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portions of the water farthest removed
from the direct influence of the fire. If
it shall be found, as we have reason to
expect, that hot-air used in the furnace
will enable anthracite coal to be burned, it
is not easy to see to what extent of saving \
this discovery may lead in steam naviga-
tion; this coal being vastly more powerful
than any other. It is no small advantage
to the public, and no slight recommenda-
tion of this plan, that not only does it not
interfere with any other improvements
for economy of fuel now in use, but it is
rather an addition to, and may be used
in conjunction with them, and also that
it may be easily adapted to almost any
existing furnaces, boilers, and processes
of manufacture, at an expense altogether
trifling, contrasted with the benefitresult-
ing from its use. — Mining Journal.


Upon the grate is fixed a cast-iron plate
with a circular aperture in the centre. It
is 82 inches in diameter, which just takes
a common tea-kettle, and answers well
for other sized pans, as I find it is of no
moment, the pan being larger than the
aperture. By this plan the heat is con-
fined in the grate; and by several experi-
ments I have proved that any thing will
much sooner boil in this closed grate, than
in an open one, and it also throws out a
greater heat in the room and prevents
smoke ; and when the fire is not wanted
for cooking, there is a plate to cover the
aperture. It also consumes less fuel, and
is a sure remedy for a smoky chimnt^y.
The whole heat may be made to act on
an oven placed at one side of the fire by-
turning a damper in the flue. A small
hole is made in the top of the plate, to
admit any smoke that may arise when
putting on fuel, or changing kettles or
pans. The top plate rests on the top bar
of the grate and on the brick work at the
back, and another plate in front.

Jirek Mag.


It may not be generally known to our
agricultural readers, that the vegetative
powers of wheat are greatly increased by



its being kiln-dried previously to being
sown. A friend of ours, an extensive
farmer in this district, in the month of
October last, thrashed out a quantity of
wheat from the stook the day after it was
cut, but finding it too damp to be used as
seed, was induced to dry it in the kiln.
A field of considerable extent was sown
with the grain so prepared, with the ex-
ception of two ridges on each side, which
were sown a few days afterwards with
wheat, after it had remained a full week
in the stook and been properly wit7i.
The idea of sowing wheat after it had
been kiln-dried was treated as absurd and
ridiculous by several of his neighbors,
and an eminent and extensive agricultu-
rist asked him if he was so plenty of
wheat that he meant to sow his ground a
second time. Notwithstanding this unfa-
vorable opinion, the farmer persevered,
and sowed several bushels more, until he
had twenty acres completed. Experi-
ence is the surest test of any improve-
ment, and in this instance our friend has
had his hopes more than realized. It is
a remarkable fact, that the wheat thus
prepared, by being dried on the kiln, has
not only brairded more thickly, but is
much stronger and healthier in appear-
ance than that which sprung from the
wheat dried by the operation of the ele-
ments. — Kelso Chronicle.


Until lately we believe nobody has
thought of cultivating the Cranberry, any
more than the Whortleberry or the Per-
simmon. It has been looked on as the
natural product of swamps which were
good for nothing else, and though the
fruit was a favorite in the markets, the
gatherers trusted to nature to keep the
supply equal to the demand. A gentle-
man in IBarnstable, Massachusetts, has,
however, discovered that it is as suscepti-
ble of cultivation and improvement as
the Strawberry. On about an acre of
ground he has raised for the last ten
years an average of about seventy bush-
els a season, sometimes a hundred. The
following account of his Cranberry yard
is from the Barnstable Journal. — N. Y.
Evening Post.

Sandy bog-land is the best adapted to

the growth of the Cranberry plant, and
it should be kept well drained. Captain
Hall has a tract of about four acres enclos-
ed, which he calls his Cranberry yard, of
a damp, sandy soil, surface nearly level,
and where not planted with Cranberries,
covered with rushes and swamp brush.
The Cranberry vines were set around on
the borders of the " yard," some on land
elevated two or three feet above the gene-
ral surface. The vines grow most vi-
gorously, and the berries are of a better
quality and more abundant where the soil
is most sandy and damp. In very dry
seasons, the Cranberries are liable to be
eaten and destroyed by worms ; but they
are in general, under skilful management,
as certain a crop as any kind of grain or
garden vegetable.

