Copyright
D. Peirce.

Observer and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) online

. (page 4 of 35)
Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 4 of 35)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


and prepare the wheat plant for its at-
tacks, and these are summed up in one
word, namely, tveak)iess.

( 7b be continued.)



From the same.

ON THE DISEASES IN DOGS CALLED THE

DISTEMPER.

By a Kincardinshire Freeholder. — Far-
mer's Magazine, No. 35.

As a iarmer generally values his dog
next to his wife and his horse, any apolo-
gy is held unnecessary for obtruding this,
paper upon an agricultural publication. Ifc
is noticed that the disease called the dis^-
temper, is more accurately described by
Dr. Blane than by any other writer, and'
that his medicines have proved more suc-
cessful than those of any other person y.
but they yet very often fail of producing a
cure, and the valuable animal dies a mis-
erable and lingering death.. The gentle-
man who communicated this paper to the
Magazine, had administered the do&tor's-
medicines to a favourite pointer, but with
no avail; the unvarying symptoms had
come on, when the poor animal crawled
into the field and fell among some grass,^
attempting, but in vain, to eat it. He fol-



14



PROPAGATION OP FRUIT TREES IN CHINA.



lowed the suggestion of nature, and or-
dered a handful of grass to be cut m
shreds of about half an inch long; and
when mixed with butter to be put down
the animals throat; the dose was repeated
three times in every twenty-four hours,
and a visible amendment almost imme-
diately took place, which terminated in
recovery.

He admits the case to be a solitary one;
but as the remedy appeared to him to be
pointed out by nature, he considered it to
merit attention and made it public, that
the efficacy of this simple medicine might
obtain a fair and unprejudiced trial.

Observations. — The remedy suggested
in this article for a disease which so often
proves fatal as a distempc.T, and deprives
both the farmer and sportsman of a valua-
ble attendant, is deserving of a trial when-
ever an opportunity is aflbrded of admin-
istering it. It is certain that it can do no
harm; and nature not unfrequently works
the greatest efi'ects by the simplest means.

From the same.
ON FARM BUILDINGS,

With an account of a new species of Roof.

By Mr. John Graham. — Farmer''s

Mai; I zinc, No. 33.

The observations on farm buildings are
mostly relative to the question in political
economy, whether the expense .ought lo
fall on the landlord or on the tenant, and
are therefore little adapted to a publication
which professes to confine itself to new
discoveries or new applications of those
already known; but the account of a new
species of roof is a proper subject for the
Retrospect.

It is well known that few merchant ves-
sels are sheathed with copper, and that
their hulls are preserved fi'om the worms
by covering tiicm with jiaper, inanufac-
tured for the purpose, called sheatliing
paper, which is nailed on upon the wood,
and tiie paper itself is secured by being
covered with a coat of thin deal; and
though tlie worms penetrate this outer
deal, yet the paper coated with tar pre
vents them from penetrating into the hull
of the vessel. The new species of roof,
mentioned in this paper, is formed by a
covering of this paper laid on boards, pre-
viousl}' nicely litted, without any inter-
vals between them, the paper being lli'st



saturated with tar, and afterwards coated
over with the same material. This roof
is said to be equal to slates in durability,
though executed at about half the expense.
The practice is stated to have been intro-
duced about twenty years ago, by a Mr.
Wood, a ship-builder, in Grenock, whose
example was " long gazed upon in stupid
silence." l?ut last summer a pile of build- ^
ings for preparing alum, and a village, 1
containing about fifty families, were erect-
ed \vith p;ij)cr rools of this description,
which have been found to answer.
( To be continued.)



Fi-om the same.
ON THE CHINESE METHOD OF PROPAGAT-
ING FRUIT THEES BY ABSCISSION.

By Dr. Jamks Howison. — Trans. Soc.

ofJirts, Vol. 25.

It is stated that the Chinese do not raise
fruit trees from seeds or grafts, as is cus-
tomary in Europe, but in the following
method:

They select a tree which they wish to
propagate, and fix upon a branch which
will disfigure it the least by the removal,
and round tliis, as near as conveniently
as may be to its junction with the trunk,
they wind a rope made of straw, be-
smeared with cow-dung, until a ball is
formed five or six times the diameter of
the branch. This is intended as a bed into
which the young roots may shoot; and
immediately under the ball tlie bark is di-
vided down to the wood, for nearly two-
thirds of the circumference of the branch:
a cocoa-nut shell, or small pot, is then
hung over the ball, with a hole in the bot-
tom, so small, that water put therein will
only fall in drops, by which means the
rope is constantly kept moist; a circum-
stance necessary for the ready admission
of the young roots, and for the supply of
nourishment for the branch. When the
vessel has been supplied with water for
three weeks, one-third of the remaining
bark is cut, and the former incision car-
ried deeper into the branch, as by this
time some roots have struck into the rope,
and assist in giving support. After a si-
milar interval, the operation is again re-
peated, and in about two months from the
commcncementof the process, the roots are
generally seen intersecting each other on



WIND-MILL IN MECHANICS.



15



the surface of the ball; which indicates that
they are sufficiently advanced to admit of
the separation of the branch from the tree;
and this is best done by sawing it ofli at the
incision; taking care that the rope, which
must have become nearly rotten, is not
shaken off by the operation; and then the
branch is planted as a young tree.
{To he continued.)

