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False Gilding and White- Washing, .... 136

On the Preservation of Animal Substances, . 136
Causes of the decay of Wood, and the Means of

Preventing it, 136

Description of a Forcing (hot) house, . . . 136

On a Method of Training Fruit Trees, . . . 157

Definition of Terms. Letter G., 139

On Planting Trees, 141

Syrup, Brown, or White Sugar from Grapes, . 142

Charcoal Manufactured in close Vessels, . . . 143

Remedy for Potato Curl, 144

Under Draining for Hedges 144



OBSERTER AND RECORD

OP AGRICULTURE, SCIENCE, AND ART.



EDITED BY D. PEIRCE.



Xo. lO ]



Philadelphia, Monday, July 1, 1839.



[Vol. I,



The object of this paper is to concentrate and preserve, in a form suitable for future
reference, the most useful and interesting articles on the aforesaid subjects. Each
number will contain sixteen octavo pages, printed on good paper, and when a suffi-
cient amount is published to form a volume of convenient size, an alphabetical table
of contents will be published and forwarded to subscribers, in order for binding.
This number, shows the general plan of the work.

Published monthly, for one dollar a year, payable in advance; six copies to the
same address for five dollars. {JJ^ Letters may be addressed to the Editor, in every
instance post paid. No. 45 Cherry street, care of T. E. Chapman.

Subscriptions received at T. E. Chapman''s Bookstore, 45 Cherry St.— and by W. J. Wcldivg, 17 South Fifth st



CONSERVE OP GRAPE.

BY M. PAKME>-TIER.



To preserve the conserve of grape, twice
as much juice of grapes is taken as the
boiler will hold; the juice is slowly boil-
ed, and the boiler filled up as fast as the
liquor evaporates; when all the juice is
got in, it is scummed, and the evaporation
continued until the liquor is reduced to
three-quarters. The fire is then dimi-
nished and the mass, in order to prevent its
acquiring a burnt taste, is kept continually
stirred with a large slice, till the operation
is finished. If this slice is hung to the
ceiling over the boilers, so as to reach to
the bottom of it, the stirring will be much
less fatiguing.

The conserve is properly prepared
when it acquires a middling brown color,
and when a piece as big as a nut is drop-
ped upon a plate it does not spread upon
the plate. It should indeed be of the
consistence of honey, and poured very
hot into clean vessels, which are not
to be covered until it is quite cold.

A very considerable use of this con-
serve would be to give the requisite de-
gree of strength to the juice of the grapes
which are too watery to form good keep-
ing wine, either on account of the back-
wardness of season, or the nature of the
plant.

In preparing a conserve, the farmer
must beware of employing too much heat;
it must be recollected that sugar candy
loses its power of crystallization by being
kept too long over the fire. It is indeed
Vol. I.— 10



by altering the form of the boilers, so as
to evaporate the superfluous water with
the least possible use of heat, that it has
been found practicable of late, to obtain
more sugar than before, with less treacle.

If the superfluous water could be evap-
orated without the use of fire, it would
be desirable.

Montgolfier says that he has made ex-
periments for twelve years on thickening
the juices of fruits. His process is simi-
lar to the graduation of saline brines, and
differs only in the use of a very simple
ventilator, by means of which he caused
30 cubic feet of air per second, to pass
through fagots of vine tivigs from bottom
to top. This quantity dissolved from 1
to 4 grains of water, according to its dry-
ness; and hence a working man working
the ventilator for 12 hours, caused the eva-
poration of nearly 300 lbs. of water; and 4
strong horses in a large ventilating appa-
ratus, might be made to evaporate 10,000
lbs. of water in 24 hours, so that nearly
3,000 lbs. of conserve of grape might be
prepared in that time.

He also found that each cubic foot of
air lost one degree of temperature by dis-
solving a grain of water.

N^ofe. — Graduating sirup by means of
artificial ventilation might be extended to
many operations. — Jinnahs de Chimie.



LIQUID SUGAR PROM APPLES AND PEARS.

BV M. DUBITC.

Eight quarts of the full, ripe juice of
apples called orange, was boiled for a quar-



146



SUGAR FROM APPLES AND PEARS.



ter of an hour, and 40 grammes of povv
dered chalk added to it, and the boiling
continued for 10 minutes longer. The
liquor was then clarified by the wjiites of
3 eggs, and the liquor was strained twice
through flannel, and afterwards reduced
by boiling to one-half of its former bulk,
and the operation finished by a slow heat
until a thick pellicle rose on the surface,
and a quart of the sirup weighed 2 lbs. 10
ounces, lly this means 3 lbs. of liquid
sugar was obtained, very agreeable in taste
and smell, which sweetened water very
well, and even milk without curdling it.
Eight quarts of juice of apples called
dauxlevesqtie, yielded, by the same pro-
cess 2 lbs. 12 ounces of liquid sugar; 8
quarts of the juice of sour apples called
blanc mollet yielded 2 lbs. 10 ounces of
good sugar.

