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Main Ub. ^IST.













• *•• THE ASCENSION OF MOHAMMED.
frpm.D'Ohjsqrfa 'Thble^u &entrctl de V Empire Othoman.



MOHAMMED'

AND

THE RISE OF ISLAM



BY

D. S. MARGOLIOUTH



THIRD EDITION



G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
NEW YORK AND LONDON
3be •Knickerbocker press



(3P76-
A?3
1906



b



Copyright, 1905

BY

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS



ttbe fmfclterbocRer f>re««, Hew Uorfe



• .• • •



• • .•-•»



• •• •.:• • •
:• :.• : •••



• • • ••




PREFACE



THE biographers of the Prophet Mohammed*
form a long series which it is impossible to
end, but in which it would be honourable
to find a place. The most famous of them is prob-
ably Sir Walter Raleigh, f while the palm for elo-
quence and historical insight may well be awarded
to Gibbon. \

During the time when Gibbon wrote, and for long
after, historians mainly relied for their knowledge of
the life of Mohammed on the Biography of Abu'l-
Fida, who died in the year 722 A.H., 1322 A.D., of
whose work Gagnier produced an indifferent edition. §
The scholars of the nineteenth century were natur-
ally not satisfied with so late an authority ; and they
succeeded in bringing to light all the earliest docu-
ments preserved by the Mohammedans. The merit

* Of the sources of the biography of the Prophet a valuable ao
count is given by E. Sachau, Ibn Sad III., i., Preface.

\ The Life and Death of Mahomet, London, 1637. (If genuine.)

\ Among eloquent accounts of Mohammed, that in Mr. Reade's
Martyrdom of Man, 14th ed., 260 foil., deserves mention. That
by Wellhausen in the introduction to Das Arabische Reich und sein
Sturz is masterly in the extreme.

§ Oxford, 1723. Abu'1-Fida is referred to as the chief authority
perhaps for the last time by T. Wright, Christianity in Arabia.

iii

222387



iv Preface

of discovering and utilising these ancient works is
shared by G. Weil, Caussin de Perceval, F. Wiisten-
feld, A. Sprenger, and Sir William Muir ; and the
Lives of Mohammed by the last two of these writers *
are likely to be regarded as classical so long as there
are students of Oriental history in Europe; notwith-
standing the fact that Muir's Life is written with a
confessedly Christian bias, and that Sprenger's is de-
faced by some slipshod scholarship and untrust-
worthy archaeology.f

Since these works were composed, knowledge of
Mohammed and his time has been increased by the
publication of many Arabic texts, and the labours of
European scholars on Mohammedan antiquities. %
The works of I. Goldziher, J. Wellhausen, and Th.
Noldeke have elucidated much that was obscure, and
facilitated the understanding of Arabian history both
before and after the Prophet. And from the follow-
ing Arabic works, most of which have been published
since Sprenger and Muir wrote, many fresh details
of interest and even of importance occasionally have
been furnished.

i . The Musnad, or collection of traditions of Ahmad
Ibn Hanbal, who died in 241 A.H., (855 A.D.: Cairo,



* Muir's, London, 1857-1861 ; Sprenger's (2d ed.), Berlin, 1869.

f Wellhausen's judgment of it ( Wakidi, pp. 24-26) is absolutely
fair and sound.

\ The most important Lives of Mohammed which have appeared
in Europe are those by L. Krehl (Leipzig, 1884), H. Grimme (Miins-
ter, 1892-1895), F. Buhl (Copenhagen, 1903). The new editions of
Grimme's work and of Wollaston's Half-hours with Mohammed,
and the magnificent work of Prince Caetani were published too late
for the present writer to utilise.



Preface v

1890, in six volumes, fol.). In this work the sayings
of the Prophet recorded by different individuals are
given in separate collections for each individual. The
same tradition is sometimes given ten, twenty, or
even a hundred times. Much of the matter is
scarcely to be found elsewhere, and is likely to be
genuine. The account of this work given by Gold-
ziher, Z. D. M. G., 1. 463-599, is of course excellent.

2. The gigantic Commentary on the Kora?i by the
historian Tabari, who died 310 A.H., (922 A.D.: Cairo,
1902- 1904, in thirty volumes, fol.). This commentary
is for the historian of far greater value than the pop-
ular commentaries of Zamakhshari and Baidawi, who
lived many centuries later, and were influenced by
later controversies.

