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trees upon it, and proceed exactly as in
the first plan before described, raise the
sand two or threti inches higher in the
middle from one end of the box to the
other, than it is at the sides, form a roof
over this witli plank, which are to be
confined to each other at the upper ends,
and to the box by nails, the lower ends
should project a few inches beyond the
plank (or sides of the box) so as to con-
duct the water clear of them; heap up
earth round the box against it to the height
of a few inches; let the trees remain in



this situation till immediately before
planting them in the spring. In trim-
ming ofi' the side branches, it is recom-
mended to leave one eye between the
trunk and the place where the branch is
separated.



BEET ROOT, RUTA BAGA AND HAND DRILL
TO PLANT SEED.

The editor has frequently been asked,
for information respecting the cultivation
of the aforesaid plants, he is therefore in-
duced to offer the following remarks, ac-
companied by a request, that if any of the
readers should know of a superior process,
that the same may be made public.

1. To prepense the ground^ Plough
land tliat has been occupied with corn the
preceding year, into ridges, from eighteen
inches to two feet asunder.

Spread manure of any kind in the fur-
row between the respective ridges.

Turn the ridges on the manure with a
plough, so as to form ridges over the ma-
nure, the seed are then planted and cover-
ed on those ridges by a machine of the
following construction which is both sim-
ple and effective, and can be put in opera-
tion at a trifling expense.

Imagine an ordinary wheel barrow
without any boards in front, or between
the side pieces (usually named a bottom)
attach di pulley to the shaft or axle of the
wheel; this pulley may have several
grooves formed round the periphery to
admit an endless band to convey motion
to the revolving seed box, hereafter de-
scribed; the grooves are made of different
diameters, in order to increase or dimin-
ish the velocity of the revolving seed box,
compared with the velocity of the wheel j
and to effect this with the aid of one end-
less rope or band, the groves on the shaft
of the seed box, increase in the same di-
rection that those on the shaft diminish in
diameter; this arrangement allows the
rope to be shifted to any two grooves op-
posite to each other, and be of a uniform
tightness in each situation.

The seed box is composed of a shaft
which turn in the standards, and to this
shaft d^ pulley is attached to admit an end-
less rope or band, to convey motion from
the wheel, as already described — and iioo
hollow frustimis of cones, composed of
sheet tin, soldered together at the large



AN IMPROVED CONSTRUCTION OP A HORSE SHOE.



S7



ends, so as to form one piece, the middle
of which may be five or six inches in di-
ameter^ and the hole or opening at each
small end, the same diameter, as that of
the shaft, to which it is confined, so that
the shaft, sheet tin vessel, and puller/, all
turn together.

The sheet tin vessel has holes made
round the periphery at its largest diameter,
for the seed to pass out, when each hole
•respectively is at the lowest position while
revolving; the dimensions of each hole is
sufficient for one large seed, or two small
ones, to pass at the same time, the seed
drop into a tube large at the upper end
and small at the lower end which con-
ducts the seed into the track, or hollow
formed by the wheel immediately be-
hind it, and are covered by a roller, which
turns with a gudgeon at each end, in the
respective feet of th-e wheel-barrow, near
their lower ends. The distance of the
holes in the sheet tin vessel asunder,
may be estimated at a medium between
t-lie extremes, at which plants are requir-
ed to grow.

The extremes will of course be found,
by placing the endless band first at one
extreme end of each pulley, and tlien
shifting it to the other extreme end of
each pulley, and moving the wheel for-
ward, while in each of these positions.

There is another hole or opening made
into the sheet tin vessel of about half an
inch diameter, to pass the seed into it,
which may after^vards be closed with a
cork or plug.

The above description is deemed suffi-
cient, to enable any one to understand how
to construct a machine entirely new, or
to attach the parts required to an old in-
vention common upon almost every farm.

DESCRIPTION OF A BUTTER POT,

To prevent butter fro7n becoming rancid
in warm weather, or in hot climates.

This is nothing more than a common
butter pot, but is covered with an earthen
cover, made of that porous kind of earth-
enware, which will permit water to pass
through it, and in the form of a dish, so
that this being filled with water, the water
percolates down the sides, and produces
a coolness by its constant evaporation.



AN IMPROVED CONSTRUCTION OE A HORSE
SHOE.

