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feet long, with a scale of equal parts on
the side, by which the point to which the
top of the wire sinks is marked.

This instrument is so delicate that the
sun's rays falling upon it, will cause the
wire to sink several inches; and it will
rise again when carried into the shade.

Hydro-oxides, metallic oxides com-
bined with water.

Hydrostatics have for their object the
weight and pressure of fluids; and in this
branch of science the art of determining
the specific gravities of bodies is usually
included. Fluids like solids are impelled
by their gravity, and press upon every
thing that oppose their fall, but from
their nature they press in a diiferent
manner from solid bodies, hence arise
the peculiar phenomena concerning which
we are now to inquire. 1st, That the
parts of the same fluid act with respect
to their weight and pressure independent-
ly of each other. 2d, Fluids press equally
in all directions. 3d, All the parts of
the same fluid are in equilibrium with
each other, whether they are contained
in one vessel or many, provided they
communicate with each other ; and their
surfaces also are always in a plane parallel
to the horizon. A syphon draws liquid
from a vessel because the pressure of the
atmosphere is removed from the parts
entering the syphon, and so long as the
surface of liquid in the vessel is higher
than the discharging end of the syphon
it will continue to flow, but no longer,
because the equilibrium of atmospheric



DIFINITION OF TERMS.



157



pressure of &11 parts of the surface in the
vessel is af;;ain restored.

Although what has been said respect-

Iing the surfaces of fluids being at the
same level (in a system generally con-
nected by pipes,) while at rest, and the
fluid matter at the same density ; yet
when the equilibrium to the system is
disti5rbed by any extraneous force an un-
dulatory motion will ensue, in which the
different parts of the surface will be some-
times above, sometimes below, the gene-
ral level, and the undulation will con-
I tinually diminish until at length friction,
and other causes will restore the equili-
brium — thus if a tube have one end stop-
ped with a plug to which a thread or wire
is attached, and the end thus stopped be
plunged to the depth of one or two feet
.in a vertical direction below the surface
of water, and the plug be then suddenly
withdrawn, the water will rise in the
tube above the surface of the water into
which the tube is plunged, and this in
proportion to the depth of the lower end
of the tube.

Note. This appears to be the principle
upon which Montgojfier's Hydraulic Ram
acts to raise water from a lower to a hicrh-
er level. The water issuing from this ma-
chine, at or near the lower part of it, at a
certain velocity closes the orifice, by car-
rying up the valve; the current is, by
these means diverted, and acts upon the
valve opening into the air vessel, which
it opeiis, and a portion of water and air
rush into the vessel until the pressure of
the air in the vessel acting upon the water
restores the equilibrium; the valve in the
air vessel then shuts; and the first men-
tioned valve at the same time opens, by
descending in the water. The waterthen
runs out of the orifice as at first; and again
closes it by shutting the valve. The valve
in the air vessel is again opened, and other
portions of water and air pass into the air
vessel and so on; the valves opening and
closing alternately, while the compress-
ed air in the vessel by its elastic force
causes the water to ascend in the discharge
p^pe in a constant stream during each pul-
sation, as the valves, alternately open and
close,

. Hydrosulphurets'xn chemistry. Sulphur-
eted or sulphurated hydrogen gas, possess



es the properties of an acid. It is absorb-
ed by water, in considerable quantities,
and the solution reddens vegetable blues;
it combines also with alkalies and earths;
and with several metallic oxides. The
combination's which sulphureted hydro-
gen forms with bases, have been called
hydrosulphurets. Sulphuretted hydrogen
combines with alkalies, and earths, and
forms with them compounds which may
be distinguished by the following proper-
ties.

1. They are all soluble in water, and
the solution is colorless.

2. When the solution is exposed to the
air, it becomes green or greenish-yellow,
and deposits sulphur on the sides of the
vessel in the state of a fine black crust.

3. After long exposure to the air, the
solution becomes limpid and colorless; and
on examination is found to contain only
the sulphate of the base of the original
hydrosulphuret.

4. The solution of the hydrosulphurets
precipitates all metallic solutions; iron and
lead, black; antimony, orange; arsenic,
yellow.

Hygrometer. A machine, or instru-
ment whereby to measure the degrees ol
dryness, or moisture of the atmosphere.