3. The fsaba/i, or Dictionary of Persons who knew
Mohammed, by Ibn Hajar (Calcutta, 1853-1894,
four volumes). In spite of the late date of the author
of this great dictionary, his work is historically valu-
able, owing to the fact that it embodies matter taken
from sources which are no longer accessible. Ibn
Hajar was possessed of an extraordinary library.

4. The works of early Arabic writers, especially
the polygraph 'Amr, son of Bahr, called Al-Jahiz,
who died in 255 A.H. (868 A.D.). Of his works there
are now accessible three edited by the late Van
Vloten, and the treatise on rhetoric published in
Cairo. Though not dealing directly with Moham-
med, they contain many an allusion which it is pos.
sible to utilise.

The present writer has gone through, in addition
to these (so far as they were accessible to him),



vi Preface

the authorities utilised already by his predecessors,
of which the chief are enumerated in the Biblio-
graphy. One of these, the Class Book of Ibn Scid
{pb. 230 A.H., 845 A.D.) is in course of publication.

Since the authors of books in this series have the
number of their pages limited, it has been found
necessary to abbreviate, and this has been done by
omitting three kinds of matter :

1. Translations of the Koran (except in the rarest
cases).

2. All anecdotes that are obviously or most prob-
ably fabulous.

3. Such incidents as are of little consequence
either in themselves or for the development of the
narrative.

Some principles for estimating the credibility of
traditions are given by Muir in his Introduction, and
by Goldziher in his Muhammadanische Studien. A
few important observations bearing on this subject
are also made by Noldeke, Z. D. M. G., Hi., 16, foil.
The number of motives leading to the fabrication of
traditions was so great that the historian is in con-
stant danger of employing as veracious records what
were deliberate fictions. I can only hope that I
have not displayed greater credulity than my pre-
decessors. In condemning traditions as unhistorical
I have ordinarily considered the obelus of Goldziher,
Noldeke, or Wellhausen as sufficient.

The standpoint from which this book is written
is suggested by the title of the series. I regard
Mohammed as a great man, who solved a political
problem of appalling difficulty, — the construction of



Preface vii

a state and an empire out of the Arab tribes. I have
endeavoured, in recounting the mode in which he
accomplished this, to do justice to his intellectual
ability and to observe towards him the respectful
attitude which his greatness deserves ; but otherwise
this book does not aim at being either an apology or
an indictment. Indeed neither sort of work is now
required. The charming and eloquent treatise of
Syed Ameer Ali * is probably the best achievement
in the way of an apology for Mohammed that is
ever likely to be composed in a European language,
whereas indictments are very numerous — some dig-
nified and moderate, as is the work of Sir William
Muir; others fanatical and virulent. f These works
are ordinarily designed to show the superiority or in-
feriority of Mohammed's religion to some other sys-
tem ; an endeavour from which it is hoped that this
book will be found to be absolutely free.

There are two forms of literature to which I should
especially wish to acknowledge obligations. One of
these consists of works in which we have authentic
biographies of persons who have convinced many of
their fellows that they were in receipt of divine
communications; in particular I may mention the
history of modern Spiritualism, by F. Podmore,^:
and the study on the founder of Mormonism, by I.
W. Riley. § For the employment of "revelations"

*The Spirit of Islam, London, 1896, Calcutta, 1902.

\ Bottom is probably touched by the New but True Life of the Car~
penter, including a New Life of Mohammed, by Amos : Bristol, 1903.

\ Modern Spiritualism, London, Macmillan, 1902.

%A Psychological Study of Joseph Smith, Jr., London, Heine-
man n, 1903.



viii Preface

as a political instrument, and for the difficulties
which attend the career of Prophet-statesman,
the life of Joseph Smith (the founder of Mor-
monism) furnishes illustrations of the most in-
structive character; only the biographer of
Mohammed must envy the wealth and authenticity
of the material at Dr. Riley's disposal, without
which the formulae of modern psychology could not
have been applied to the interpretation of Smith's
career so successfully as Dr. Riley has applied
them.

A second class of works are those in which savage
life is described at first hand : and among these the
Autobiography of James P. Beckwourth deserves
special notice. There are chapters in that work
where by substituting camel for horse we might find
a reproduction of Bedouin manners and institutions ;
and the question of Beckwourth's veracity does not
affect the general truth of his descriptions.

