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to galvanism, is very different. It is curi-
ous, and not easily accounted for, that a
considerable power, that perhaps of tvven-
ty-tive or thirty plates, is often necessary
on first applying the galvanism, in order
to excite any sensation; yet, after the sen-
sation is once excited, the patient shall
not perhaps, particularly at first, be able
to bear more than six or eight plates. The
stronger the sensation excited, the more
speedily in general is the relief. I have
known the breathing instantly relieved by
very strong power.

1 have generally made it a rule, to be-
gin with a ver}' weak one, increasing it
gradually at the patient's request, by mov-
ing one pf the wires from one division of
the trough to another, and moving it back
again when he complained of the sensa-
tion being too strong. It is convenient
for this purpose to chai'ge with the fiuid
about thirty plates.

The galvanism was applied in the fol-
lowing manner: — Two thin plates of me-
tal, about Ivvo or three inches in diameter,
dipped in water, were applied, one to the
nape of the neck, and the other to the pit
of the stomach, or rather lower. The
wires froni the different ends of the
trough* were brought into contact with
these plates, and as observed above, as
great a galvanic power maintained, as the
patient could bear without complaint.

In this way the galvanic influence was
sent through the lungs as much as possible
in the direction of their nerves. It is
proper, constantly to move the wires upon
the metal plates, particularly the negative
wire, otherwise the cuticle is injured in
the place on which they rest. The relief
seemed much the same, whether the posi-

* I Found a troii"!) of the old construction belter tlian
tlie improved pile, wliiclj is niucl» superior for most

live wire was applied to the nape of the
neck, or the pit of the stomach. The ne-
gative wire gene: ally excites the strongest
sensation. Some patients thought that the
relief was most speedy when it was ap-
plied near the pit of the stomach.

The galvanism was discontinued as soon
as the jjatient said that his breathing was

In the first cases in which I used it, 1
sometimes prolonged its application for a
quarter of an hour, or twenty minutes,
after the patient said he was perfectly re-
lieved, in the hope of preventing the early
recurrence of the dyspnoea; but I did not
find tbat it had this effect. It is remarka-
ble, that in several who had laboured un-
der asthmatic breathing for from ten to
twenty years, it gave relief quite as readi-
ly as in more recent cases; which proves,
that the habitual difficulty of breathing,
even in the most protracted cases, is not
to be ascribed to any permanent change
having taken place in the lungs.

With regard to that form of asthma
which returns in violent paroxysms, with
intervals of perfectly free breathing, I
should expect little advantage from gal-
vanism in it, because as I have just ob-
served, I found that the peculiar difiiculty
of breathing which occur in this species
of asthma, cannot be induced in animals
except by means of lessening the aperture
of the glotis.

It is probable, that in the human sub-
ject, the cause producing this effect is
spasm, from which indeed the disease
takes its name, and we have no reason to
believe, from what we know of the na-
ture of galvanism, that it will be found the
means of relaxing spasm. The spasmodic
asthma is fortunately a very rare disease;
so much so, tliat but one case has occurred
to me, since 1 have employed galvanism
in asthma, while I have had an opportu-
nity of employing this remedy in about
forty cases of the habitual form of the dis-
ease. I cannot therefore, from experience,
speak^with certainty of the eflects.of gal-
vanism in the former. In the above case
it was twice employed in the paroxysm,
andfl could observe no^relief from it. In
botfi instances the patient said that, had it
not been used, the symptoms would have
been more severe.

In this patient, the spasmodic paroxysm


was often succeeded by a state ol habitual
asthma, for several weeks, in which gal-
vanism gave immediate l)ut temporary re-

Of the above cases of habitual asthma,
many occurred in the work-people of the
town where I reside, who had been oblig-
ed to abandon their employments in con-
sequence of it, and some of them from its
long continuance, witiiout any hope of re-
turning to their regular work. Most of
them had tried the usual means in vain.
By the use of galvanism they were re-
lieved in different degrees, but all suffi-
ciently to be restored to their employ-
ments. I have seen several of them lately,
who although they have not used the gal-
vanism for some months, said they had
continued to work without any inconve-
nience. Some, in whom the disease had
been wholly removed, remain quite free
from it; some have had a return of it, and
have derived the same advantage from the
galvanism as at first.

