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the silk made from worms fed on the foli-
age of the morus multicaulis is superior in
quality to that made from others fed on the
white mulberry; yet this opinion is not
decided — having seen specimens of silk
laised from both, as far as quality is con-
cerned we are not prepared to give the
jireference to either, but the superior size
of the leaf of the morus, its great saving of
offal, economy of time and labor, in gath-
ering and feeding, must always place it
ahead of every other variety of the mul-
berry; it requires no more time to pull one
of its leaves than the other, or any other
kind; but as the leaves of the morus mul-
ticaulis are much larger than an}' other
kind, then there is a great saving of time
in gathering and feeding the worms, and it
is said that the worms are better satisfied
in feeding upon this kind of leaves than on
any other, and remain in a more vigorous
state during the time of feeding; the les-
sening of expense of attendants alone, in
one season, will yield a handsome profit.
Besides this mulberry can be acclimated to
any region, and braves the most rigorous
winters in the United States.

Soil and situation. — The White Mul-
berry. — The nurseries, as well as the large
and small mulberry plantations require a
sunny exposure, and spots sheltered against
strong winds; therefore, declivities, or hill
sides, descending towards the castor south-
east, and secured by woods or groves are
proper; as also, all spots protected by
buildings, &.c The trees should never



be planted in marshy or low ground —
1st, because they would be more expo-
sed than in elevated situations to the in-
jurious influence of cold and frosts; and
2dly, because worms i^A from leaves gath-
ered from trees in such situations, owing to
the superabundance of aqueous matter
in them, do not yield silk either as lus-
trous or tenacious; and 3d!y, from the ab-
sence of saccharine matter, the worms are
not so healthy, nor do they give as much
silk. Next to the soil before described, a
calcareous sandy clay is to be pieferred.
The morus multicaulis partakes more of
the character of the shrub than of the tree,
and therefore requires less I'oom when
planted as standard trees, and more in
hedge-J, in consequence of its propensity
to throw up branches from the roots,
therefore it is thought by many experienc-
ed persons more practicable to raise them
by field culture. If the culturist proposes
to go at once into the silk business, and to
plant out his orchard to feed from, having
prepared his ground and fixed upon the
distance of his rows and that of his plants,
all he has to do is to strike out deep fur-
rows, place his trees at proper distances,
and while one person holds the tree in its
place let the other shovel the earth around
its roots, which must be compressed by the
first, so as to give the eartii a firm set in
the ground; this done, the labor will have
been performed. Two inches is a good
depth to cover the roots. If you propose
to layer your trees you may -either do
it by layering the whole tree, or you may
deprive it of its lateral brandies, and layer



82



StLK CL'LTURE.



each separately; the latter plan is recom-
mended as heing decidedly the best, as
there is not room for the trees to expand
and grow when placed so closely together.
Method of layering lohere the brandies
are taken off- — Prepare the ground with
neatness, and pulverize it thoroughly by
ploughing, harrowing and rolling; strike
out the furrows of the prescribed distance,
north and south, manure in the drill with
good barnyard manure, then take the root
with the main stem attached to it, lay it
down in the furrow and cover it over about
two inches deep. As you cover the root
and main stem, press down the earth light-
ly with the fiat jjart of the hoe, so as to
make the soil adhere to both. Be careful
to draw into the furrow none but well pul-
verised mould, so that the leaflet may meet
wiih no obstruction in its ascent to the sur-
face. A little care in this particular at the
time of planting, will save trouble and
])revent loss. The roots and main stem
being thus planted, proceed to lay down
the lateral branches in the same way, and
cover as before directed.

Bi/ Cuttings. — There are three ways



becoming an object of interest throughout
the United States, but more especially in
our immediate neighbourhood is claiming
the serious care of the farmer, the mechan-
ic, and men of practical information on
the subject. It is a little remarkable that
so profitable a business as this is likely to
be, should have been so long neglected by
men of enterprise and capital. — At so early
a period as 1778, ladies of rank and fortune
in I^ondon, merely for amusement, were
raising the silkworm; and from 244 worms
one lady, without the assistance of reels,
actually produced one ounce and a half bt
beautiful silk of three colors, viz: a light
buff or gold color, a lovely white and an
apple green and this very silk was pro-
nounced by competent judges to be supe^
rior to the Italian: and as early as 1785
another young lady received a silver med-
al for producing 5 lbs. of sewing silk from
30,000 worms. She also measured one
cocoon with critical exactness, and found
it 404 yards, and weight only 3 grains.
This same lady, in a letter to a friend,
says, " I got 4 oz's of silk from 1270
worms, and on an average 350 produce