Finally, I have to thank various persons from
whom I have derived assistance. I am indebted for
many suggestions and improvements to the Editor
of the Series, to J. P. Margoliouth, and to the Rev.
W. J. Foxell, who have read and re-read the proofs ;
to Mr. A. E. Cowley, Fellow of Magdalen College,
for advice in the selection of coins ; to Dr. J. Ritchie,
Fellow of New College, and Mr. R. B. Townshend
for guidance with regard to medical and anthropo-
logical works ; and to Mr. G. Zaidan, editor of the
Cairene journal Hilal, for leave to reproduce certain
plates that have appeared in his magazine, and also
for the names of certain Arabic works with which I



Preface



IX



was not previously acquainted. Mr. Zaidan is well
known in Arabic-speaking countries as a historian,
novelist, and journalist; and I hope that ere long I
may have the pleasure of introducing some of his
works to English readers.



In the second edition certain errors have been corrected, to which
the author's attention was called by Pere Lammens, S.J., of Beyrut,
and Prof. I. Goldziher.




CONTENTS



PAGE

PREFACE . iU

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii

TRANSLITERATION XVU

CHRONOLOGY xix

GEOGRAPHY Xxi

CHAPTER I
THE BIRTHPLACE OF THE HERO .... I

CHAPTER II
EARLY LIFE OF MOHAMMED 45

CHAPTER III
ISLAM AS A SECRET SOCIETY , . . .83

CHAPTER IV
PUBLICITY Il8

CHAPTER V

HISTORY OF THE MECCAN PERIOD . . . • l$ 2

xi



xii Contents

CHAPTER VI

PAGE

THE MIGRATION 185

CHAPTER VII
THE BATTLE OF BADR 234

CHAPTER VIII
PROGRESS AND A SETBACK 275

CHAPTER IX
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE JEWS .... 309

CHAPTER X
STEPS TOWARDS THE TAKING OF MECCAH . . 338

CHAPTER XI
THE TAKING OF MECCAH 377

CHAPTER XII
THE SETTLEMENT OF ARABIA .... 410

CHAPTER XIII
THE LAST YEAR 444

INDEX 473





ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGK

THE ASCENSION OF MOHAMMED . Frontispiece

From D'Ohsson's Tableau antral de P Empire
Othoman.

TOMB OF EVE AT JEDDAH 6

SHERIF'S HOUSE AT MECCAH 12

COIN, WITH ABYSSINIAN KING APHIDAS ON OBVERSE,
AND ON REVERSE THE LAST JEWISH KING OF
YEMEN, DHU NUWAS OR DIMEAN ... 36

From Rlippell, Reise in Abessinien, t. viii., pi.
vi.; vol. ii., pp. 344 and 429.

THE WELL ZEMZEM 48

From Ali Bey's Travels.

VIEW OF ARAFAT 5 1

BEDOUIN ARABS STORY-TELLING ...» 59
Drawn by Alfred Fredericks.

THE BLACK STONE 79

From Ali Bey's Travels.

POSTURES OF PRAYER 102

xiii



xiv Illustrations

PAGE

MOSQUE OF OMAR, JERUSALEM . . . .128

From Archer and Kingsford's Story of the
Crusades.

M. EARLY MOSLEM COIN 133

(Bodleian Library.) Cf Lane- Poole, Or. Coins
of the British Museum, i., p. 174, 4.

AR. COIN OF KHOSROES II., WITH MOSLEM FORMULA

ADDED 133

Bodleian Library.

AV. COIN OF HERACLIUS I. AND HERACLIUS CON-
ST ANTINE . . . . . . • ^33

(Bodleian Library.) Cf. Sabatier, Monnaies
Byzantines, pi. xxix., 18.

AR. COIN OF KHOSROES II 133

(Bodleian Library.) Cf. Longperier, Dynastie
Sassanide, pi. xi., 4.

JE. MOSLEM IMITATION OF COIN OF HERACLIUS,

STRUCK AT EMESA I33

(Bodleian Library.) Cf. Lane- Poole, Or. Coins
of the British Museum, ix., p. 6.

VIEW OF MASSOUA ...... 157

From a lithograph.

OBELISKS AT AXUM 160

From an engraving.

ON THE ROAD TO MEDINAH 2IO

CUFIC KORAN IN THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY, SURAH

LXXII., 27, 28, AND LXXIII., 1,2. . . 219

CAMELS OF BURDEN RESTING 244

From De Laborde's Voyage en Syrie.



Illustrations xv

PACK

A CARAVAN HALTED 252

From a photograph.

ARAB WOMAN ATTENDING WOUNDED MAN . . 291

From Mayeux's Bedouins.

