distinct substances are
capable of being produced from it ; thus
marble is a compound body for by a strong
heat it is converted into lime, and an
elastic fluid is disengaged in the process ;
and the proof of our knowledge of the
true composition of a body is, that it is
capable of being reproduced by the same
substances as those into which it had been
decomposed ; thus by exposing lime for
a long while to the elastic fluid, disengag-
ed during its calcination, it becomes con-
verted into a substance similar to pow-
dered marble. The term element has the
same meaning as simple or undccom-
pounded body ; but it is applied merely
with reference to the present state of
chemical knowledge. "It is probable that
as yet we are not acquainted with any of



76



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.



the true elements of matter; many sub- disagreeable ; it is not respirable ; it sup-
stances formerly supposed to be simple, ports the combustion of all the common
have been lately decompounded, and the inflammable bodies except charcoal ; its
chemical arrangements of bodies must be specific gravity is to that of air as 24677
considered as a mere expression of facts, to 1000; it is soluble in about half its
the results of accurate statical experi- ' volume of water, and its solution in water
ments. i destroys vegetable colours: Many of the

Vegetable substances in general are of a' metals (such as arsenic or copper) take fire
very compound nature, and consist of a | spontaneously when introduced into a jar
great number of elements, most of which j or bottle filled with gas. Chlorine may



belong likewise to the other kingdoms of
nature, and are found in various forms.



be procured by heating together a mixture
of 'spirits of salt or muriatic acid and



Their more complicated arrangements manganese. The number representing the
are best understood after their simpler proportion in which the gas enters into
forms of combination have been examined. : combination is sixty-seven.



The number of bodies which I consider
as at present undecomposed, are as w^s
stated in the introductory lecture, two
gasses that support combustion — seven in-
flammable bodies, and thirty eight metals.

In most of the inorganic compounds,
the nature of which is well known, into
which these elements enter, they are com-
bined in definite proportions ; so that if
the elements be represented by numbers,
the proportions in which they combine are
expressed either by those numbers, or by
some simple multiples of them.

I shall mention, in a few words, the
characteristic properties of the most im-
portant simple, substances, and the num-
bers representing the proportions in which
they combine in those cases, where they
have been accurately ascertained.



3. Hydrogene, or inflammable air, is the
lightest known substance ; its specific
gravity is to that of air as 732 to 10,000.
It burns by the action of an inflamed taper
when in contact with the atmosphere.
The proportion in which it combines is
represented by unity, or 1. It is procured
by the action of diluted oil of vitriol or
hydro-sulphuric acid on filings of zinc or
iron. It is the substance employed for
filling air balloons.

4. Azote is a gaseous substance not
capable of being condensed by any known
degree of cold: its specific gravity is to
that of common air as 9,516 to 10,000. It
does not enter into combustion under com-
mon circumstances, but may be made to
unite with oxygen by the agency of elec-
trical fire. It forms nearly four fifths of



1. Oxygen forms about one-fifth of the the air of the atmosphere and may be pro-
air of our atmosphere. It is an elastic | cured by burning phosphorus in a confined



fluid, at all known temperatures. Its
specific gravity is to that of air as 109G7
to 10,000. It supports combustion with
much more vividness than common air ;
so that if a small steel wire, or a watch
spring, having a bit of inflamed wood
attached to it, be introduced into a bottle
filled with the gas, it burns with great
splendour. It is respirable.

It is very slightly soluble in water. The
number representing the proportion in
which it combines is fifteen. It may be
made by heating a mixture of the mineral
called manganese, and subphuric acid
together, in a proper vessel, or by heating
strongly red lead, or red precipitate of
mercury.

2. Chlorine, or oxy muriatic gas, is like
oxygen, a permanent elastic fluid. Its
colour is yellowish green, its smell is very



portion of air. The number representing
the proportion in which it combines is
2L6.

5. Carbon is considered as the pure
matter of charcoal, and it may be produc-
ed, by passing spirits of wine through a
tube heated red. It has not yet been fused;
but rises in vapour at an intense heat. Its
specific gravity cannot be easily ascertain-
ed ; but thai of the diamond, which can-
not chemically be distinguished from pure
carbon is to that of water as 3500 to 1000.
Charcoal has the remarkable property of
absorbing several times its volume of dif-
ferent clastic fluids which are capable of
being expelled from it by heat. — The
number representing it is 11.4.