of propagating by cuttings, two in open ' one ounce. I frequently wound the cones
culture, the one"' by placing the cutting out of boiling water, placing them after-
down flat or horizontally in the furrow, wards on dry paper, and always found the
the other by giving it a vertical position, moth came to life again at its proper timej
at about an angle" of fortv-five degrees, heat injures the strength and glossy hue



inclining to the north, the bud facing the
south — the last by starting the plants in
hot-beds. If the cuttings should be plant-
ed in open culture, two buds should be
used; if in hot-beds, one bud is sufficient.

Care must be taken as the cuttings come
up that they be not choaked with grass
and weeds, and at the early part of the
season the safest plan will be to hand weed
until the plant reaches a height when it
may be safe to use a hoe. To prevent the
growth of grass or weeds, the plough or
cultivator may be used.

If it were practicable to water the plants
before they get above the ground, in case
of a drought, it would be of great service
to them. — Manual.



From the Pennsylvania Enquirer.
SILK CULTURE.

'vVe invite attention to the following,
from the pen of an intelligent corresponcl-
ent:—

The raising of the silk worm is not only



of the silk, and by this process, the silk
may be gathered and the moth preserved;

The one I measured had been feeding
only one week on mulberry leaves, and
the silk a little coarser. I did not find
noise to hurt them." The signs of spin-
ning in the worm, is a visible circulation
of the blood or glutinous matter down the
middle of the back, erecting themselves
on thier bellies, a playfulness and wasting
of food; when in this state they seek a cor-
ner and commence spinning their ball.

The profits arising from silk are im-
mensely advantageous, one-fourth part of
the price being adjudged enough to defray
the whole expenses. The proper and best
food for ilie silk worm is in my estimation
to be procured from the Morus Multicau-
lis Mulberry alone; it is undoubtedly the
most valuable of the species for many
reasons. The tree is very vigorous and
UDrisht in its growth, the leaves in a rich
soil are large and cordiform, but in an a-
rid soil less size, eliptical and without the



SILK CULTURE.



83



Heart shaped indentation, and 1 have often I number, when the cocoonery is near (as
found on measurement their breadth to be it should be) the mulberry orchard. In



ten inches, and their length 12 and over;
they are curled or convex on their surface,
of a deep glossy green and perfectly beau-
tiful. The characters which distinauish



ten days from spinning, five or six active
children are required. And here is ano-
ther very important consideration, that
these very children will here find employ-



th is tree from the other species are, the : ment part of the summer in gathering
remarkable property the roots possess of leaves, which must otherwise be spent in



throwing up numerous flexible stalks with
out forming a principal trunk, the great



idleness, perhaps in crime.

Silk worms are liable to various disea-



length these stalks assume in a very short : ses in their different ages, especially in



time, the peculiar developement which the
tender and soft leaves soon acquire, and
the quickness with which they are renew-
ed, and the extraordinary facility with



their fifth, which all agree to be most cri-
tical. Such diseases generally are produ-
ced from want of room and air, and their
food being damp, and want of cleanliness,



which the stalks and branches strike root, I proper attention and care: the fermenta-
as cuttings, before they have acquired a | tion of litter, dampness, bad air, and three
ligneous consistence, and it is easy to mul- , or four thousand on a hurdle, are the most
tiply them by thousands from the roots, i frequent causes of mortality among them,
by layers and cuttings of a single eye. Therefore, in order for their help and be-

Cocoons fed on leaves of this tree only, ' nefit, the diseased worms must be thrown
are heavier, and the quality of the silk bet- away, their position changed, and more
ter. A doubt no longer exists, that two jcare bestowed. Chloride of lime and soda
crops of silk may be raised in a single sea- have been used in some places with good
son. effect to purify the air.