I have confined the application to asth-
matic dyspnoea. I think there is reason
to believe, from the experiments which
have been laid before the reader, that in
inflammatory cases it would be injurious,
and in cases arising from dropsy, or any
other mechanical impediment, little or
nothing, it is evident, is to be expected
from it.

Habitual asthma is often attended with
a languid slate of the biliary system, and
some fulness and tenderness on pressure
near the pit of the stomach. If the last
is considerable, it must be relieved previ-
ous to the use of the galvanism. In a pa-
per which the Medico-C^hirurgical Society
did me the honour to publish in the se-
venth volume of their transactions, I have
endeavoured to show that a species of
pulmonary consumption arises from a dis-
ease of the digestive organs, many of the
observations there made apply to certain
cases of asthma.*

I believe to cases of every species of
this disease, but particularly of that we are
here considering, many cases of habitual
asthma will yield to the means recom-
mended in the above paper; but I have
learned from a pretty extensive experi-
ence, that a large majority of such cases

will resist them: yet readily admit of re-
lief from galvanism. If there is little
tendency to inflammation, galvanism
seems also to be a means of relieving the
affection of the digestive organs. I have
repeatedly seen from it the same effect on
the biliary system which arises from calo-
mel; a copious bilious discharge from the
bowels, coming on within a few days after
its employment. This seldom happens'
except where there appears to have been
a failure in the secretory power of the
liver, or a defective action in the gall

I have not found that the presence even
of a severe cough, which is common in
habitual asthma, in which there is always
more or less cough, counter-indicates of
the use of galvanism.

( To be continued.)


Ashes of red oak bark boiled down to
the consistence of molasses, and cover the
cancer with it. In about an hour after-
wards cover it with a plaster of tar, vvhich
must be removed after a few days ; and
if any protuberance remain in the wound,
apply more pot ash and the plaster again,
until this shall disappear.

* See the observations on the state of these organs
in asthma, in Ur. Bree's work on this disease.

From the Repertory of Arts.

Febrifuge discovered by M. Armond
Sequin, is Gelatine^ taken the moment
the cold fit begins to be felt. The patient
should be well covered and take no vio-
lent exercise. Keep his room on the day
of the paroxysm, abstain as much as pos«
sible from liquid food of all kinds, and
from fruits, spices, and spirtuous liquors;
live principally on thick soups and meat
of the best quality boiled or preferably
roasted; and above all, drink extremely
little however thirsty he may be. Eat
moderately. Taken also morning aqd
evening while the fever lasts, and even for
a certain time after it is over. Eat nothing
for an hour after the cessation of the
paroxysm, or an hour after the applica-
tion of the remedy, if it is taken in the
intermission. The patient must not coun-
teract the sweats. Children under 1 year
from 24 grains to 1 dram at an applica-
tion ; from 1 to 3 years, from 48 grains
to 2 drams; from 3 to 7 years, from 1 to



4 drams; from 7 to 12 3-ears, from 2 to
6 drams ; from 12 to 16 years, from 2 to
12 drams, and all above that from 2 drams
to 3 ounces. The discoverer aforesaid,
took eight ounces at once, without incon-
venience, except a sliglit fatigue and drow-
siness. Whei'c the patient is much re-
duced at commencement, the doses should
be gradually increased till the fever is
cured, and then mix a draught of cinna-
mon and sugar infused in good wine, with
a dose of from 4 to 8 ounces per day. In
obstinate fevers,, the dose to be so large
as to produce more exhaustion and more
pain in his head for 24 hours, than would
have been from the paroxysm alone; but
in succeeding paroxysms it is proper to
administer large doses in the intermissions,
and much smaller ones at the beginning of
the paroxysms. Quhi quina should on
no account be used at the same time.
When fever is accompanied with worms
and other disorders^ other medicines
should also be used.