6. Sulphur is the pure substance so
well known by that name ; its specific
gravity is to that of water as 1990 to 1000.



AGRICULTURAL CHEMrSTRT.



77



It fuses at about 220 Fahrenheit; and at
between 500° and 600° takes fire, if in
contact with the air, and burns with a pale
blue flame. In this process it dissolves in
the oxygen of the air, and produces a
peculiar acid elastic fluid. The number
representing it is thirty.

7. Phosphorus is a solid of a pale red
colour, of specific gravity 1770. It fuses
at 90° and boils at 550° It is luminous in
the air at common temperatures, and burns
with great violence at 150°, so that it must
be handled with great caution. The num-
ber representing it is 20. It is procured by
digesting together bone ashes and oil of vit-
riol and strongly heatingthe fluid sul)stance
so produced with powdered charcoal.

8. Boron is a solid, of a dark olive co-
lour, infusible at any known temperature.
It is a substance very lately discovered,
and procured from boracic acid. It burns
with brilliant spariis when heated in oxy-
gen, but not in chlorine. Its specific
gravity, and the number representing it,
are not yet accurately known.

Platinum is one of the noble metals,
of rather a duller white than silver, and
the heaviest body in nature, its specific
gravity being 21,500. It is not acted upon
by any acid menstrua except such as con-
tain chlorine. It requires an intense de-
gree of heat for its fusion.

The properties of Gold are well known.
Its specific gravit}' is 19,277. It bears the
same relation to acid menstrua as Platinum,
it is one of the characteristics of both
these bodies, that they are very difficultly
acted upon by sulphur.
: 11. «S'//ver is of specific gravity 10,400,
jj- it burns more readily than Platinum or
Gold, which require the intense heat of
electricity. It readily unites to sulpliur.
The number representing it is 205.

12. Mercury is the only known metal
fluid at the common temperature of the
atmosphere, it boils at 66°, and freezes at
39° below 0. Its specific gravity is 13,
560°. The number representing it is 3S0.

13. Copper is of the specific gravity 8,
890, It burns when strongly heated with
red flame, tinged with green. The num-
ber representing it is 120.

14. Cobalt is of specific gravity 1,100.
Its point of fusion is very high, nearly
fiqual to that of Iron. In its calcined or
.oxidated state, it is employed for giving
a blue colour to glass.



15. Nickelis of a white colour, its spe-
cific gravity is 8,820. This metal and co-
balt agree with Iron, in being attractable
by the magnet. The number represent-
ing Nickel is 111.

IG. Iron is of specific gravity 7,700.
Its other properties are well known. The
number representing it is 103.

17. Thi is of specific grav. 7,291, it is a
very fusible metal, and burns when ignited
in the air, the number representing the
proportions in which it combines is 110.

18. Zijic is one of the most combustible
of the common metals. Its specific grav-
ity is about 7,210. It is a brittle metal
under common circumstances, but when
heated may be hammered or rolled into
thin leaves, and after this operation, is
malleable. The number representing it
is 66.

19. Lead'isoi specific gravity 11,352,
it fuses at a temperature rather higher than
tin. The number representing it is 398.

20. Bismuth is a brittle metal, of spe-
cific gravity 9,822. It is nearly as fusible
as tin, when cooled slowly it crystallizes
in cubes. The number representing it
is 135.

21. v^ntimony is a metal capable of
being volatalized by a strong red heat.
Its specific gravity is 6,800. It burns
when ignited, with a faint white light.
The number representing it is 170.

22. v'irsenic is of a bluish white colour,
of specific gravity 8,310, it may be pro-
cured by heating the powder of common
white arsenic of the shop, strongly in a
florence flask with oil. 'I'he metal rises
in vapour, and condenses in the neck of
the flask, the number representing it is 90.

23. Manganesum may be procured
from the mineral called ^langanese, by
intensely igniting it in a forge, mixed
with charcoal powder. It is a metal very
difficult of fusion, and very combustible,
its specific gravity is 6,850. The number
representing it is 177.