Eight quarts of the juice of the watery
apples called Girard, yielded 2h lbs.

Fifty lbs. of the above 4 apples yielded
nearly 42 lbs. of juice which took 3 ounces
of chalk, and the white of 6 eggs and pro-
duced more than 6 lbs. of excellent liquid
sugar.

In order to do without eggs, 20 lbs. of
the juice of the above apples were satura-
ted with 10 drachms of chalk, and repeat-
edly strained through flannel, but it was
still thick, and disagreeable to the taste;
12 drachms of charcoal powder were then
added, and the whole boiled for about 10
minutes, and then strained twice through
a flannel; it was then clear, but higher



with 5 drachms of chalk and the white of
an egg, it yielded 1 lb. 6 ounces of liquid
sugar, so that the maceration had been of
service.

Twenty-four lbs. of peais cti\\c(\ pillage,
yielded 9 quarts of juice, which required
18 drachms of chalk, and the white of 2
eggs, and yielded about 24 ounces of \
sugar, which was less agreeable to the taste *
than that of ripe apples.

Six quarts of juice from one part of the
above pears, and two of ripe apples,
orange ax\i\ given' d,\v edited with 8 drachms
ot chalk, and the whites of 2 eggs, yielded
2G ounces of very fine fasted sugar, supe-
rior to the preceding; 6 quarts of juice of
an equal quantity of apples and pears, treat-
ed with 10 drachms of chalk, and 1 ounce
of prepared charcoal, deposited some ma-
late of lime, and yielded a sugar rather i
darker than the preceding, but very well
tasted. Cadet de Vaux says, that apple
juice does not curdle milk, and that a
small quantity of chalk added to it de-
stroys some part of the saccharine princi-
ple; huts quarts of juice from ripe apples
called orange, which was evidently acid,
as it curdled milk and reddened infusion
of turnsol and that of violet, was treated
with 4 drachms of chalk, and the white of
an egg; it yielded 22 ounces of sirup, be-
tween 32° and 33° hyd. which did not cur-
dle milk. Another 8 quarts of the same
juice, evaporated to three-fourths of its
volume, and strained, yielded 23 ounces
of clear sirup which curdled milk, was



colored than usual; but it produced very , browner than that of the neutralized juice,
good sugar. I and approached toward treacle in smell



g



Six quarts of apple juice, were treated i and taste. Perhaps the apple called



with 7 drachms of chalki and 10 ounces
baker's small coal, previously washed un-
til it no longer colored the water.

Eight quarts of apple juice of several di-f-
ferentkinds and in diflerent stages of ripe-
ness, of which one-third was still sour,
were saturated with 12 drachms of chalk,
and clarified with the whites of 6 eggs;
some malate of lime was deposited in small
crystals towards the end, and separated by
passing the sirup very hot through flannel;
very near 2 lbs. and a half of sugar were
obtained.

Ten lbs. of bruised apples, similar to the
last, were left to macerate for 24 hours,
and 4 quarts of the juice were treated



Jean-hiire, used by Mr. Cadet, possesses
the valuable properties of furnishing
good sugar by mere evaporation. It is
necessary to observe, that unless the fire
is slackened towards the end, the sirup
grows brown, and acquires the taste and
smell of burnt sugar.

A cwt. of apples yield about 84 lbs. of
juice, which produce nearly 12 lbs. of "li-
quid sugar; supposing, therefore, the ave- ,
rage price of apples to bel franc = 20 cents
{Is.) the cwt. and the charges amount to
40 cent. (4fl?.) good sugar may be prepared
for 3 or 4 sols (2fl?.) per lb. The only ex-
tra apparatus necessary is a couple of cop-
per evaporating pans. — Ann.de Chimie.



A SPRING CRUTCH.



147



HINTS ON VARIOUS MODES OF PRINTING

FROM AUTOGRAPHS.
Bt G. CuMBERiAVB, Esa. — Phil. Journ. No. 126.

After some remarks on the advantage
which would result to authors from the
invention of a mode of issuing their works
to the public without the intervention of
a publisher, and of taking off the copies
as they were wanted ; M. G. enumerates
several kinds of materials which he con-
ceives to be best adapted for accomplish-
ing the purpose.