The manner of transplanting is simple.
Holes are dug four feet apart ; only they
are made deeper than for corn ; into each
of these sods of vines are placed. The
Cranberry has creeping roots, spreads
very rapidly, and in three years from the
time of planting will entirely cover the
ground. If the land is overgrown with
bushes they must first be removed ; but
it is not necessary to destroy rushes, for
the Cranberry vine will do it in a few
years. When the land is very low, or
covered with a thick growth of weeds
and rushes, Capt. Hall practises spreading
over it a quantity of beach sand before
planting. — The fall is the best season for
transplanting. No other cultivation is
performed or required, than to keep the
land drained, and cattle from injuring the
vines. The Cranberi'ies sell from ^1 to
^1,50 per bushel, and the cost of picking
is 20 cents per bushel.


Permit me now, gentlemen, to direct
your attention to the treatment of one
form of the bleeding at the nose. It not
unfrequently happens that epistaxis con-
stitutes the only ailment to which young
persons are liable. I was consulted by
two gentlemen within the last year, the
one eighteen, the other twenty-eight
years of age; they were both healthy in
every other respect, and were both liable
to bleeding from the nose : sometimes



slight, sometimes copious, and then pro-
ducing a degree of debility proportionate
to the extent of the haemorrhage ; no dis-
turbance of the digestive organs, of the
heart, or of any viscus or function, was
discoverable. There seemed to be but
one defect in the constitution, scarcely
explicable except on the somewhat me-
chanical hypothesis of a superabundance
of blood, accompanied, perhaps, by a
defect in the process of sanguification,
whereby the blood's fluidity was altered.
These ideas, borrowed from the now an-
tiquated humoral pathology, served to
indicate the method of treatment ; and
having no better guide to follow, I pro-
ceeded to put the plan thus suggested into
execution ; I accordingly advised my pa-
tients to live as dry as possible, or, in
other words, to restrict themselves to a
minimum of drink.

I directed them at the same time to
take about half a drachm of dilute nitric
acid daily, in divided doses. Although
the reasoning which led to its adoption
is scarcely tenable, yet the remarkable
success of the treatment renders the re-
sult worth recording.

Hippocrates, in his curious and in-
structive work on diet, insists much on
attention being paid to the quantity of
drink allowed to patients in different dis-
eases ; it is singular, however, that he no-
where speaks of restricting the quantity
of drink in cases of haemorrhage.

Dr. Williams has lately recommended
the dry treatment in catarrhal affections
of the lungs attended with increased se-
cretion. In young persons, when the
sputa are abundant and easily gotten up,
I can attest the efficacy of an almost total
abstinence from drink. Not long ago, I
was called to see a young lady, then on
a visit to the house of the venerable Dr.
Percival. She had been blistered, and had
taken large quantities of squills, ipeca-
cuanha, antimonial wine, and other ex-
pectorants, and had refrained from solid
food, and indulged freely in demulcent
ptisans, whey, tea, &c. ; these means, with
confinement in her room, had been con-
tinued about a week without the slightest
benefit ; the cough was incessant, depriv-
ing her altogether of sleep, and accom-
panied with much wheezing, and an abun-

dant easy expectoration. All remedies
were laid aside, an almost total abstinence
from drink observed, and a strikingly
rapid cure effected. In his work on diet,
Hippocrates gives some hints worth at-
tending to ; thus in cases of constipation
he recommends a very varied diet, and
he does so on good grounds, for a simple
uniform diet is very apt to occasion con-
stipation. Hippocrates lays much stress
on different sorts of exercise in different
states of health ; riding, walking, run-
ning. Riding and walking, have also their
specified varieties, not merely as to dura-
tion and velocity, but as to direction, for
he carefully distinguishes locomotion ac-
cording as it is continued in straight lines,
in curves, or in greater or less circles, on
flat or on hilly ground, &c. &c. Exer-
cise, in curves or in circles, appears to
have been a favorite gymnastic remedy
among the Greeks ; it is quite neglected,
but perhaps undeservedly, for running,
riding, or walking, in curves or circles,
must bring a number of muscles into play
which are comparatively unemployed in
rectilinear progression. The effects on
the circulating and nervous system, must
be likewise different, as is evident from
the remarkable disturbance they undergo
in the circular swing. — Lon. Med. Gaz.