24. Potassium is the lightest known
metal, being only of specific gravity 850.
It fuses at about 150° and rises in vapour
at a heat a little below redness It is a
highly combustible substance, takes fife
when thrown upon water, burns with
great brilliancy, and the product of its
combustion dissolves in vvatcr. The num-
ber representing it is 75. It may be made



78



AGRICULTURAL CHKMISTRY.



by passing fused caustic vegetable alkali,
(the pure alkali of the druggists,) through
iron turnings, strongly ignited in a gun
barrel, or by the eiectrizalion of pot-ash by
a strong voltaic battery.

25. Sodium may be made in a similar
manner to potassium. Soda or the mine-
ral alkali being substituted for the vegeta-
ble alkali. It is of specific gravity 940.
It is very combustible. When thrown
upon water, it swims on its surface, hisses
violently, and dissolves, but does not in-
flame. The number representing it is 8S.

26. Barium has as yet been procured
only by electrical powers and in very mi-
nute quantities, so that its properties have
not been accurately examined. The num-
ber representing it appears to be 130.

Strontium the 27, Calcium the 28,
Magnesium the 29, Silicum, the 30, «/?/-
uminum the 31, Zirconum the 32, Gla-
cinu77i the 33, and I/triumihe 34, of the
undecompounded bodies, like barium,
have either not been procured absolutely
pure or only in such minute quantities that
their properties are little known; they are
formed either by electrical powers, or b}'
the agency of potassium, from the different
earths whose names they bear, with the
change of the termination in znn; and the
numbers representing them are believed to
be 90 Strontium, 40 Calcium, 38 Magne-
sium, 31 Silicum, 33 Aluminum, 70 Zir-
conum, 39 Glacinum, 111 Ittrium.

Of the remaining thirteen simple bo-
dies, twelve are metals, most of which,
like those just mentioned, can only be
procured with great difficulty; and the
substances in general from which they are
procured are very rare in nature. They
are Palladium, Rhodium, Osniiurn,
Iridium, Colubium, Chromium, Mo-
lybdenum, Ceriuyn, Tellurium, Timg-
stenum. Titanium, Uranium. The
forty-seventh body has not as yet been
produced in a state sufficiently pure to ad-
mit of a minute examination. It is the
principle whicli gives character to the acid
called fluoric acid, and may be named
Fluon, and is probably analogous to phos-
phorous or sulphur. The numbers repre-
senting these last thirteen bodies have not
yet been determined with sufficient accu-
racy to render a reference to them of any
utility.

The undecompounded substances unite



with each other, and the most remarkable
compounds are formed by the combination
of oxygen and chlorine with inflammable
bodies and n;etals; and these combinations
usually take place with much energy, and
are associated with fire.

ANTHRACITE COAL USED FOR DRIVING
STEAMBOATS AND LOCOMOTIVES.

A writer in the United States Gazette,
states that Anthracite Coal is used in the
large Steamboat which plies between Port-
land and Boston, and that very little al-
teration had been made in the furnace to
change it from a wood to a coal burner.
The grate had been raised some inches,
and a fan-wheel was rigged in front of the
fire. The whole was conducted with ease
and without any difficulty consequent upon
the hardness of the coal. The same wri-
ter states, that a single company in the
State of Maryland has purchased this year
from a Pennsylvania coal company, SOOO
tons of Anthracite coal for the use of their
steam-engines. This is a subject of great
importance to the whole United States,
and particularly to Pennsylvania, where
so much wealth lies in her coal-fields.
There is certainly reason to believe that
anthracite coal might be used in any situa-
tion where a sufficient degree of rapidity
is given to the current of air which sup-
plies the fire, and a proper temperature
conveyed to the air; so that when_^it first
comes in contact with the fire, it may be
in the best possible condition to cause ig-
nition. This can only be discovered by
experiments. The most suitable form for
the furnace, and this surrounded by a body
which conducts heat slowly, and a rapid
supply of air of the most proper temper-
ature, are the objects required. — W.



CURE FOR HYDROPHOBIA.

Take two spoonsfull of fresh Chloride
of Lime in powder, mixed with half-a-pint
of water, w^ith this wash, keep the wound
constantly bathed and frequenl}^ renewed^
The chlorine gas possesses the power ]^<
decomposing this tremendous poison, ant
renders mild and harmless, that venor
against whose resistless attack, the artillery
of medical science has been so long direct^
ed in vain. It is necessary that this wast
should be applied as soon as possible aftei
the infliction of the bite. — Liverpool Pa.