Such are the advantages of the IVIorus Often is the question asked, what spe-
Multicaulis over every other Mulberry, cies of the worm makes the best silk? but
and however the wise and intelligent cul- we all know that it is the food of the worm



tivators of New Hope may wish to see it
prostrated on a level with the Paper Mul-
berry^ and thus delay the silk culture in
America, in order that his flax may take
the place of the silk, or however desirous
/* Truth," is to see "this mad specula-
tion'' share the same fate of Merino sheep,
1 can assure both of these very enlighten-
ed, patriotic, tiscfal, enterprising Ame-
ricans, that all their "Truths" which have
not the shadow of foundation, can have no
effect in prostrating the efforts a mighty
people are now making for the prosperity
of their Commonwealth. Our countr}'^ is
destined not only to be the successful
competitor in the silk market, but will ere
long, after the country is well stocked
with this valuable tree, have her factories
on a larger scale, and with machinery less
complex than those at Lyons or Naples.

The silk worm consumes vast quanti-
ties of leaves. It is said that 210,000
worms, in the first stage, consume 20 lbs.
per diem, in the second, 55, in the third,
215, in the fourth 620, fiflh, 3820 lbs;



that is to produce the best. If 1 had been
asked the question, my reply would have
been, the white mammoth fed on the
leaves of Morus Multicaulis: this is a
beautiful species of the silk worm; there
is nothing revolting in the sight of this
pretty little worm, busily engaged in eat-
ing; but there is something very inter-
esting in so humble an object, day to da} -
occupied in eating its verdant meal, until
the end of its creation is fulfilled, when it
disappears from the sight, iand presents_a
ball of beautiful silk; there is nothing dis-
gusting to the most sensitive mind, but all
is in perfect unison with the great archi-
tect of even the little silk worm.-

Often have I watched them with delight
from day to day, and who can form a right
estimate of the debt he is under to this lit-
tle worm, when he takes into considera.
tion, that He who clothes the humble wild
flower in raiment of his own inimitable
perfection, also has endowed the silk
worm with the power of being of gre>t
benefit to mankind; and while the heart



making in all 4,731 lbs of leaves, and two I glows with gratitude for the thousand un-
persons can attend and feed more than this ! deserved favours He has been pleased to

; bestow upon a thankless world in days that



84



MISCELLANEOUS.



are past, let all of us, who are engaged in
this laudable enterprise, return thanks to
the Author of this good and perfect gift,
even the gift of the silk culture, which is
to produce a moral reformation in our
country, enabling its juvenile members to
acquire habits of industry, which alone can
redeem us from turmoils, strife, and do-
mestic broils.



EARLY CORN.

It is suggested to those who are fond of
boiled corn, that they cultivate the kind
called Canada Corn, which is said to
yield well in quantity, and ripens suffi-
ciently for boiling in seven weeks from
the time of planting.



pound — the silk being reeled into small
skeins of three hundred to the pound, the
reeling process being performed by the
machine at the same time it twists the
silk.

It was the intention of Mr. Dennis to
procure a patent for this invention, and
also to commence a manufactory of ma-
chines to supply the demand that is likely
soon to arise for them. — Weekly Messen-
ger^, February 21th, 1839.



POTATOES RAISED FROM CUTTINGS.

An English farmer, Mr. Cotsell of Sta-
pleton, near Bristol, has succeeded in
raising potatoes from cuttings. We do
not know that the attempt has been tried
in this country. Reasoning upon the ana-
logy of the potatoe to the dahlia, I was
induced, in the spring, to try the experi-
ment on cuttings, and have succeeded ad-
mirably; having, from White Apple and
Fox's Seedlings, an early potatoe, pro-
duced a lull crop of good sized potatoes,
many of which weighed half a pound.
The method was thus: — When the pota-
toes were about nine inches high, I cut off
the tops, about six inches long, planted
them in a line about eight inches apart,
with a flat dibble, pressing the earih care-
fully against them, gave them water, and
afterwards hoed them as an ordinary crop.
I produced in this way 140 pounds the
rod. — Weekly Messenger.



Silk Manufacture. — The Masillon
(Ohio) Gazette of Monday contains a no-
tice of the successful operation of a ma-
chine lately invented by a Mr. Dennis of
that town, for making sewing silk, direct
from the cocoons, at one operation. The
Gazette speaks highly of the nicety and
ease with which the cocoons were manu-
factured by this machine into sewing silk
of a superior quality. The culturers of
the neighbourhood pronounce this ma-
chine superior to any thing of the kind
now in use. With its aid, it is stated,
that sewing silk can be manufactured from
cocoons at an expense of fifty cents the



Useful Hints. — To preserve fresh
meat, killed early in winter, through cold
weather, bury it in snow. The best way
is to place alternate layers of meat and
snow in a tub or barrel, and keep it in a
cool place. The meat should be a little
frozen first. Several days warm weather
will not affect it; and if it be kept in an
ice house, it may not only be preserved
through winter, but during the following
spring.