TOMB OF THE MARTYRS NEAR MEDINAH . . 306

CARAVAN FACING JEBEL NUR . . . , 311

THE DROMEDARY OF THE DESERT .... 341
Etching by R. Swain Gifford.

PANORAMA OF MECCAH 345

From the "Hilal," 1902.

LETTER OF THE PROPHET TO THE "MUKAUKIS,"

DISCOVERED BY M. £TIENNE BARTH£l£mY ;

BELIEVED BY SEVERAL SCHOLARS TO BE THE

ACTUAL DOCUMENT REFERRED TO IN THE

TEXT ... .... 365

From the "Hilal," Nov. 1904.

VIEW OF MINA 372

From All Bey's Travels.

PILGRIMS LEAVING ARAFAT 382

THE KA'BAH WITH THE STATION OF ABRAHAM . 386

From the "Hilal."

THE HOLY CARPET 394

From the "Hilal."

A BEDOUIN ON A CAMEL 436

SABJEAN INSCRIPTION 440

In the British Museum.



XVI



Illustrations



THE REMAINS OF A PALACE AT AXUM
From an engraving.

THE HOLY MOSQUE AT MECCAH
From the "Hilal."

THE Ka'bAH WITH PILGRIMS PRAYING

PLAN OF MECCAH

MAP OF ARABIA IN THE 7TH CENTURY A.D.

MAP OF WEST CENTRAL ARABIA IN THE
7TH CENTURY A.D. ....



PAGE

. 443
. 444
. 460

> AT END



TRANSLITERATION

In this matter the example of Noldeke and Well-
hausen in their popular writings has been followed.
The mode of transliteration is similar to that in use at
Cairo for ordinary purposes. The Arabic letters are
represented by those English letters or combinations
of letters which come nearest to the Arabic sounds:
one who is acquainted with the original language
will without difficulty be able to identify the words
and names ; whereas, to the reader who is ignorant of
Arabic, further differentiation by means of diacritic
points (e, g. t s, t, k) is of no value. A few proper
names that are familiar have been left in their
popular forms.










CHRONOLOGY

COMPARATIVE tables of months and days
as between the Mohammedan and Christian
eras are to be found in Wiistenfeld, Vergleich-
ungstabellen der Muhammedanischen und Christ-
lichen Zeitrechnung, 2d ed., Leipzig, 1903 ; copied in
Tre'sor de Chronologie, Paris, 1889. Others are in Dub-
baneh's Universal Calendar, Cairo, 1896, and (in
Arabic) the Taivfikiyydt of Mukhtar Basha, Cairo,
131 1. For the first nine years of Islam these tables
are somewhat misleading, since they assume that
the pre-Islamic Calendar was purely lunar, whereas it
is certain that it was not. Moreover the occasional
notices of the weather during the Prophet's expe-
ditions, etc. (collected by Wellhausen, W. p. 17, sq.,
Reste, pp. 94-101), disagree seriously with Wusten-
feld's synchronisms; in some cases by antedating
the events by two and a half months tolerable cor-
respondence is obtained. It is not however possible
to make out enough of the pre-Islamic Calendar to
substitute a detailed scheme for Wustenfeld's ; and
it has been pointed out by Winckler (Altorie?italische
Forschungen, ii., 324-350) that the Calendar of Medi-
nah may well have been different from that of Mec-
cah, the same month-names having quite different



xx Chronology

values at the two cities. His investigations into
the origin of the Arabic Calendar, which have been
amplified by D. Nielsen, Die Altarabische Mond-
religion, Strassburg, 1904, are of no practical import-
ance for fixing the dates of events during the early
years of the Hijrah. The date of the Flight itself (8
Rabi' I., Sept. 20, 622) is fixed by the tradition that
the Prophet arrived at Kuba on the Jewish Day of
Atonement. Another date, that of the burial of the
Prophet's son Ibrahim, is fixed by the solar eclipse,
7-9 A.M., Jan. 27, 632 ; but the synchronism, 28
Shawwal, A. H. 10, is not in agreement with the
Arabic records, which put the event in some other
month. The traditions bearing on this subject are
discussed by Rhodokanakis, IV. Z. K. M. f xiv., 78 ;
another synchronism suggested ibid, from the lunar
eclipse of Nov. 19-20,625, identified with 13 Jumada
II. A. H. 4, is useless, since the month and year in
the Arabic tradition are uncertain. To a further
synchronism, connected with the Prophet's birth,
discussed by Mahmoud Efendi, Sur le Calendrier
Arabe avant V fslamisme, an allusion is sufficient.