SILK, COCOONS, SILKWORM EGGS, ETC.



79



For the Observer and Record of Agriculture,
Science, and Art.

ON SILK, COCOONS, SILKWORM EGGS AND

COCOONERY.

The following information is submitted
to the readers of the Observer and Record,
with a request that if any of them know
of a process superior to either of those
named, the same may be published in this
paper.

Hatching the Eggs. This is done by
exposing a quantity of them to the air
about the last of May or the first of June.
In about ten or twelve days afterwards,
another parcel are to be exposed in like
manner, and so on a different parcel each
ten or twelve days, till about the last of
July or the first of August. B}' this pro-
cess a regular succession of crops are ob-
tained, in a manner convenient for the
supply of food and attendance.

First process with the Worms. When
the worms begin to appear, they are to be
placed on tender leaves, and placed on
writing paper together with the leaves,
and the date of each days hatching noted
on the paper, each parcel being kept by
themselves.

The Cocoonery. Is composed of ver-
tical posts, two inches square, (of scant-
ling,) upon which slats are nailed to re-
ceive horizontal shelves one foot apart,
the bottom shelf may be four feet wide,
and each ascending one two inches narrow-
er than the one immediately below it, so
that worms falling from a shelf may lodge
on the next below. Almost any out-build-
ing will serve for a cocoonery.

Second process with the Worms. The
worms are to be removed from the litter,
immediately after the first, second, third
and fourth moultings, and also when they
are ready to wind their cocoons, they are
then placed on shelves.

Preparation for the worms to ivind
the cocoons. Rye-straw is cut in lengths,
one-and-a-half or two inches longer than
the distance between the shelves, and tied
in bunches of eighteen or twenty in a
bunch, from one or two inches from the
bottom, these bunches are placed between
,the shelves in an upright position, with
the upper ends spread asunder, the worms
wind the cocoons within those bundles of
straw, they can afterwards be gathered
with the greatest convenience.



Reeling the Silk. It is recommended
to reel the silk from the cocoon before it
becomes necessary to stifle the chrysalis.
For this they will yield more silk, and it
is stronger and more nice. — E. 0. R.

P. S. In addition to the above, the
following is recommended, viz: Two
light frames are made to slide horizontally
above each shelf, one of them, about one
inch from the shelf, * and the other about
two inches from it, each of the same
length and width as the next shelf below
them. The spaces between the edges
and ends of the frames are occupied by
net-work, composed of cotton (or other)
yarn, the ends of each frame are support-
ed by slats. The leaves are placed upon
the upper nets, which will induce all the
worms to ascend, and leave the lower ones
unoccupied. The shelves and all the nets
next to them, may then be removed,
washed and dried, while the worms are
feeding, the shelves are returned to their
proper places, and the nets reversed, so
that the other nets may in turn be cleaned.



* The nets may be placed nearer to the shelves than
one or two inches, if necessary.



CREOSOTE IN DEAFNESS.

By J. HARRISON CURTIS.

One of the principal and most common
causes of deafness, is a deficiency of the
secretion, from a want of action of the cer-
uminous glands.

Many cases of loss of hearing which
have been under my care, even when the
disease has been of long standing, have
been fairly referable to this cause, and on
its removal the deafness has disappeared,
of course in a longer or shorter time, ac-
cording to the duration of the disease, and
the severity of the primary cause of the
inaction of the glands. When the meatus
aiiditorius has been duly cleansed, 1[
and the orifices of the ducts have been, as
it were, re-opened, by the removal of the
diseased secretion by which they were oc-
cluded, a moderate stimulant is of essen-
tial service in restoring the glands to
healthy action, but the cleansing is imper-
atively necessary, and no remedy will be
of use until that operation has been pro-
perly performed. I generally employ a
preparation consisting of half-a-ounce of
ox-gall, mixed witn a drachm of tincture



so



CONTENTS.



of musk, with it, a piece of cotton is moist-
ened, and inserted into the ineatus at
night, to soften the hardened cerumen,
the ear being syringed in the morning with
warm water, to which one ounce of soap
liniment and a little eau de cologne, have
been added. I occasionally substitute the
solution of pol-ash of the Pharmacopoeia,
with oil of almonds, for the preparation of
ox-gall and castor, with equal advantages
in dissolving the cerumen. In effecting
this, be particular in the choice of a
syringe. When this important object has
been obtained, and the regular ducts and
glands are in a fit state to be acted on by
the stimulant, a soluticm of creosote in oil
of almonds, I am led to believe from ex-
perience, will be found to be of great ad-
vantage in inducing the ceruminous glands
to resume their healthy action. The for-
mula I use, is as follows: — Take of Creo-
sote, one drachm; Oil of Jllmonds, four
drachms; Mix. A little to be inserted into
the meatus, night and morning, with a
camel-hair brush.