M. Pelletier, of Paris, states that if
twenty drops of the pure and concentra-
ted sulphuric acid be poured upon twenty
grains of suspected Quinine, the solution
will present a beautiful crimson color,
more or less intense according to the
quantity of salicine present. The adul-
teration of one part of salicine with nine-
ty-nine of Quinine, is, by these means,
easily discovered. — Lancet.


Dr. Hunter says, " Those most sus-
ceptible to this disease are of weakly, deli-
cate frames, and of suspicious minds, and
not of strong and robust ones. In warm
climates it is most frequent, and conse-
quently it is seldom found in cold wea-
ther. The cramp is most frequent in warm
climates, and bad fits are most frequent
in bed, for warmth seems to have a pecu-
liar effect in producing a particular dispo-



sition in the nerves. Treatment : The
first appearance of a cure is a recovery of
strength, as weakness is a predisposing
cause ; and the first indication should
be to strengthen the system. I should
recommend every thing to produce ex-
treme external cold, as cold applications,
consisting of snow with salt to the part
affected, and the patient should be put
into an ice-house for a time, or sent to a
cold climate as soon as possible. I know
of no internal medicine."


In the November number of the Dub-
lin Journal of Medicine, Dr. Lombard,
of Geneva, announces that he found the
remedy a specific in a late epidemic at
Geneva He pushed the medicine to
doses of tiventy-four, and even thirty-six
grains a day, in young children, and the
result of his experience was, that it enjoys
a remarkable property to make the fits
less violent, and diminishes their num-
ber, and after a certain number of days
to cure entirely the whooping-cough. —
Medical Journal.


The cuticle admits of being thickened
from pressure in all parts of the body ;
hence we find, that on the soles of the
feet of those who walk much, the cuticle
becomes very thick ; also on the hands of
laboring men. We find this wherever
there is pressure, as on the elbow, upper
part of the little toe, ball of the great toe,
&c. The immediate and first cause of
this thickening would appear to be the
stimulus of necessity given to the cutis
by this pressure, the effect of which is an
increase of the cutis, and a saculus is of

sure for salutary purposes, but it is also
carried to disease. A corn is a thicke'i"
ed cuticle arising from external pressure*
which is preternatural and continued. —
Uncommon preternatural pressure on the
surface, must always affect the cuticle
more or less, producing a disposition in
it to guard itself: but pressure is capable
of producing anotlier effect, which is ac-
cording to the amount of pressure. When
applied in a moderate degree, it gives a
disposition to the cutis to continue the
growth of the cuticle, forming layer upon
layer. By this continuation of growth
the cuticle becomes thicker, but if the
pressure becomes too violent, then a dis-
eased increase of the cuticle takes place,
commonly in a very small portion of the
part pressed, often in a point. Tliis thick-
ened part being pressed from without,
commonly sinks its own thickness into
the cutis, which is the cause of the pain,
and troublesome symptoms. The cuticle
being formed in layers, peals off in lay-
ers, and if inflamation attacks the cutis
underneath, this takes place, and hence
the term onion, which has been applied
to corns. There is often a sort of joint
formed by a saculus mucus under the
cutis, allowing of motion in the corn. If
this inflames and suppurates, a cure is
often effected. When corns are of long
standing and run pretty deep, they gen-
erally produce a degree of indolence in
the healthy action of the parts pressed
on, which makes the cure tedious. The
cure of corns is of three kinds, viz : natu-
ral, palliative, and radical. The first is
by removing the primary cause, or pres-
sure ; which is done by leaving off" shoes,
or by introducing a soft substance, as
plaster, between the corn and shoe. Two
plasters are necessary, one with a hole
opposite to the corn, and another to be

ten formed at the root of the great toe,

between the cutis and the ligaments of I applied over this; and these should be

the joints, arising from the same cause, to 'continued as long as the cause is continu-

guard the ligaments below. Sometimes led; leaving off" the pressure is the best

when the pressure is uncommonly great, j mode, and then the effects are easily re-

inffamation takes place in this part, espe- : moved.