It is remarked that the hoof of a horse,
has a constant tendency to increase in cir-
cumference, and that when this natural
propensity is counteracted by the opera-
tion of a firm ring of iron nailed all round,
the least powerful part yields to the pres-
sure, which then falls upon the tender
mechanism of the frog, excites a degree
of inflammation, and ends in contraction;
to remedy this it is proposed to use a shoe
jointed about the middle of each side,
having a sunk hole near the point of the
heel, large enough to admit the end of a
screw-bar. A screw bar is then to be
made in two or three parts, similar to the
machine in daily use for preserving the
shape of hats, which is to be put into the
shoe, whenever the horse is not at work,
and then screwed by means of a double
winch, so as to keep the heels of the shoe
moderately extended, and this bar may
be entirely removed, when the horse is
wanted for his labours, and be again re-
placed when he returns to the stable. And
as much has been said about the mischief
arising from shoes remaining too long
upon the foot, the writer observes, that it
matters not how long a jointed shoe re-
main?, as the joints admit of the natural
augmentation of circumference.

Observations. We are inclined to give
the preference to this, over every mode
formerly suggested; for preventing the
contraction of the foot of the horse; an
object deemed of much importance by the
Professor of the veterinary art. And it
appears to us that the double jointed shoe
alone, even without the bar, is a valuable
discovery, inasmuch as while the shoe re-
mains firmly fixed to the foot it admits of
all the expansion at the heel, which is
so essential for preserving the frog, or in-
ternal part of the foot from inflammation,
which invariably ends in contraction, or
closing of the clefts of llie heels. One of
the most prevalent, and at the same lime
most pernicious diseases, arises from bad
shoeing which contracts the foot, but this
could not happen if the double jointed
shoe was used. — Retrospect.

Remarks by the Editor Observer and
liecord. That part of the above articl«



38



RULES FOR ASCERTAINING THE AGE OF HORSES.



relating to the length of time vvnich a shoe
may remain upon the foot when construct-
ed in the manner here recommended, ap-
pears erroneous, for the growth of the
foot forward, would in time become in-
conveniently long, and the shoe being
drawn forward thereby, would leave the
frog too much exposed, therefore the shoe
would still require moving; yet less fre-
quently than where it is constructed with-
out joints. The other parts of the article
seem correct, in theory at least, and is
one of the cases which can be easily test-
ed by practice.



RULES FOR ASCERTAINING THE AGE OF
HORSES, BY INSPECTING OF THEIR TEETH.

By F. G. (Farmers Magazine, No. 54.)

The rules given in the narrative are
compressed into the following recapitula-
tion: — xfit from 2i to 3 years old, a
horse sheds in both rows the two centre
teeth and is then said to be a three year
old. ^t from 3h to 4 years, he loses
other four teeth, one on each side of those
he lost the preceding year, both in the
upper and under-jaw, having the four out-
side, or corner teeth remaining; he is
now called a four year old. Jit from A\
to 5 years, the four corner foal teeth are
cast, and then he parses for a five year
old; at full five ycar.s the flesh disappears
and the corner teeth become complete
shells, hollow within, and the tusks have
pierced the gum, and their points may be
felt with the finger. ./^/ from 5h. to 6
years, the tusks become of a moderate
size, sharp, the inside fluted, and the edge
next the gatherers thin, he is now called
six years old, wliich is the most valuable
age. Jit from G to S years, all the gath-
erers are full having only a brown speck
on the top, the corner teeth have become
much thicker, and the tusks longer, but
as the speck remains with many horses
for several years after, a person who is
not a judge, will be told that the horse is
not more than six years old. At 8 /o 10
years and upwards; at eight the bean
being generally worn out from the teeth
of the under-jaw, the upper jaw may be
examined; at nine the speck of the centre;
at nine and a half, that of the middle; and
at ten, that of the corner teeth is eflfaced,
then the horse is said to be aged, and to



have lost all mark. The age may no long-
er be distinctly known from the teeth,
but a probable conjecture may be formed
from the length of the tusks.

Observations. Since there is no part of
the farmers stock more expensive, nor
any in which he is more subjected to im-
position, than horses, we trust we shall
stand excused by the more intelligent part
of the agricultural public, for noticing this
paper, in order to convey the information
it contains to the young and more inex-
perienced reader, who will the easier un-
derstand the subject, from its being eluci-
dated systematically. — Retrospect.



ON PLANTING AND REARING THORN

HEDGES.