There are several ways of making these
instruments, founded upon the circum-
stance of certain substances possessing the
properties of imbibing and parting with
moisture. Thus, a piece of sponge sus-
pended to one end of a lever, and the
other end of the lever formed into a hand
or index to move by the side of a segment
of a circle marked off into regular divi-
sions or degrees, and a small cord attached
to the lever on the index side of the ful-
crum with small grains of shot attaclied to
it at regular distances asunder, so that
when the sponge imbibes the greatest de-
gree of moisture, the cord and attached
shot is entirely suspended in space, but
when the sponge loses a portion of its
moisture it rises and the cord descends
and a portion of it rests on a small plat-
form or floor and in proportion to the de-
gree of dryness of the sponge. The in-
dex at the same time pointing to the num-
ber on the circle opposite, denoting the
degree of moisture or weight of the
sponge. Or a horizoiital axis may be



158



PHOTOGENIC DRAWING.



made with a smallpaf t of its leng;th cy-
lindrical, and the remainder laperinc^con-
icall}' with a spiral thread cut into it, after
the manner of the fuzee of a watch; the
sponge is suspended hy a fine silk thread
to the cylindrical part of this axis, upon
which it winds. This is balanced by a
small weight suspended also by a thread,
wJiich winds upon the spiral fuzee.

Then when the sponge grows heavier
in moist weather it descends and turns
the axis, and so draws up the weight;
which coming to a thicker part of the axis,
it becomes a balance to the sponge, and its
motion is shown by an attached scale and
vice versa, when the air becomes drier.

Salt of tartar, or any othea" salt, or pot-
ashes may be put into the scale of a ba-
lance, and used instead of the sponge.

Hyperbola in geometry, the section of
a cone made by a plane, so that the axis
of the section, inclines to the 0])posite
leg of the cone, which in the parabola is
parallel to it, and in the ellipsis intersects
it. The axis of the Hyperbolical section
will meet also, with the opposite side of
the cone, when produced above the ver-
tex.

Ht/perboUc cylindroid, is a solid figure,
whose generation is given by Sir Christo-
pher Wren, in the Philosophical Trans-
actions. Thus, two opposite hyperbolas
being joined by the transverse axis, and
through the centre, a right line Toeing
drawn at right angles, to that axis; and
about that, as an axis, the hyperbolasbeing
supposed to revolve; by such revolution,
a body will be generated, which is called
the hyperbolic cj^'lindroid, whose bases,
and all sections parallel to them, will be
circles. In a subsequent transaction, the
sameauthor applies it to grinding of hyper-
bolical glasses; aiiirming that they must
be formed in this way, or not at all. Hy-
perbolic leg of a curve, is that which ap-
proaches infinitely near to some asymp-
tote. Sir Isaac Newton reduces all curves,
both of the first and higher kinds, into
those with hyperbolic legs, and those
with parabolic ones.

Hyperbolic line is used by some au-
thors for what we call the hyperbola it-
self. In this sense, the plane surface ter-
minated by the curve line, is called the
hyperbola, or hyperbolic space; and the



curve line that terminates it, the hyper-
bolic line.

Hypothenuse, in geometry, the longest
side of a right-angled triangle ; or it is
that side which subtends the right angle.

Euclid, lib. 1, proportion xlvii. de-
monstrates, that, in every rectilinear right
angled triangle, the square of the hypo-
thenuse is equal to the squares of botfi the
other sides.

This celebrated problem was discover-
ed by Pythagoras, who is said to have
sacrificed a hecatomb to the muses, in gra-
titude for the disQovery.



PHOTOGENIC DP.AWING.

At the last sitting of the Academy of
Sciences, M. Arago announced one of the
most important discoveries in the fine arts
that has distinguished the present century,-
the author of which has already acquired
universal reputation by his miraculous
diorama — M. Daguerre. It is well known
that certain chemical substances, as
chlorate of silver, have the property
of changing their color by the mere con-
tact of light; and it is by a combination
of this nature, that M. Daguerre has suc-
ceeded in fixing upon paper prepared with
it, the rays that are directed on the table
of the camera obscura, and rendering the
optical tableau permanent. The exact re-
presentation of whatever objects this in-
strument is directed to, is, as every body
is aware, thrown down with vivid colors
upon the white skreen, prepared to re-
ceive them, and the rays of light that are
thus reflected have the power of acting
in the way above alluded to, on chlorate
of silver or certain preparations of it.

In this manner an exact representation
of light and shade, of whatever object
may be wished to be viewed, is obtained
with the precise accuracy of nature her-
self, and it is stated to have all the soft-
ness of a fine aqua-tint engraving. M.
Biat compares it to the retina of the eye,
the objects being represented on one and
the other surface with almost equal ac-
curac5\

" What is the secret of the invention ?
What is the substance endowed with
such astonishing sensibility to the rays
of light, that it not only penetrates itself
with them, but preserves their impres-



PROTOGENIC DRAWING.