The first of these which was suggested
to him was copper, to be written upon
by a style through white wax : but this
could only be adopted for small pieces.
He next supposes a kind of copper or
brass latten, to be rolled very thin, and
written upon with very corrosive ink,
which would soon eat through the plate,
and thus produce a stencil by which the
printing might be effected.

If capital letters only were used, a

1 paper stencil might be made by means
of punches, which would last as long as

' the metal one ; as many thousand im-

i pressions have been taken from a stencil
made of oiled paper. Tinfoil or bismuth

I might also be used for the same purpose.
Pannels of wood covered with plaster of
Paris are suggested for drawings ; and it
is added that good impressions liave been
obtained from small blocks of this sub-
stance. It is also imagined that diagrams
or plans might be obtained from a smooth
board covered with thick paper and cut in
relief.

Pontipool ware (pewter and copper co-
vered with wax) ma)"^ easily be engraved
upon with a style ; and pencil drawings
readily engraved in this manner.

If a material could be found that resists
the action of fire, it is supposed that we
might write with it upon blocks of wood,
and char the rest a little way in, so as to
leave a projecting letter. Glass, turtle-)
shell, silver, &c. are mentioned as sus-
ceptible of being etched upon ; and
M. G. likewise thinks "that if we could
write upon a block of stone, or plate of
glass, with an ink so thick as to leave the
words in relief we might, by pressing
putty on it, take a cast sufficiently durable
to make many impressions, or thus cast
it in plaster of Paris from the relievo on



the smooth block, but this would print
the words white on a black ground. This
writer likewise remarks that a volute
shell, ground down on a hone, is the
most secure stamp or seal for prints,
drawings, and similar property.

Retrospect.



A SPRING CRUTCH.

By Mr. George Prislet. — Church Street, Soho. —
Trans. Society of Arts. Vol. 28.

The head of the crutch is fixed upon a
short brass tube, which is fitted to slide
in another, fastened upon the top of the
crutch staff; within this tube an helical
(spiral) spring is concealed, that supports
the head of the crutch, which yielding in
a certain degree to the pressure, prevents
the shocks which common crutches occa-
sion, and enables the person who uses
crutches of this kind to move quicker
and with less fatigue.

For the convenience of package, the
staff of the crutch is made to divide in
two parts, which put together in a brass
tube, where a spring that presses against
the inside of the tube, prevents any
danger of their separating by accident.

The silver medal was given to Mr.
Prisley for his contrivance by the Society
of Arts.

Observations. — This instrument pro-
mises to be of great assistance to lauie
people ; and is the more likely to be
advantageous, from its imitating tlie
mechanism of nature, which in the
animal frame interposes elastic cartilages,
that have the same effect as springs be-
tween all the bones, so that no unyield-
ing substance can come in contact.

On the same principle, a similar mode
of construction must be of great advantage
for wooden legs. We think wooden legs
of this sort have been already made by
another person, but if we are mistaken,
suppose Mr. Prisley will find it profitable
to have them made for sale.

The joint in the middle of the crutch
seems a needless addition to the expense,
as the}^ can so very seldom require to be
divided. Perhaps for seibling to persons
in the country, it might be found more
convenient to forward the heads and
tubes, containing the springs by them-



148



ON RAISING AND PLANTING APPLE TREES.



Selves, to which any carpenter could
easily fit staffs on their arrival. — ib.



Mr. John KenVs Patent for a new and
expeditious Method of moving all
kinds of Goods or Materials from
high Buildings or deep Places.

Dated March, 1810.— Repertory of Arts, No. 104,
second series.

Mr. Kent states his invention to consist
in an improvement on the principle of a
lever on a movable fulcrum. A weight
to be raised is suspended over a pully,
by means of a rope or chain, one end of
which is fixed to the weight and the other
to the centre of a wheel resting on a
horizontal plane, and supposed, by itself
or by weight attached to it to be heavier
than the weight to be raised. The dia-
meter of the wheel is double that of the
pulley over which the rope passes, and the
lower edges of both are in the same
horizontal plane, and therefore a power
half the weight of the body to be raised
will balance that body, since the length
of the lever to which the power is applied
is double the length of that to which the
weight is attached. If the wheel be rolled
over a certain space on the horizontal
plane on which it rests, the weight with
which it is connected will be raised
through an equal space.

The patentee also describes his inven-
tion in a compound state in which he
connects the movable centres of two
sustaining wheels together by a plate of
metal, or otherwise, on each side of these
wheels, which are surmounted by a
roller of a certain weight to the axis of
which a sufficient force being applied
will cause these wheels to move on the
horizontal plane which supports them.
If another pair of wheels and rollers be
added to the former, the power will be
increasetl one-half; that is, if the first pair
balance a weight of four hundred weight
by a power of two hundred weight, a
second pair will balance two hundred
weight by a power of one ; and a third
one hundred weight by a power of a half,
and so on.