cially if there are corns; the saculus The paliative consists in removing as

suppurates and opens internally, and this; much as possible the external surface,

forms what I believe is called a bunion.
The saculus then closes again, and leaves
the parts much as they were before. The

cuticle is not only thickened from pres- off" as much as possible of it. It is diff'.r

which relieves the pressure. This is done
by holding the corn half an hour in warm
water, when it swells, and then paring



cult to remove the whole without injur-
ing the surrounding cutis, which is often
of bad consequence in old people, fatal in-
flammation and mortification having been
caused by it. The radical cure consists,
in removing the whole corn, or thickened
cutis. The cuticle may be raised here,
as it is in every other part, by blisters :
but its thickness prevents this effect tak-
ing place so easily. Warm stimulating
plasters will in general be sufficient. The
causes of corns when carried too far, often
produce inflammation and suppuration,
and whichever way the suppuration is
produced, it is liable, if not attended to, to
become very tedious ; for the skin hav-
ing a greater disposition to heal than the
parts underneath, produces a fistula : so
that such sores should be dressed to the
bottom, and if they are indolent at the
bottom, should be stimulated by appro-
priate dressings.


Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger, of the
U. S. Navy, states, in a communication
in the Medical Examiner, (No. 5,) that
he treated a number of cases of chilblain
occurring among the crews of the U. S.
ships Falmouth and Peacock, in the years
1833 and 1S37, by smearing the parts
affected with balsam of copaiba. All the
cases, he says, where ulceration had not
taken place, were entirely relieved by
one or two applications, and very few re
quired more than a third application of
the remedy.

When this communication appeared
the Editor of this Journal was perform-
ing his tour of duty at the Philadelphia
Orphan Asylum, where there were thir-
tv-two children affected with chilblains.
He was induced by the representation of
Dr. R. to try the balsam of copaiba in a
few cases, and the result was so satisfac-
tory that he had the application made to
all of them. In every one the relief was
most prompt, and in two or three weeks
the whole were cured.


Reduce to very fine powder a piece of
indigo, moisten a rag, apply it to teh
powder, and rub the glass over with it,

then wipe it well with a dry cloth. Very
finely sifted ashes applied in the same
manner by a rag dipt into brandy or spir-
its will answer as well ; but Spanish white
ought to be rejected, as it is apt to take
oft' the polish of the glass. — Journ. Corn.


Heat cast iron vessels pretty hot, and
rub them well with a woolen cloth dipped
in train oil, they may be exposed to the
weather, without being injured, a long
time. — Farm. Mu";.


A combination of Platina, Silver, and
Copper (the relative proportions not slat-
ed,) is found to be a superior article lor
the pivots of wheels to turn in, as oil has
no efi'ect upon it. — Fhila. Gaz.


• This potato is very large, excellent in
quality, and productive beyond all other
potatoes. The product of one potato the
past season, is two and a quarter bushels.
That of one peck, sixteen and a half bush-
els. And the product of four pounds
is eighteen bushels, 1173 pounds. Can
any one give information where these po-
tatoes can be procured. — Northampton


Letter E.
Earths. — The term earth is applied
in common life, to denote a tasteless, in-
odorous, dry, uninflammable, sparingly-
soluble substance, which is difficultly fu-
sible, and of a moderate specific gravity.
Several of the earths are found in a state
of purity in nature ; but their general
mode of occurrence is in intimate union
with each other, and with various acids
and metallic oxides. Under these circum-
stances, they constitute by far the greatest
part of the strata, gravel and soil, which
go to make up the mountains, valleys
and plains of our globe. Their number is
ten, and their names are silex, alumina^
m,agnesia, lime, barites,strontites, zir-
con, glucine, yttria and thorina. The
four first have long been known to man-
kind ; the remainder have been discover-



ed in our own times. Silex exists nearly
pure, in large masses, forming entire
rocks, as quartz rock, and constituting
the chief ingredient in all granite rocks
and sandstones, so that it may safely be
asserted to form more than one-half of
the crust of the earth, Alumine is found
pure in two or three exceedingly lare
minerals, but, in a mixed state, is well
known as forming clays and a large fami-
ly of rocks, usually called argillaceous.