Preparation. — Select the most dry and
transparent gelatine; dissolve it in a sand
bath in three parts water, add equal parts
of sugar and some drops of orange flower
water. The sugar and orange flower wa-
ter, serve to disguise in some degree, the
insipidity of the gelatine. The gelatine
may also be prepared in cakes and kept
for any length of time, as follows, viz:
Transparent gelatine and sugar, equal
weight of each, or one part of each and
three parts or weight of water. A small
quantity of orange flower water, and
pour it into a glass inould which contains
as many superficial inches as there are
drams of jelly in tlie mixture. When it
becomes hard take it out of the mould and
lay it on a wire grating, formed in like
manner of squares of an inch each. When
it is almost dry, cut it according to its di-
visions. When these cakes are wanted
for use, nothing more is necessary than to
dissolve them in the smallest quantity of
water, and thus to take them in a liquid
form, or they may be suffered to melt in
the mouth.

From the Pliilosopliical Tr.inssctions.

The most advantageous mode of increas-
ing velocity by a series of wheels, is to
adjust them so that the multiplication of

velocity will proceed in a geometrical


Mix the following ingredients : Soap,
three ounces ; tallow, two ounces ; wax,
one ounce; when melted smooth, add a
sufficient quantity of lamp-black, and pour
it into moulds.

From Silliman's Journal.



Take two plates of very soft iron of
moderate dimensions, give one face of each
a very true and fine polish, so that when
applied by these surfaces, they will uni-
formly fit and adliere together. Moisten
two slips of printed newspaper, or parts
of a leaf from a book oi the size of the
plates, apply one to the polished face of
each plate, and interpose between tliem a
fold or two of silk paper, and then clamp
the plates together. Give them a gentle
heat over the fire, then place them in a
vice and apply a strong power; on separ-
ating them and gently removing the paper
the letters will be seen distinctly formed
on the faces of the two plates. As printers
ink is formed of lamp black and oil upon
which acid acts very little, the faces of ihe
plates may be slightly touched over with
dihited sulphuric or nitric acid, which if
skilfully applied, acts on the iron and leaves
the letters raised. When the printers' ink
contains some bees-wax the experiment is
more complete. These plates when once
formed may be converted into steel on
the plan of Mr. Perkins, after which they
would probably print 10,000 or 20,000
copies without being materially defaced.
An expert mechanic with proper machin-
ery, could in a day or two, form a suffici-
ent number of plates to print off" 20,000
copies 500 pages of an octavo volume.
Other metals as copper, brass and type-
metal, with slight variations can all have
letters transferred to them in the same
manner, and can be used as printing plates,
but none of them will have the durability
of Iron.

From the Eiicycloineiihi Americana.

eases of the glands of all kinds, and of
the skin in scrofula and a scrofulous pre-



disposition, exhausting sweats, and ten-
dency to catarrhs, chronic nervous diseases,
particularly hysteric attacks, epilepsy, St.
Vitus' dance, also, sometimes in Chronic

Injurious, in plethora, inclination to
congestions and discharges of blood, dis-
eases of the heart, tendency to pulmonary
consumption, obstruction and induration
of internal organs.

A floating bath where patients may un-
dress, is preferable to going in with the
clothes on.

From the Mechimies' Magazine.

Take of linseed oil three ounces, Tartar
two ounces, yolk of eggs boiled hard and
beaten two ounces. Aloes half an ounce.
Saffron five grains, Turmeric two grains.
Boil all these toji,elher in an earthen vessel
and with it wash the iron, and it will look
like gold. If there be not linseed oil
enough, you may add more.

From Uie Mechanics' Magazine.