By Win. Alton, Farmers Magazine, No. 54.

Thorn hedges are represented to be of
all other fences, the cheapest, most beau-
tiful, most durable, and most valuable yet
known, and that no other ought to be
formed, where these can be made to grow;
and that it is not the richness of the soil,
but its quality, for retaining moisture, and
the manner in which the dykes are form-
ed, and kept, that govern the growth of
these hedges. The whole art of raising
white thorn into fence, is said to lie in
placing them within the reach of a due
supply of moisture, the benefit of the sun
and weather, and in keeping them Irom
being overgrown with weeds; the luxu-
riance of their growth depending on their
obtaining more moisture than is required
for the generality of trees and shrubs, and
the stuntedness of hedges, in nine cases
out often, proceeding from the want of a
due supply of moisture. Whenever a thorn
fence is attempted to be raised on a dry or
a sandy soil, the trench should be opened
on the lower side, and the dyke reared
on the rising ground, that when rains
fall, the moisture may run to the root of
the thorns; while if the trench be formed
on the higher ground, it would intercept
and carry off the water; and whenever a
thorn hedge is planted on a dry sandy soil,
the thorns ought to be placed low in the
dyke; and great pains taken to keep them
free from weeds. When thorns are plant-
ed in a dyke formed of sterile moss, they
are found to grow as well for two or three
years, as if planted in rich mould, but



ON PLANTING AND REARING THORN HEDGES.



39



whenever the moss is divested of mois-
ture, they become stunted and soon die,
unless means are taken to supply that ne-
cessary nourishment.

In order to make a fence at once suffi-
cient to turn cattle, the author directs that
a trench five or six feet wide, and three or
four feet deep, be dug, and not only the
earth taken from it^ but a considerable
quantity of turf dug up on the other side,
and the whole formed into a dyke several
feet high, tapering narrow at the top; and
the thorns, have a sufficient degree of
moisture, for a long time after they are
put in, but as the dyke is raised high, the
water will not run to the roots, unless
there be a trench at the back part, which
should be kept open five, or six years,
. and sometimes this proves ineffectual. It is
.recommended therefore to make but a
moderate trench in front of the dyke, and
not lo raise the top of the dyke too high,
to exclude the sun from the roots of the
thorns; and though this may require ad-
ditional fencing to guard it at first, yet
it will] become much the more secure
fence in the course of years.

The notion of thorns or any other plant
being killed when their roots reach the
cold sub-soil, is treated as a mere conceit;
since nature has taught plants where to
strike their roots in search of the most
nutricious food, and if every plant died
when its roots reached the sterile sub-soil,
none would be found alive after a few
years. But it is not in clay soils says Mr.
Alton, or where the sub-soil is a cold clay,
that thorns die soonest: but that happens
much more frequently in dry sandy, or
gravelly soil, or in dry rocky parts, where
there is no cold soil of clay within reach
of the roots; and the failures in growth
which are supposed to proceed from the
roots reaching a cold sub-soil, proceed
nine times out often from want of mois-
ture.

It is also noticed thai hedges are seldom
dressed in a proper shape, being either
permitted to rise like trees, and their
bushy tops to overshadow and kill the
smaller branches near the roots, or else
having the lower branches lopped off, in
order to straighten the hedge, while the
tops are allowed to remain. To prevent
this, it is directed that the hedge after it
rises three or four feet high, be kept, thin



at top in form of a wedge and the lateral
twigs allowed to spread out near the
ground, to the breadth of eighteen inches
or two feet, and the hedge tapered on both
sides. And when this is done, the heat,
light dews, and rains fall upon the parts of
the hedge equally, and the thorns grow
as close at the root as at the top.

Observations. These remarks may ap-
pear trivial to some of our readers, but
many thorn hedges have failed for want
of proper attention to the planting and
rearing them. And it is an important part
of agriculture, to obtain fences at once
fully adequate for the separation of cattle,
and affording shelter from storms. — Re-
trospect.