From the same.
APPARATUS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF
THE ALKALIES UNDER NAPHTHA, BY

GALVANISM. By Mr. W. H. Pepys.—

Phil. Mag. No. 124.

To a bottle without a bottom, a glass
stopper is accurately ground. The stop-
per is perforated through its axis, and a
wire that is passed through this perfora-
tion, serves to connect a plate of platina
lying on the internal surface of the stop-
per, with a plate cf copper that serves for
a foot to the inverted vessel, and is
brought into contact with the positive end
of the galvanic trough.

The alkali, slightly moistened, is placed
on the platina plate; the inverted bottle is
filled with naphtha, and covered with a
wooden cover, through which a platina
wire, with a disc of the same metal at the
lower end, is allowed to slide. This wire
communicates with the negative end of the
trough, and the bottom being brought into
contact with the alkali, the latter is decom-
posed ; the produced metal sometimes
floats, but the greatest portion is found im-
bedded in the alkali. The gasses evolved
during the process, may be collected by a
slight variation of the apparatus.



over the mouth of a third pot, the linseed
oil is first strained into it, and kept warm,
while the elastic gum is gradually added ;
after which tiie oil is strained for use.

Three parts of English glue, dissolved
in water, are added to 24 of very fine
leaf lead, and the whole beat together for
a-day. The mass is then cut into cakes
and dried in the shade. These cakes are
dissolved in water, and the metal spread
thin with a hair brush upon paper, which
after being dried is polished with a stone
till it acquires the metallic lustre. The
edges are then pasted down on a board
and rubbed with the palm of the hand,
previously smeared with the above gurra
oil, and exposed to the sun. On the twa
foUowifig days the operation is repeated,,
when it acquires a brass yellow colour.
( To be continued.)



Thenard^s and Blainvilles Litho^
graphic Ink. — Soap, one-fourth; mutton
suet, one-half; yellow wax, one part ;•
mastic, in tears, one half, and as much
lamp-black as necessary.



From the same.
PROCESS EMPLOYED IN INDIA FOR FALSE

GILDING AND WHITEWASHING. — Buch-
anan's Journey through the Mysore
country, fyc.

The gilding in the palaces at Seringa-
patam is false, and prepared from lead
only. An oil, called gurra oil, is made
by boiling about IS pounds of linseed oil
for two hours in a bi-ass pot, to which
about 6 pounds of aloes being added, the
boiling is continued for four "hours more.
Another pot being made hot, 12 pounds
of an elastic gum called chunderasu, pre-
pared from the milky juices of the ficus
glomerata, ficus gonia, and several other
trees,) is melted in it. A cloth being tied



VALUABLE ACID FOR ENGRAVERS,

M. Deleschamps says the best acid for
engraving for every kind of biting, pra-
duce a clear and deep line, without eat-
ing aioay the sides of the subject, he
uses a composition of acetate of silver and
hydrate of nitrous ether. The acetate is
precipitated into the lower part of the fur-
row, where it produces a rapid and ener-
getic action, the upper pans of the fur-
row are occupied by the nitrous ether and
preserved by its presence. — Jour. Frank,
Institute.



From Rees' New CyclopaLMl'iH, (reference to plates not

given.)

WIND-MILL IN MECHANICS,

A machine which is put in motion by
the force of the wind. Wind-mills are in
general applied to the purpose of grinding;
corn, but are occasionally used to give
motion to machines for raising water,
sawing-mills, or for other purposes. We
shall in this article consider the wind-mill
as a first mover, or jirinium mobile,
which may be applied to many purposes.

The invention of wind-mills is not of a
very remote date. According to some
authors, they were first used in France in
the sixth century; while others maintain



16



CONTENTS.



that they were brought to Europe in the
time of the Crusades, and that they had
long been employed in the Easl, where
the scarcity of water precluded the appli-
cation of that powerful agent to machinery.

The wind-mill though a common ma-
chine, has some things in it more ingeni-
ous than is usually imagined. Add that
it is generally allowed to have a degree of
perfection, which few of the popular en-
gines have attained to, and which the
makers are but little aware of: though the
aid of mathematics has furnished ample
matter for its improvement.

The vertical wind-mill, which is the
kind in most common use, consists of an
axis or ?hal't, placed in the direction of
the wind, and usually inclining a little
upwards from the horizontal line. At one
end of this, four long arms or yards are
fixed perpendicular to the axis, and cross
each otb.er at right angles; into these arms
small cross bars are morticed at right an-



gles, and other long bars are joined to
them, which are parallel to the length of
the arms, so that the bars intersect each
other in the manner of lattice work, and
form a surface, on which a cloth can be
spread to receive the action of the wind.
These are called the sails; they arc in
form of a trapezium, and are usually nine
yards long and two wide.

The ciicular motion is produced by the
obliquity of the planes of these surfaces,
from the plane in which all the four arms
are situated ; by these means, when the
wind blows in the direction of the axis, it
does not impinge upon the sails at right
angles to their surfaces, but strikes ob-
liquely; hence the effort of the sail to
recede from the wind, causes it to turn
round with the common axis, and the four
sails are all made oblique in the same di-
rection, so as to unite their efforts for the
common object.
1 [Tu be continued.)



COJTTEJ^^TS ofJ\*o. I. I*ol. J, of OISSERl/*En A* RECORD,



Title page,

Sir Humphrey D



Online LibraryD. PeirceObserver and record of agriculture, Science and art (Volume v.1) → online text (page 4 of 35)