Hams cannot be kept with ease or cer-
tainty, unless the flat bone near the centre
of the inner side, which joins on the other
bones of the ham by a ball and socket, be
first carefully removed. Where this has
been neglected, although every other care
has been taken, failures and loss have fol-
lowed. — The best way to keep winter
apples is to barrel them. This perfectly
excludes rats and mice, and preserves
them in a great measure from the air.

Where corn is fed out to cattle, and
other domestic animals^ it is much the
best, where practicable, to grind it with
the cob.

Oats are more beneficial to horses if
ground; and hay, if chopped fine. — Dry
wood will produce, on a moderate esti-
mate, twice as much heat as the same
amount of green wood, and saves much
trouble in kindling fires on cold morn-
ings. To prevent its burning away too
rapidly, the sticks should be large.

[Recent experiments show that a given
quantity of both wood and anthracite coal
reduced to small dimensions, will produce
more heat than when large. It is recom-
mended, to cause them to be burned as
rapidly as possible, so that the heated ox-
ygen of the air will cause the gas from the
fuel to be consumed before it leaves the
stove, drum, and pipe. The theory is the
heated oxygen of the air passing upwards,



CEMENTS.



85



through fuel already ignited, will consume

the gas arising from fresh fuel, provided

the strata of ignited fuel be not too thick, | 4'C. — Take quick lime and white of eggs,

and the supply of fresh coal be in proper or old thick varnish, grind and temper



CEiMENTS.

A Cement for broken China, Glass,



proportion. The proportion of ignited
anthracite and the fresh supply may be in
the relative proportion as two to one —
thus two inches in thickness of ignited
coal (each piece not to exceed half an inch
diameter upon the grate of a stove,) and
one inch of fresh coal of the same dimen-
sions, is said to answer as well. — Ed. Ob.

To suppose that green wood will cause
more heat than dry is absurd..

To remove ice from door steps, throw
on salt, it will cause the ice to crack, and
become loose, when it may be easily re-
moved.

Salt should be regularly fed to cattle
both in winter and summer. They will
never eat too much, if it is placed continu-
ally before them, where they can obtain it
at all times. The best way to feed them
with it, except when snow is on the
ground, is to employ salt troughs for the
purpose, which are made most convenient-
ly by making a deep cavity in the convex
side of a short thick piece of slab, or a chip
from scoring timber, to be kept filled with
salt, and placed flat upon the ground.
They are very cheap, and will not easily
upset. In winter, when the ground is co-
vered with snow, salt should be supplied
by brining the fodder.

Use spirits of turpentine to remove
grease spots from clothes. It dissolves
the grease, and then soap the more easily
removes it. Grease may l)e removed from
undyed woollen by a solution of pearl ash.
Lime spots on woollen cloths may be
completely removed by strong vinegar.
The vinegar effectually neutralizes the
lime, but does not generally effect the co-
lour of the cloth. Dark cloth, the colour
of which has been completely destroyed
in spots six inches square, has thus had its
original colour perfectly restored. The
whiteness of ivory handled knives may
be restored by rubbing them with fine
sand-paper or emery.

The oftener carpets are shaken the
longer they last; as the particles of dirt
and sand which collect upon them grind
the threads. Sweeping them also wears
them. — Genessee Farmer.



them well together, and it is ready for
use. Drying oil and white lead are also
frequently used for cementing china and
earthen ware; but the cement requires a
long time to dry. Where it is necessary
the vessel should endure heat or moisture,
isinglass glue, with a little tripoli or
chalk, is better.

J2 Cement useful for Turners. — Take
rosin one pound, pitch four ounces; melt
these together, and while boiling hot, add
brick dust, until, by dropping a little upon
a stone, you perceive it hard enough; then
pour it into water, and immediately make
it up into rolls, and it is fit for use: or,
take rosin one ounce, pitch two ounces;
add red ochre, finely powdered, until you
perceive it strong enough. Sometimes a
small quantity of tallow is used, according
to the heat of the weather; more being
necessary in winter than summer. Ei-
ther of these cements is of excellent use
for turners. By applying it to the side of
a chuck, and making it warm before the
fire, you may fasten any thin piece of
wood, which will hold while you turn it;
when you want it off again, strike it on
the top with a suitable tool, and it will
drop off immediately.