Remarks of the Editor Observer and
Record.
If the white thorn require more mois-
ture than other plants, or if all kinds of
plants employed in forming live fences
require more than what falls in rain im-
mediately around them, (and I have no
reason to doubt it) a question arises what
is the hQsi general method to furnish a
supply necessary for the hedge at all times.
It is suggested that a trench be excavated
two feet wide, and two feet deep, and
that one half of tliis trench be filled with
the upper half of earth that has been re-
moved in forming it, (where this is a
grass sod, let it be reversed) the operation
may be performed in the following man-
ner; first dig the earth from the trench for
any convenient distance, say three feet,
and throw it upon the bank; then dig the
upper half of the next three feet; and
throw it into the bottom of the part first
formed, with the top reversed, which will
bury such seeds and grass as may be at
the surface so deep as to prevent them in
some degree from growing and thereby
injuring the young hedge, in this way
proceed in preparing the ground the
whole distance for the intended hedge;
the lower half of earth removed from the
trencli, may be deposited where most con-
venient, so as not to interfere with future
cultivation. The young plants from the
nursery are to be planted in a row at the
middle of the trench, and cultivated with
a hoe. The land upon each side of the
hedge while in cultivation during the time



40



SILK MANUrACTURE.



the hedge is advancing towards maturity,
may be turned by the plough from tiie
hedge to the distance of fifteen or twenty
feet, or to any required distance to bring
enough water to the liedgc, by its descent
in that direction. The surface of earth for
the distance of a foot on each side of the
hedge may be raised five or six inches dur-
ing that time, by adding a little vegetable
mould each year. The land here is sup-
posed to be perfectly level; where it is
otherwise, the water may be collected
from a considerable distance, and retained
about the hedge by an embankment or
dyke parallel with the hedge and in other
directions as the declivity of the ground
may require.



SILK MANUFACTURE.
(Continued froui p. 19.)

The ends thus joined into two or three
threads, are passed into the holes of three
iron rods in the fore part of the reel, then
wpon the bobbins or pulleys, and at last,
are drawn out to the reel itself, and there
fastened, each to an end of an arm or
branch of the reel. Thus disposed, the
winder, giving motion to the reel by turn-
ing the handle, guides the threads, substi-
tutes new ones, when any of them break,
or any of the balls are [wound out;
strengthens them where necessary'', b}^ ad-
ding others, and takes away the balls
wound out, or that having been pierced,
are full of water.

In this manner, two persons will spin
and reel three jiounds of silk in a day,
which is done with greater despatch than
is made by the spinning wheel or distaff.
Indeed, all silks cannot be spun and reeled
after this manner; either because the balls
have been perforated by the silk-worms
themselves, or because tliey are double,
or too weak to bear the water, or because
they are coarse, &c. — Of all these togeth-
er they make a particular kind of "silk,
called floretta; which being carded, or ev-
en spun on the distaff, or the wheel, in the
condition it comes from the ball, makes a
tolerable silk. As to the balls, after
opening them with scissors and taking out
the insects, (which are of some use for
the feeding of poultry,) they are steeped
three or four days in troughs, the water
of which is changed every day to prevent
putrefaction. When they are well soft-



ened by this scouring, and cleared of that
gummy matter; the worm had lined
the inside with, and which renders it im-
penetrable to the water, and even to air
itself, they boil them half an hour in a
ley of ashes, very clear and well strained;
and after washing them out in river or
running water, and drying them in the
sun, they card and spin them on the wheel
(^'C, and thus make another kind of floret-
ta, somewhat inferior to the former.

As to the spinning and reeling of raw
silks off the balls, such as they are
brought from Italy and the Levant the first
is chiefly performed on the spinning
wheel, and the latter either on hand reels,
or on reels mounted on machines which
serve to reel several skeins at the same
time. As to the milling, they use a mill
composed of several pieces, which may
mill two or three hundred bobbins at
once, and make them into as many
skeins. For dying of silk, see p. 19.

DEFINITION OF TERMS.

Beghuiing with the. letter Ji.

Jicetic tdcicl, Differs from acetous acid,
by having a larger proportion of oxygen.

Jicetate of Potash. This salt occurs
native in thesap and some other vegetable
juices.

Jicetous Acid, is obtained from vin-
egar by distillation.

Jicetum Rosatum. Vinegar of roses, is
produced by rose-buds infused in vinegar
five or six weeks, the roses are then pres-
sed out, and the vinegar preserved, it is
used in cases of head-ache.

Jlceluyn Prophylacticum, Is a prepa-
ration of acetic acid, camphor, flower of
lavender, 4*c. It is called also the F'in-
egar of the four thieves, who during the
plague at Marseilles, plundered the sick,
the dying, and the dead, and escaped un-
hurt b}?- the use of this preparation.