GEOGRAPHY

THE political conditions of Arabia will have al-
tered very considerably before any scientific
exploration and surveying of the country are
possible. The maps which have been added to this
volume are intended as an unpretentious aid to those
who would follow the campaigns of the Prophet and
the gradual extension of his sphere of influence.
For both, the author has availed himself of Sprenger's
classical works on Arabian geography — Die Post- und
Reiserouten des Orients, Leipzig, 1864, and Die alte
Geographie Arabiens, Bern, 1875. For the map of
Central Arabia, use has further been made of Wiisten-
f eld's Das Gebiet von Medina, Gottingen, 1873, and
also of the measurements given by Al-Bekri in his
Geographical Dictionary, ed. Wiistenfeld, 1876; valu-
able information about the modern nomenclature of
this part of Arabia is to be found in the monographs
Die geographische Lage Mekkas, by J. J. Hess, Frei-
burg (Schweiz), 1900, and Der Hedjaz und die Strasse
von Mekka ?iach Medina, by B. Moritz, Berlin, 1890.
The map of the location of Tribes is based on
the monograph of Blau, Z.D.M.G., xxiii., Arabien
im sechsten Jahrhundert, whose results have been
modified in part from Hamdani's Geography of the



xxii Geography

Arabian Penifisula, ed. Miiller, 1891, and in part from
the authorities already mentioned. The results of
exploration in Arabia down to the year 1875 are weu *
summarised by A. Zehme in the work called A rabien
und die Araber seit 100 Jahren, Halle, 1875; while
D. Hogarth's Penetration of Arabia, London, 1904,
summarises more recent enterprise. The plan of
Meccah which is reproduced, is that of Burckhardt, as
modified by Wustenfeld in the fourth volume of his
Chroniken der Stadt Mekka, Leipzig, 1861 ; its cor-
rectness is attested by the greatest modern authority
on Meccah, Snouck Hurgronje, who adopts it with
very trifling alterations in his article in the Verhand-
lungen der geographischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin,
xiv., 138, foil., 1887, as well as in his classical work
on Meccah.





BIBLIOGRAPHY*

i . Lives of Mohammed and Histories of the early days of
Islam :

Ibn Ishak (quoted in the notes as Ishak), ob. about
150 a.h., 767 a.d.: his work (so far as is at present known)
exists in two abridgments only: that by Ibn Hisham, ob.
218 a.h., 833 a.d., which has been published by Wiistenfeld,
Gottingen, i860, and later by Zubair Pasha; and that by
Tabari, ob. 310 a.h., 922 a.d., embodied in his Chronicle,
published at Leyden, 1882-1885.

Wakidi, ob. 207 a.h., 823 a.d., author of a treatise on
Mohammed's Campaigns, of which an imperfect edition was
issued by von Kremer, Calcutta, 1856; an abridged transla-
tion of a far more perfect copy was made by Wellhausen and
published with the title Muhammed in Medina, Berlin, 1882.
To this last reference is made as Wakidi (W.).

Ibn Sa'd, Secretary of Wakidi, ob. 230 a.h., 845 a.d.;
author oi an encyclopaedic work on the Prophet, his followers,
etc., of which three volumes have thus far been published
at Berlin under the superintendence of E. Sachau.

Ya'kubi, ob. about 292 a.h., 905 a.d., author of a history
in two parts, Pre-Islamic and Islamic, published by Houtsma,
Leyden, 1883.

Ibn al-Athir, ob. 630 a.h., 1233 a.d., author of a Universal
History, published at Leyden and in Egypt.

Diyarbekri, ob. 982 a.h., 1574 a.d., author of a Life of the
Prophet, followed by a sketch of Islamic history, called
Ta'rikh al-Khatnis, published at Cairo, 1302 a.h.

* Works mentioned in the Preface are not repeated here.



xxiv Bibliography

Halabi, ob. 1044 a.h., 1634 a.d., author of a Life of the
Prophet, called Insan al-'uyun, published at Cairo, 1292 a.h.

2. Books of Tradition (i.e. collections of sayings attri-
buted to the Prophet, and traced back to him through a
series of trustworthy witnesses) :

Musnad of Ibn Hanbal. See Preface.