Ji strong Cement for Electrical pur-
poses. — Melt one pound of rosin in a pot
or pan, over a slow fire, add thereto as
much plaster of Paris, in fine powder, as
will make it hard enough, which may be
soon known by trial; then add a spoonfull
of linseed oil, stirring it all the while, and
try whether it is hard and tough enough
for your purpose. If it is not sufficiently
hard, add more Plaster of Paris; and if not
tough enough, a little more linseed oil.

This is as good a cement as possible for
fixing the necks of globes or cylinders,
or any thing else that requires to be
strongly fixed; for it is not easily melted
again when cold. Or take rosin one
pound, beeswax one ounce, add thereto as
much red ochre as will make it of suiE-
cient stiffness, pour it into water, and
make it into rolls, and it is fit for use.

This cement is useful for cementing
hoops on glasses, or any other mounting
of electrical apparatus.



86



CEMENTS.



Ji Cement for Glass Grinders. — Take
pitch and boil it; add thereto, and keep
stirring it all the whilp, fine sifted wood
ashes, until you have it of a proper tem-
per; a little tallow may be added, as you
find it necessary. For small work, to
four ounces of rosin add one-fourth of an
ounce of beeswax, melted together, and
four ounces of whitening, made previous-
ly red hot. The whitening should be put
in while hot, that it may not have time to
imbibe moisture from the atmosphere.

Shellac is a very strong cement for
holding metals, glass, or precious stones,
while cutting, turning, or grinding them.
The metal, &c., should be warmed to
melt it. For fastening rub}' cylinders in
watches, and similar delicate purposes,
shellac is excellent.

To Solder or Cement broken glass. —
Broken glass may be soldered or cement-
ed in such a manner as to be as strong as
ever, by interposing between the parts
glass ground up like a pigment, but of ea-
sier fusion than the pieces to be joined,
and then exposing them to such a heat as
will fuse the cementing ingredient, and
make the pieces agglutenatc without being
themselves fused. A glass for the pur-
pose of cementing broken pieces of flint
glass may be made by fusing some of the
same kind of glass, previously reduced to
powder, along with a little red lead and
borax, or with the borax only.

Cement Jar Zhrbi/shire Spar and
other Stones. — A cement for this purpose
may be made with about seven or eight
parts of rosin, and one of beeswax, melted
together, with a small quantity of plaster
of Paris. If it is wished to make the ce-
ment fill up the place of any small chips
that may have been lost, the quantity of
plaster must be increased a little. When
the ingredients are well mixed, and the
whole is nearly cold, the mass should be
well kneaded together. The pieces of spar
that are to be joined, must be heated until
they will melt the cement, and then press-
ed together, some of the cement being pre-
viously interposed. Melted sulphur ap-
plied to fragments of stones, previously
heated by placing them before a fire, to at
least the melting point of sulphur, and
then joined with the sulphur between,
makes a pretty firm and durable joining.
Little deficiencies in the stone, as chips out



of corners, &c., may also be filled up with
melted sulphur, in which some of the pow-
der of the stone has been melted.

Jl Cement that will stand against
boiling water and. the pressure of steam.
— In joining the flanches of iron cylinders
and other parts of hydraulic steam engines,
great inconvenience is often experienced
from the want of a durable cement. Boil-
eil linseed oil, litharge, and red and white
lead, mixed together to a proper consist-
ence, and applied on each side of a piece
of flannel, previously shaped to fit the
joint, and then interposed between the
pieces before they are brought home, as
the workmen term it, to their place, by
the screws or fastenings employed, make
a close and durable joint.

The quantities of the ingredients may
be varied without inconvenience, only
taking care not to make the mass too thin
with oil. It is difficult, in many cases,
instantly to make a good fitting of the
large pieces of iron work, which renders
it necessary sometimes to join and sepa-
rate the pieces repeatedly, before a proper
adjustment is obtained. When this is
expected, the white lead ought to predo-
minate in the mixture, as it dries much
slower than the red. A workman know-
ing this fact, can he at little loss in exer-



Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 16 of 35)