I generally commence with a solution of
this strength, occasionally gradually in-
creasing the quantity of creosote employ-
ed, according to the effects produced.
Cases however have occurred, as will be
shown, in which this application has not
been beneficial, until after the previous
employment of blisters, behind the ears,
of an ointment made with tartarized anti-
mony, or other derivatives which are re-



quired to abate any irritation to which the
ear may be subjected. In cases of otorr-
hoca, where there is any pain or inflam-
mation, its use is contra-indicated. Its ap-
plication does not cause any pain or smart-
ing sensation, the only sensible effect pro-
duced, being but a feeling of agreeable
warmth. Lancet



t Physiologists are of opinion, tliat there are not
any muscular fibres in the meatus by which, under any
circumstances, the cerumen is discharged; but it has
been conjectured that its expulsion is effected by the
motions of the lower jaw (lurii>g mastication.



EFFECTS OF PRUSSIC ACID COUNTERACTED.

Two Rabbits were selected for experi-
ment, four drops of powerful hydrocyanic
acid were then applied to the tongue of
each. The effects were instantly apparent,
the animals were for some minutes motion-
less and apparently dead, when Dr. Rob-
inson administered his restorative, viz:
cold water poured from an eminence over
the occiput and spine, the temperature of
the water being previously lowered by-
nitrate of potash and common salt. The
effect was magical, for by this resucitative
process, it was remarked that each animal
in turn, skipped about the floor, as if in
the enjoyment of perfect health and good
spirits. We need scarcely [remark that
such facts as we now record, cannot be too
prominently placed before the public. —
Sunderland Paper.



CO.^'TE.^T^ ofJ%y}, 5. fol. I. of OM^EUITEU S* RECOKD,

Brunonian System, continued from p. 61, No. 4 • 65

Kemarks upon Salt or Hard Water, ■ 6^

Xew and Expeditious mode of Budding, t, . ^ - 67

On the Preservation of Turnips and Feeding Horses with Hay, ~- . 67

Description of H. P. Lees' Thrashing Machine, 67

Cure for Diseased Feet of Sheep and Cattle, ,,.......■ 68

On the valuable properties of the Acacia Tree, - • • 68

Alcohol in Pyroligenous Acid, 68

Method of Preserving Animal Substances, • »• 69

Improvement in the Construction of Axletrees, &V

Process to form Egyptian Azure, 69

Cheap method of manufacturing a Barometer, 69

Black produced by the mixture of colorless fluids, 6»

On a preparation of Borax for the blow-pipe, '"

Composition of the Bronze of the Ancients, 70

Method of cleansing Brass Ornaments, • ""

Sir Isaac Newton's Burning-glass, ^'*

Method to prevent liie escape of Gas from Barrels or other vessels, 70

Preservation of Cabbages,— —On the properties of Charcoal, t 7^

Definition of Terms beginning with the Letter C, - "^^

Sir H. Davy's Agricultural Chemistry, 7"*

Anthracite Coal used for Driving Steamboats and Locomotives, 78

Cure for Hydro\)hobia, '• '8

On Silk, Cocoons, Silk Worms, and Cocoonery 79

Creosote in Deafness, (by J. Harrison Curtis,) ••• 79

Effects of Prussic Acid Counteracted, • 80



OBSERYEll AND RECOR

OF AGRICULTURE, SCIENCE, AND ART.

EDITED BY D. PEIRCE.



Wo. «.]



Pliiladclpliia, Monday, Itlarcli 4, 1839.



[Vol. I.



The object of this paper is to concentrate and preserve, in a form suitable for future
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This number, shows the general plan of the work.

Published monthly, for one dollak a year, payable in advance; six copies to ths
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MORUS MULTICAULIS AND SILK CULTURE.

It has been said by some persons that



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