If it should be too hard, melt a sufficient
quantity of lead to immerse the edge of the
tool, having previously brightened its sur-
face, then plunge it into the melted lead
for a few minutes, till it gels sufficiently
hot to melt a candle, with which rub its
surface, then plunge it in again and keep
it there till the steel assumes a straw color
(but be careful not to let it turn blue;)
when that is the case take it out, ruli it
again with the tallow and let it cool. If it
should be too soft wipe the grease off and
repeat the process without the tallow, and
when sufficiently hot, plunge it in cold
spring water or water and vinegar mixed.
By a proper attention to these directions
and a little practice, ever}^ workman will
have it in his power to give a proper tem-
per to the tools he may use. If a saw be
too hard it may be tempered by the same
means. If you are near a plumber's shop
you may repeat the process conveniently
and without expense, when they are melt-
ing a pot of lead. In other cutting tools
y-ou must wait till the steel just begins to
turn blue, which is a temper which will
give it more elasticity, and at the same
time, sufficient hardness.

From tlie Retrospect of Philosophical, Mechanical,

Chemical, and Agricultural Uiscoveries.

BY VV. N. .

[Dickson's Agricultm'al Magazine, No. 7.]

As many farms are infested with this
poisonous reptile, which affords a remedy
for its own bite, more efficacious than any
medicine, the writer conceived he should
be usefully employed in pointing out the
means of reiDoving the effect of the bite,
the success of vvhich he had four times ex-
perienced in its application to a pointer,
which had been stung by the venomous
reptile. The mode of cure recommended
by him is to procure as many adders as
possible in the month of May, and to take
the fat from them, and simmer this fat
over a fire to extract the oil, (which at
that time they yield in the greatest plenty),
and to preserve the same in a phial for
use. When any animal is stung by the
adder, he advises opening several places
in the swelled parts, with a phleme, to
discharge the corrupted blood, and then
to moisten the wound several times with
the viper's oil, till the svvellings begin to
decrease ; when it should be healed by
the application of an ointment, composed
of half a pound of pork suet, half a pound
of turpentine, half a quarter of a pint of
oil of turpentine, two ounces of linseed oil,
two ounces of bees-wax, two ounces of
rosin, and three table-spoonsful of honey,
which are boiled well together, and strain-
ed through a piece of crape; and half an
ounce of powdered verdigris to be stirred
in till the whole becomes cool.

It is added that this ointment is also
extremely serviceable among horses, for
collar and saddle chafes, as well as for
kicks, cuts, c^-c.

Observations. — The remedy recom-
mended for the curing of the venomous
bite of the adder, is in unison with the
opinion of the most experienced medical
men on the subject, and ought to be al-
ways kept in readiness in those parts
where this noxious reptile abounds. The
ointment is ^vell calculated for all wounds
from whatever cause produced.

From the same.



[Dickson's Agricultural Magazine, No. 11.]

The remarks on harvest work approach



too near to a controversy, and are too per-
sonal to be here noticed; those on the
smut in wheat, point out "washing the
seed very clean, pickling it, and encrust-
ing the grains witli quick-lime," as the
only preventives of the smut hitherto
known or practised. The writer consi-
ders it very immaterial which of these
operations produce the effect, so long as
it is certain that the seed thus treated has
yielded a crop free from smut, while the
same seed, sown without any preparation,
has had smut balls.

Observations. — If treating wheat, pre-
vious to sowing, in the manner here re-
commended, be only a popular prejudice,
as many have asserted, it is worthy of
recollection, that the error is on the safe
side of the question.

From the same.

(in FRANCE ) Read at a meeting of
the Royal Medical Society of Paris, by-
Professor Daubenton. Farm. Mag.
No. 33.

The Professor, who kept a flock of
sheep in the northern extremity of Bur-
gundy, observes that in France, sheep are
not affected by any intemperature of the
air, but only by the violent heat of (he
sun, as the wool defends them from the
most intense cold, the heaviest and long-
est continued raias and snows, or the se-
verest frosts, were productive of no dis-
(€£^se,, while the heat of the sun caused
linany to die in the field, and more would
jhave fallen victims to it, had not proper
f)recautions been speedily observed.

This disease, which from its cause, is

Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 3 of 35)