159



sion; performs at once the functions of
the eye and of the optic nerve — the
material instrument of sensation and
sensation itself ? "

Description of Photofi;enic Draw-
ing. — The subject (says Mr. Talbot) na-
turally divides itself into two heads — the
preparation of the paper, and the means
of fixing the design. In order to make
what may be called ordinary photogenic
paper, the author selects in the first place,
paper of a good firm quality, and smooth
surface; and thinks, that none answers
better than superfine writing paper. He
dips it in a iveak solution of common
salt, and wipes it dry, by which the salt
is unifornily distributed throughout its
substance. He then spreads a solution
of nitrate of silver on one surface only,
and dries it at the fire. The solution
should not be saturated, but six or eight
times diluted with v^'ater. When dry,
the paper is fit for use. He has found,
by experiment, that there is a certain
proportion between the quantity of salt
and that of the solution of silver which
answers best, and gives the maximum
effect. If the strength of the salt is
augmented beyond this point, the effect
diminishes, and in certain cases becomes
exceedingly small. This paper, if pro-
perly made, is very useful for all ordinary
photogenic purposes. For example, no-
thing can be more perfect than the images
it gives of leaves and flowers, especially
with a summer's sun. The light passing
through the leaves, delineates every
ramification of their nerves. If a sheet
of paper, thus prepared, be taken and
washed with a saturated solution of salt
and then dried, it will be found (especially
if the paper has been kept some weeks
before the trial, is made,) that its sensibili-
ty is greatly diminished, and ip some
cases, seems quite extinct. But if it be
again washed with a liberal quantity of
the solution of silver, it becomes again
sensible to light, and even more so than
it was at first. In this way by alternately
washing the pa[)er with salt and silver,
and drying it between times, M, Talbot
has succeeded in increasing its sensibility
to the degree that is requisite for receiv-
ing the images of the camera obscura.
In conducting this operation, it will be



found that the results are sometimes more,
and sometimes less satisfactory, inconse-
quence of small and accidental variations
in the proportions employed. It happens
sometimes that the chloride of silver is
disposed to darken of itself, without any
exposure to the light. This shows that
the attempt to give it sensibility has been
carried too far. The object is, to ap-
proach to this condition as near as possi-
ble, without reaching it; so that the sub-
stance may be in a state ready to yield
to the slightest extraneous force, such as
the feeble impact of the violet rays, when
much attenuated. Having, therefore, pre-
pared a number of sheets of paper, slight-
ly different from one another in the com-
position, let a piece be cut from each, and,
having been duly marked or numbered,
let them be placed side by side in a very
weak diffused light, for about a quarter
of an hour; then, if any one of them, as
frequently happens, exhibits a marked
advantage over its competitors, M.Talbot
selects the paper which bears the cor-
responding number to be placed in the
camera obscura.

With regard to the second object — that
of fixing the images — M.Talbot observed,
that, after having tried ammonia, and
several other re-agents with very imper-
fect success, the first which gave him a
successful result, was the iodide of potas-
sium, much diluted with water. If a
photogenic picture is washed over with
this liquid, an iodide of silver is formed,
which is absolutely unalterable by sun-
shine.

This process requires precaution; for,
if the solution is too strong, it attacks the
dark parts of the picture, it is requisite,
therefore, to find, by trial, the proper
proportions. The fixation of the pictures
in this way, with proper management, is
very beautiful and lasting. The specimen
of lace which JSI. Talbot exhibited to the
society, and which was m.ade five years
ago, was preserved in this manner. But
his usual method of fixing is different
from this, and somewhat simpler, or, at
least, requiring less nicety. It consists
in immersing the picture in a strong so-
lution of common salt, and then wiping
off the superfluous moisture, and dry-
ing it.



160



DESCRIPTION OF AlV EYE BATH.



It is sufficiently singular, that the same
substance which is so useful in giving
sensibility to the paper, should also be
capable, under other circumstances, of
destroying it ; but such is nevertheless
the fact. Now, if the picture which has
been thus washed and dried, is placed in
the sun, the white parts color themselves
of a pale lilac tint ; after which they be-
come insensible. Numerous experiments
have shown the author that the depth of
this lilac tint varies accordinj^ to the
quantity of salt used, relatively to the
quantity of silver, but by adjusting these,
the images may, if desired, be retained of
an absolute whiteness. He mentions,
also, that those preserved by iodine are
always of a very pale primrose yellow,
which has the extraoidinary and very
remarkable property of turning to a full
gaudy yellow, whenever it is exposed to
the heat of a fire; and recovering its
former color again when it is cold.