Acids, Possess the following properties
(among others. ) They change the blue
colours of vegtables to red. The vegeta-
ble blues employed for this purpose are
generally tincture of litmus, and syrup of
violets or radishes, which have obtained
the name of reagents or tests. If these
colours have been previously converted
into green by alkalies, the acids restore
them again.

Scidifiahlc base or radical. Is any sub-



DEFINITION OF TERMS.



41



stance whether simple or compound, that
is capable of uniting without decomposi-
tion, with such a quantity of oxygen, as
to become possessed of acid properties. Al-
most all the acids agree with each other
in containing oxygen, but they differ in
their radicals; of course the acidifiable
base or radical determines the species of
acid.

Sulphur combined with oxygen, forms
sulphuric or vitriolic acid.

Almost all substances will combine
with oxygen, but they are not all acidifia-
ble bases. That the process of acidifica-
tion may take place, a large proportion of
oxygen is necessary, otherwise [the result
is only an oxyde.

^ther or Ether, An extremely vola-
tile spirit, made by distilling alcohol with
an acid, and then precipitating the acid
gaSjWith an alkali. The properties of the
aether obtained are supposed to vary a little
according to the acid employed; accord-
ingly every particular kind is distinguish-
ed by the acid employed in its prepara-
tion.

Thus the aether obtained by means of
sulphuric acid, is called sulphuric sether;
that by means of nitrous acid, nitrous
sether.

JigglutinantSf A class of strengthen-
ing medicines, of a glutinous or viscous
nature; which, by readily adhering to the
solids, contribute greatly to repair their
loss. They may be divided in two kinds;

1st, Good nourishing food, especially
jellies,whether of hartshorn, veal, mutton,
&c, &c.

2nd. Medicines, properly so called.

Alhunien, The white of eggs, and a
substance found at the roots of various
vegetables, also in wheat, and the farina-
ceous seeds, and in most of the green and
succulent plants and jelly, is known by
the name of Albumen. It is supposed
that when albumen is converted into jelly,
acid is evolved, and oxygen combined
with the jelly during the process, — lliat
is, the oxygen supplies the place of the
acid.

Alburnum, The soft white substance,
found in trees between the liber, or inner
bark, and the .true wood, and which in
process of time, is converted into that
substance.

Alkali, The term alkali, is applied to



all bodies which possess the following pro-
perties. 1. A caustic taste. 2. The pro-
perty of being volatilized by heat, 3, Of
being capable of combining with acids.
4, Of being soluble in water, even when
combined with carbonic acid, and 5, Ca-
llable of converting vegetable blues into
green.

Alkaline Earths, Are those earths
which agree with the alkali in the proper-
ty of solubility in water to a certain ex-
tent, of changing blue and red vegetable
colours to green; of absorbing carbonic
acid; and of possessing those acrid qualities
that distinguish the alkalies.

Magnesia, lime, barytes, and strontian,
are deemed alkaline earths, but the former
is very imperfectly so, being scarcely
more soluble in water than silex, Barytes
and strontian approach nearer to an alkali,
than lime, in being largely soluble in
water.

Alum, A neutral salt, the base of which
is alumina, argil or clay, combined with
sulphuric acid. Potash or ammonia, are
also "supposed to be ingredients in the
composition forming a triple salt.

Alumina, Is the argilaceous part of
common clay, that is, pure argil or clay,
free from impurities. It is smooth and unc-
tions to the touch, when pure diffusible in
water, and adhering to the tongue. Its
specific gravity is 200°, or double that of
water. Its bulk is diminished by great
heat, and its hardness so increased, as to
strike fire with steel. It forms a difficult
combination with acids. With the sul-
phuric, it makes sulphate of alumina; but
its crystallization is difficult, both with
the nitric and muriatic. It has a power-
ful attraction for lime. The most intense
heat is not able lo melt it alone, but it is
easily fusible when lime or an alkali is
added to it. By its mixture with water
and silex, it acquires great solidity.

Anemometer, Among mechanical phi-
losophers, an instrument contrived for
measuring the strength of the wind.

Antiseptics, Among physicians, a de-
nomination given to all substances that re-
sist putrefaction.

The following table exhibits a compar-
ative view of the antiseptic virtue ol salts,
the common sea salt being reckoned equal
to unity.

Sea Salt. 1. Sal. Gemmae, 1. Tartar



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