Hence, by adding a continuation of
sustaining or friction-wheels and rollers,
any power may be gained without loss
of time, provided that the said rollers,



which are laid on the said sustaining or
friction-wheels, are of a sufficient weight
in themselves, or by the weight attached
to them, either by being suspended to the
axis of the rollers, or bearing on their
axis, or any other way, as occasion may
i-equire. ib.



METHOD OF PREPARING OX-GALL IN A
CONCENTRATED STATE, FOR THE USE

OF PAINTERS AND OTHER PERSONS.
Bt Mn. Richard Cathkmy. — Meads Row, Asylum

Lambeth. — Trans. Society of Arts, and Repertory

of Arts, No. 111.

Take a fresh ox-gall, put it in a basin,
and let it settle all night; then pour it
off from the sediment into a clean earthen
mug, and set it in a sauce-pan of boiling
water over the fire, taking care that none
of the water gets into the mug. Let it
boil till it is quite thick, then take it out
and spread it on a plate or dish, and set
it before the fire to evaporate; and when
as dry as you can get it, put it into small
pots, and tie papers over their tops to
keep the dust from it, and it will keep
good for years.

One gall prepared in this way will last
an artist a long time, and a small cup of
it may be placed in the same box with
his colors.

Ox-gall is particularly useful in color-
ing prints, as many colors will not work
freely without it on them, on account of
the oil used in the printing ink. It is
also used for common drawings in water
colors, as it clears away that greasiness
which arises from moist hands upon paper,
and makes the color work clear and
bright. The prepared gall is likewise
of great use in cleaning woolen cloths
from grease or tar. The size of a pea
of it, is sufficient for a table spoonful of
water, dissolved in which it will be read'y
for use. ib.



ON RAISING AND PLANTING APPLE TREES.

It is recommended to plant early fruit
trees on dry and sandy land; and those -
which produce fruit late in the season on
the contrary are said to flourish best on
a strong loam or clay. The more valu-
able fruit, the styre, hagloe, crab, and
golden pippin, prefer a light soil. The
grafts are directed to be taken from a



SIR H. DAVY S AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.



149



crab, and not from a degenerated apple,
for the former will possess much of the
hardiness, and vigor, while the latter
will generally inherit all the disease of
the parent tree. The autumn is named
as the best time for planting.



Observations on Fermentation, hy
M. Gay Lussac. — Spirituous fermenta-
tion is the result of mutual action of
saccharine mucilage and of a peculiar
ferment approaching in its chemical com-
position very nearly to animal matter.

If the nature of the mixture and the
temperature be suitable, fermentation
may both begin and proceed without
the concurence of any other substance,
especially of oxygen gas.

Animal and vegetable substances may
be preserved from fermentation or de-
composition by enclosing them in air
tight glass vessels, and subjecting them
for some hours to the heat of boiling
water.

Three open vessels filled with cow's
milk, with currant juice, and with a solu-
tion of gelatine in water, were scalded by
immersion in boiling brine at first
twice a day, and afterwards once a day,
for the space of two months. The currant
juice and jelly remained unchanged; the
cream of the milk was converted into
hard butter, and the milk itself was rather
thinner than at first. Malt in close ves-
sels may be made to ferment by adding
carbonic acid. — Jinn, de Chim.



SIR H. DAVY S AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.
(Continued from p. 141.)

All of theseacids, except the acetic, ma-
lic, and the prussic acids, are white crystal-
lized bodies. The acetic, malic, and
prussic acids have been obtained only in
the fluid ; they are all more or less solu-
ble in water ; all have a sour taste except
the gallic and prussic acids ; of which
the first has an astringent taste, and the
latter a taste like that of bitter almonds.
The oxalic acid exists uncombined, in
the liquor which exudes from the chick
pea (Cicer arietinum) and may be pro-
cured from the wood sorrel ( Oxalis ace-
tosella,) common sorrel, and other spe-
cies of Rumex ; and from the Geranium
acidum. Oxalic acid is easily discover-



ed and distinguished from other acids by
its property of decomposing all calcare-
ous salts, and forming with lime a salt in-
soluble in water ; and by its crystallizing
in four sided prisms.

The citric acid is a peculiar acid exist-
ing in the juice of lemons and oranges.
It may likewise be obtained from the
cranberry, whortleberry, and hip.

Citric acid is distinguished by its form-
ing a salt insoluble in water with lime ;
but decomposable by the mineral acids.