Brit. Jissoc. Atheneum.



FILES AND RASPS MADE FROM CLAY.

Files and other instruments for the
abrasion of various substances may be
made by folding up separate pieces of
wet clay, in muslin, cambric, and Irish
linen, forcing them by the pressure of
the hand into the intersticesof the threads,
so that on divesting them of the covering

* From the success of this experiment we should
suppose that clay might be burned hard enough to
separate clover seed from its chaff, and in some cases
used advantageously for grinding grain. The little
expense required in forming and burning them would
enable the proprietor to renew them when necessary,
without inconvenience. Each pi'ce might be made
one or two inches thick and have both sides formed
into furrows similar to a mill stone and be confined
to the face of a block of stone or wood by bolts, screws
and nuts, so that when one side becomes too smooth
to operate well, the sides might be reversed ; or the



and having them well baked a file, ia pro-
duced of a new species, said to be capable
of operating on steel ; and very useful
in cutting glass, polishing, and rasping
wood, ivory, and all sorts of metals.



DESCRIPTION OF AN EYE BATH.

This apparatus consists of a stand or
pedestal supporting a glass vessel, of
either a globular or any other proper
form. This last has a neck at the lower
end, and an aperture at the top to fit the
eye. The neck is cemented into a brass
tube, screwed into an ornamental piece
of brass work, in the upper part of the
pedestal. This tube contains a common
pewter syringe, the end of which is ce-
mented into the neck of the glass vessel.
When the instrument is used, the glass
vessel is to be partly filled with water
(or any othef liquid with which th,e eye
is- to be syringed,) so as to cover, the
orifice of the syringe; the patient then
places his eye over the aperture in the
glass vessel, and suddenly lifts up the
brass slider, to which the handle of the
syringe is fixed, so as to force the liquor
contained in the syringe through that in
the glass vessel into the eye ; the liquor
which covers the point of the syringe
takes ofl:' the force with which the liquor
would be thrown into the eye, so as to ren-
der the operation not in the least painful.



furrows might be made upon the edges of each piece>
and the whole of them (sufficient to form a complete
rubber,) bound together by two iron hoops bound
upon them while hot, in the manner that French bur
mill stone blocks are confined together. Or each hoop
might be formed of two semicircles, with a flanch at
each end, so formed that the two pieces might be
drawn with sufficient force around the pieces of burned
clay by a screw bolt. The edges of each piece might
then be alike and each in turn made a rubbing surface
by removing the screw bolts, and again attaching them
after the pieces were changed and properly adjusted.



CONTENTS OF NO. 10. VOL. I. OF OBSERVER AND RECORD,



Conserve of Grape, 145

Liquid Sugar fronv Apples and Pears. . . . 145
Hints on various Modes of Printing from Auto-
graphs, 147

A Spring Crutch, 147

Mr John Kent's Patent of a new and expeditious
Method of moving all kinds of Goods or Ma-
terials from high Buildings or deep Places, . 148
Method of preparing Ox-gall in a concentrated

state, for the use of Paintersand other Persons, 148



On Raising and Planting Apple Trees, . . . 148

Observations on Fermentation, 149

Sir H. Davy's Agricultural Chemistry, . . . 149

Preparation of Indigo, 153

Wind Mill (on Mechanics,) . 154

Definition of Terms. Letter H., 155

Photogenic Drawing, . . 158

Files and Hasps made from Clay, 160

Description of an Eye Bath, 160



OBSERYER AND RECORD

OP AGRICULTURE, SCIENCE, AND ART.



EDITED BY D. PEIRCE.



No. 1 1 ]



Philadelphia, Monday, Augusts, I83».



[Vol. I,



The object of this paper is to concentrate and preserve, in a form suitable for future
reference, the most useful and interesting articles on the aforesaid subjects. Each
number will contain sixteen octavo pages, printed on good paper, and when a suffi-
cient amount is published to form a volume of convenient size, an alphabetical table
of contents will be published and forwarded to subscribers, in order for binding.
This number, shows the general plan of the work.