Lime, an earth well known from its
important uses in society, occurs combin-
ed with carbonic acid, in which state it
forms limestone, marble, chalk, and the
shells of snails. It exists, also, upon a
large scale, in combination with sulphuric
acid, when it bears the name of gyp-

Magnesia is rare in a state of purity,
but enters largely into the composition of
some of the primary rocks, especially
of the limestones. The remaining eight
(if we except barytes, which, in combi-
nation with sulphuric acid, is often met
with in metallic veins.) are only known
to the chemist as occurring in the com-
position of certain minerals, which, for
the most part, are exceedingly rare.

The earths are very similar to the al-
kalies, (q. V.) forming with the acids, pe-
culiar salts, and resembling the alkalies
likewise in their composition.

They consist of peculiar metals in com-
bination with oxj'gen, and compose the
greatest part of the solid contents of the
globe. They differ from the alkalies prin-
cipally in the following peculiarities :
they are incombustible, and cannot, in
their simple state, be volatilized by heat ;
with different acids, especially the car-
bonic, they form salts insoluble, or solu-
ble only with much difficulty ; and with
fat oils, soaps insoluble in water. They
are divided into two classes, the alkaline
and proper earths. The former have a
greater similarity to the alkalies, in their
active state, they are soluble in water,
and these solutions may be crystallized.
They change the vegetable colois almost
in the same way as alkalies, and their
affinity for acids is sometimes stronger
than that of the alkalies. They combine
with sulphur, and form compounds per-
fectly similar to the sulphuretted alkalies.

With carbonic acid, they form insoluble
salts, which, however, become soluble
in water by an excess of carbonic acid.
The alkaline earths are as follows : 1,
barytes, or heavy earth, so called from
its great weight ; 2, strontites (q. v. ;)
both these earths are counted among the
alkalies by many chemists, on account of
their easy solubility in water; 3, calca-
reous earth, or lime, forms one of the
most abundant ingredients of our globe ;
4, magnesia is a constituent of several
minerals. The proper earths are wholly
insoluble in water, infusible at the great-
est heat of our furnaces, and, by being
exposed to heat, in a greater or less de-
gree, they lose their property of easy
solubility in acids. Some of them are in-
capable of combining with carbonic acid,
and the remainder form with it insoluble
compounds. They are the following :
1, alumine ; 2, glucine ; which is found
only in the beryl and emerald, and a few
other minerals ; 3, yttria is found in the
gadolinite, in the yttrious oxide of cokim-
bium, &c. ; 4, zirconia is found less fre-
quently than the preceding, in the zircon
and hyacinth ; 5, silex. The earths were
regarded as simple bodies until the bril-
liant researches of Sir Humphrey Davy
proved them to be compounds of oxygen
with peculiar bases, somewhat similar to
those of the alkalies, potassium and so-
dium. Some of the heavier of the earths
had often been imagined to be analogous
to the metallic oxides ; but every attempt
to effect their decomposition or reduc-
tion, had proved unsuccessful. After as-
ceilaining the compound nature of the
alkalies, Davy submitted the earths to the
same mode of analysis by which he had
effected that fine discovery. The results
obtained in his first experiments were
less complete than those afforded with
the alkalies, owing to the superior affini-
ty between the principles of the earths,
as well as to their being less perfect elec-
trical conductors. By submitting them
to galvanic action, in mixture with potash,
or with metallic oxides, more successful
results were obtained ; and a method em-
ployed by Berzeliusand Pontin, of plac-
ing them in the galvanic circuit with
quicksilver, terminated very perfectly in
affording the bases of barytes and lime,



in combination with this metal. By the
same method, Sir H. Davy decomposed
strontites and magnesia; and, by submit-
ting silex, alumine, zircon, and glucine
to the action of the galvanic battery, in
fusion wit h potash or soda, or in contact
with iron, or by fusing them with potas-
sium and iron, appearances were obtain-
ed sufficiently indicative of their decom-
position, and of the production of bases
of a metallic nature. Thorina, the last
discovered earth, was decomposed by
heating the chloride of thorium with po-
tassium. The metallic bases of the earths
approach more nearly than those of the
alkalies to the common metals, and the
earths themselves have a stricter resem-
blance than the alkalies to metallic ox-
ides. Viewing them as forming part of
a natural arrangement, they furnish the
link which unites the alkalies to the me-
tals. Accordingly, many of the more
recent systems of chemistry treat of all

Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 19 of 35)