The tartaric acid may be obtained
from the juice of mulberries and grapes ;
and likewise from the pulp of the tama-
rind. It is characterized by its property
of forming a diificultly soluble salt with
potassa, and an insoluble salt decomposa-
ble by the mineral acids with lime.

Benzoic acid may be procured from
several resinous substances by distilla-
tion ; from benzoin, storax and balsam of
Tolu. It is distinguished from the other
acids by its aromatic odour, and by its
extreme volatility.

Malic acid may be obtained from tlie
juice of apples, barberries, plums, elder-
berries, currants, strawberries, and rasp-
berries. It forms a soluble salt with
lime ; and is easily distinguished by this
test from the acids already named.

Acetic acid, or vinegar, may be obtain-
ed from the sap of different trees. It is
distinguished from malic acid by its pe-
culiar odour ; and from the other vegeta-
ble acids by forming soluble salts with
the alkalies and earths.

Gallic acid may be obtained by gently
and gradually heating powdered gall nuts,
and receiving the volatile matter in a
cool vessel. A number of white crys-
tals will appear, which are distinguished
by their property of rendering solutions
of iron deep purple.

The vegetable prussic acid is procured
by distilling laurel leaves, or the kernels
of the peach and cherry, or bitter al-
monds. It is characterized by its pro-
perty of forming a bluish green precipi-
tate, when a little alkali is added to it,
and it is poured into solutions containing
iron. It is very analogous in its proper-
ties to the prussic acid obtained from
animal substances ; or by passing ammo-
nia over heated charcoal ; but this last,



150



sill H. DAVY 3 AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRV ,



body forms with the red oxide of iron
the deep bright blue substance called
Prussian blue.

Two other vegetable acids have been
found in the products of plants ; the
morolyxac acid in a saline exudation from
the white mulberry tree, and the tinic
acid in a salt afforded by Peruvian bark;
but these two bodies have as yet been
discovered in no other cases. The phos-
phoric acid is found free in the onion ;
and the phosphoric, sulphuric, muriatic,
and nitric acids, exist in many saline com-
pounds in the vegetable kingdom ; but
they cannot with propriety be consider-
ed as vegetable products. Other acids
are produced during the combustion of
vegetable compounds, or by the action of
nitric acid upon them ; they are the
camphoric acid, the mucous or saclactic
acid, and the suberic acid ; the first of
which is procured from camphor ; the
second from gum or mucilage, and the
third from cork, by the action of nitric
acid. From the experiments that have
been made upon the vegetable acids, it
appears that all of them, except the prus-
sic acid, are constituted by different pro-
portions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxy-
gen ; the prussic acid consists of carbon,
azote and hydrogen with a little oxygen.
The gallic acid contains more carbon than
any of the other vegetable acids.

The following estimates of the compo-
sition of some of the vegetable acids
have been made by Gay Lussac and
Thenard.

100 parts of oxalic acid contain :

Carbon 26.566

Hydrogen - - - - 2.745
Oxygen - - - 70.689
100 parts of tartaric acid contain :

Carbon 24.050

Hydrogen ... - 6.629

Oxygen 69.321

100 parts of citric acid contain :

Carbon 33.811

Hydrogen - - - - 6.330

Oxygen 59.859

100 parts of acetic acid contain :
Carbon . . - - 50.224

Hydrogen - - - - 5.620
Oxygen . . . . 44.147

100 of mucous or saclactic acid con-
tain :



Carbon - - - - . • 33.69

Hydrogen . - . . 3,62
Oxygen - . - . 62.69

These estimations agree nearly with the
following definite proportions. In oxalic
acid 7 proportions of carbon, 8 of hydro-
gen, and 15 of oxygen ;* in tartaric acid,
8 of carbon, 28 hydrogen, IS of oxygen ;
in citric acid, 3 carbon, 6 hydrogen, 4
oxygen ; in acetic acid, IS carbon, 22
hydrogen, 12 oxygen ; in mucous acid,
6 carbon, 7 hydrogen, 8 oxygen.

The applications of the vegetable acids
are well known. The acetic and citric
acids are extensively used. The agreea-
ble taste and wholesomeness of various
vegetable substances used as food, mate-
rially depend upon the vegetable acid
they contain.

19. Fixed alkali may be obtained in
aqueous solution from most plants by
burning them, and treating the ashes with
quick lime and water. The vegetable
alkali, or potassa, is the common alkali,
in the vegetable kingdom.

This substance in its pure state is
white, and semi-transparent, requiring a
strong heat for its fusion and possessed
of a highly caustic taste. In the matter
usually called pure potassa by chemists,
it exists combined with water ; and in
that commonly called pearl-ashes or pot-



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