Collection by Bokhari, ob. 256 a.h., 870 a.d.: the un-
finished edition by Krehl, Leyden, 1 864-1 868, is quoted as
Bokhari (K.); for the parts wanting in this edition that of
Cairo, 13 12, has been used; Bokhari (Kast.) refers to the
sixth edition of the Commentary of Kastalani, Cairo, 1306 a.h.

Collection by Muslim, ob. 261 a.h., 875 a.d., published at
Cairo, 1290 a.h.

Collection by Tirmidhi, ob. 279A.H., 892 a.d., published
at Cairo, 1292, in two volumes, and Lucknow, 130 1, in one
volume.

Collection by Nasa'i, ob. 303 a.h., 916 a.d., published at
Cairo, 13 14 a.h.

These collections are enumerated in order of importance.
The remaining authentic collections, by Malik Ibn Anas, ob.
179 a.h., 795 a.d., Ibn Majah, ob. 273 a.h., 887 a.d., and Abu
Dawud, ob. 275 a.h., 889 a.d., have not been cited.

3. Commentaries on the Koran:

Tab. or Tabari (Comm.) refers to the Commentary on the
Koran by the historian whose date has been given above,
recently published at Cairo. Other commentaries occa-
sionally cited are those by Zamakhshari, ob. 538 a.h.,
1 144 a.d.; Baidawi, ob. 691 a.h., 1292 a.d.

Of modern works on the Koran, Preserved Smith, The
Bible and Islam, New York, 1897, is occasionally cited; the
author has further profited by the treatises of H. Hirschfeld,
though he has had no occasion to cite them. The remaining
Arabic works occasionally cited in the notes will be familiar
to scholars.

4. History of Meccah and Medinah :

History of Meccah by Azraki, ob. about 245 a.h., 859 a.d.,



Bibliography xxv

edited by Wustenfeld, Leipzig, 1858. The editor has ap-
pended in two volumes extracts from other and later his-
torians of Meccah, and in a third volume a German epitome
of the whole.

History of Medinah by Samhudi, ob. 911 a.h., 1505 a.d.,
published at Cairo, 1285 a.h.: epitomised by Wustenfeld in
his Geschichte der Stadt Medina, Gottingen, 1873.

Modern works on Meccah and Medinah.

Burckhardt's Travels, quoted from the French transla-
tion, Paris, 1835.

Burton's Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah, Memorial
edition, London, 1893.

A. H. Keane, Six Months in the Hejaz, London, 1887.

Soubhy, Pelerinage a la Mecque et b, Medine, Cairo, 1894.

Muhammad Basha Sadik, The Pilgrim's Guide (Arabic),
Cairo, 1313 a.h., 1895 a.d.

Gervais-Courtellemont, Mon Voyage a la Mecque, Paris,

1897.

Sabri Pasha, Mirror of the Two Sanctuaries (Turkish),
Constantinople, 1886.

5. Works of I. Goldziher:

M.S., abbreviation for Muhammadanische Studien, Halle,
1889, 1890.
Abhandlungen zur arabischen Litteratur, Leyden, 1896, 1899.

6. Of Th. Noldeke:

Geschichte des Korans, Gdttingen, i860.

Das Leben Muhammeds, Hannover, 1863.

Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden,
Leyden, 1879.

Die Ghassanischen Fursten aus dem Hause Gafna's, Berlin,
1887.

Sketches of Eastern History, trans, by Black, London, 1896.

7. Of J. W T ellhausen:

Muhammed in Medina, see above; the introduction and
notes are cited as Wellhausen (W.) or (Wakidi).
Reste arabischen Heidenthums, Berlin, 1897.
Skizzen und Vorarbeiten, viertes Heft, Berlin, 1889.



XXVI



Bibliography



Die Ehe bei den Arabern, GSttingen, 1893.

Das arabische Reich und sein Sturz, Berlin, 1902.

Numerous articles by these writers in the Z. D. M. G.
(Zeitschrift der deutschen trior genldndischen Gesellschaft) and
W. Z. K. M. {Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgen-
landes) are also cited; J. R. A. S. stands for Journal of the
Royal Asiatic Society.







MOHAMMED



MOHAMMED



CHAPTER I

THE BIRTHPLACE OF THE HERO

AT some time in the year 594 of our era, a cara-
van bearing the merchandise of a wealthy
woman at Meccah was safely conducted to
Bostra and safely brought back with profits propor-
tionate to the risk of the undertaking. Of the quali-
ties necessary for the conduct of such an expedition
many differ little from those required by a successful



Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthMohammed and the rise of Islam → online text (page 1 of 32)