Published monthly, for one dollar a year, payable in advance; six copies to the
same address for five dollars. Q^ Letters may be addressed to the Editor, in every
instance post paid, No. 71 N. Fourth street, care of T. E. Chapman.

Subscr7ptio7is receivedat T. E. Chapman's Bookstore, 7i JK^. Fourthst. — andby W. J Welding, 17 South Fifth at.



M. COZZI S METHOD OF OBTAINING
CREOSOTE.

A quantity of tar is to be placed in an
alembic, and heated; the products of the
distillation to be collected in a cylindri-
cal vessel half filled with water.

These products consist of acetic acid,
eupione, parufine, and at the last, creo-
sote, which is recognised by its specific
gravity being greater than that of the
water.

The impure creosote is to be separated
from the other products, which are
lighter, by means of a syphon, and sul-
phuric acid diluted with half its weight
of water is to be added to it when sepa-
rated; the creosote now occupies the sur-
face of this liquid, which is heavier.
This mixture is to be heated and having
been caused to pass through a boiling
mixture of acid and water, is to be collected
and placed in a wide mouthed bottle,
which is to be one-third full. It is to
be left thus exposed to the contact of the
air for three days, the air being frequently
changed by opening the bottle.

This product, composed in great part
of creosote as experiment will prove,
when distilled a second time in a retort,
heated by means of the flame of alcohol,
will give a reddish colored product.
This product will, by three repetitions
of this process, afibrd creosote as limpid
as water, of an oleaginous consistence,
strongly refracting light of a specific gra-
vity of 1.007, and boiling at 205° R.
The creosote obtained by the method
11



of M. Cozzi, has a peculiar odor and
burning taste; it coagulates albumen, has
no action upon the paper of turnsol, or
upon turmeric paper; it is soluble in
water; in acetic acid, and in alcohol; 100
parts of water at 20° dissolves a quarter
part.

M. Cozzi has proven that this process
is economical, and that as much creosote
as would cost eighteen francs, by another
method, may be obtained for 13.50 fr.
by this method.

M. Cozzi says that creosote may be
used: 1. To preserve animal aliments,
and to prevent the putrefaction of dead
bodies of men and animals. 2. To dis-
solve caoutchouc, gumlac, mastic, turpen-
tine, copal, amber, and other resins, and
to form with these solutions, coverings
which do not crack, and varnishes which
have a brilliancy not to be obtained by
the use of alcohol and the volatile oils.
3. To dissolve coloring matters and fur-
nish solutions which may be used in
dying.

He has already used creosote for the
preservation of wood; the experiments
on this point have been submitted to the
Society for the Encouragement of the
Useful Arts.

Journ. cle Chim. Med.



A VALUABLE GREEN COLOR EXTRACTED
FROM COFFEE BERRIES.

An unchangeable emerald green color
is obtained as follows: a certain quantity
of coffee is boiled in river water; spoiled



162



SIR H. DAVY S AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.



coflfee is preferable. By means of a pro-
portionate quantity of pure soda, a f2;reen
precipitate is obtained, which is suffered
to dry for six or seven days upon polish-
ed marble, stirritif^ it about occasionally
in order that every part may come in
contact with the atmosphere, from which
it receives a new vivacity of tint. Nei-
ther the acids, light nor moisture, have
power to injure this green lake.

Reg. Art. Sci.



SIR H. D AVY S AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.

(Continued from p. 153.)

Table covtinued from p. 153.



^l ^J -I


-( ^






«1 *• ^


to >—












o^3 ^ o =


O ft < 1


55




-< to S^ — 3"


^ CO


>






OJ o




— ^ ^ □- m


r' = °


ra




CD '^-^ 2 O


fB V-(


CO




a. ^ :; - »


o. c =n


O




o 2/< -c


2 3 -"■


•11






2 ° i'


2
>




< =2.=


< 0) g


H




3 c ~-a>
f So


abies,)
20,
n, June






\,^-sr\j L^vwiL/v-w'










Ashts f:om 1000 parts


of






tht plant grci-D.


-


to bS >—


to to


Ditto, dry.


to Ol «i


CD to










Water f, oni 1000 parts
the plant green.


of


to K- H-


H- K-






rfi. ^ tn


U» CI










Soluble salts.


C


to H-


r" 1— >




tO QD


to to




o




to
-1


Earthy phosphates.


2


60 k^i'


to t^




ts to


CO to




W)




Ut


Earthy carbonates.


O




H- to




m o


^ ;^




V


Oi




Silica.


i.











O M


en - 1—



Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 29 of 35)