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D. S. (David Samuel) Margoliouth.

The early development of Mohammedanism; lectures delivered in the University of London, May and June 1913 online

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Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe early development of Mohammedanism; lectures delivered in the University of London, May and June 1913 → online text (page 18 of 18)
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the Koran, 234.
Kharijis or Khawarij= professional

rebels, i.e. believers in the

doctrine that an evil-doer is an

Unbeliever, whence an unjust



sovereign may be deposed,
massacred Moslem women
and children, but spared Jews
and Christians, 59, 209, 213.
Koraizah, Jewish tribe at Medinah,

243-
Koran, meaning of the name, 9, 12 ;

delivered orally, 33 ; collection
of, 25-28, 32, 43 ; official edition
of, 36 ; reasons for believing
its genuineness, 33 ; com-
mentaries on, 8, 21 ; ritual
and liturgical use of, 15, 21,
31 ; Sufi affection for, 178.
Kufah, obtains university rank after
Medinah, 73 ; earliest seat of
asceticism, 146 ; a grandson of
Iblis lived there, 226.

Land-tax, case in which the land
is sold by a Dhimmi to a
Moslem, 119.

Al-Lat and Al-'Uzza, Arabian god-
desses or "houses," 249, 251.

Law, Moslem, its sources and
development. Lectures III. and
IV.

Legacies, law of, ']'] .

Letters, the Prophet's, quoted, 66 ;
not preserved or collected, 20.

Love of God, Sufi theories concern-
ing, 175 ; excludes all other
affection, 179.

Maghrib ("the West"), i.e. Africa
' West of Egypt, 91 ; adjective
Maghrib!, 123.

Mahdi ("the guided one"), a
Messiah looked for from the
Prophet's family, often thought
to be in concealment, 18.

Malik Ibn Anas (715-801), jurist of
Medinah, first compiler of a
body of tradition, his legal
opinions, called Mudawzvanat,
frequently cited in Lectures
III. and IV.

Mansur (see Caliph), tried an ex-
periment with a conjurer, 227 ;
letter of his wherein the Koran
is misquoted, 90, 238.

Marriage with members of tolerated
cults permitted to Moslem man,
but not to woman, 102 ; in-



INDEX



263



cestuous marriages prohibited,

112.

Martyrdom in Islam different from
Christian, 2 ; desired, 57.

Martyrs, their state in Paradise,
216 ; 256.

Matter, question of its eternity, 221.

Maxims of Islam : Islam cancels
all that was before it, 2, 230 ;
Believer shall not be slain for
Unbeliever, 65, 81, 113 ; whoso
obeys the Prophet obeys God,

72.
Mazdak (t529), communist, socialist,

and vegetarian, 141.

Mazdians = Zoroastrians, their status
in Islam, 105, 112 ; debate with
Moslems, 225 ; their name
given to the Mu'tazils by the
orthodox, 214, 224. |

Meccah, evil thoughts penalised
there, 161 ; costliness of living
there, though rent might not
be taken for houses, ibid.

Medicine, disapproved of by Sufis,
156.

Medinah, home of Islam.ic juris-
prudence, 73.

Melkite ("belonging to the Greek
orthodox Church"), 125.

Memories of traditionalists, weak,

79-
Migration or Flight of Mohammed,

the beginning of history for
Moslems, 231 ; myths con-
nected with, 253.

Miracles of the Prophet, Lecture
VIII.

Missions to Christians under Mos-
lem rule, 106.

Moderation, characteristic of Kor-
anic doctrine, 62, 163.

Mohammed, pattern of conduct, 54,
61 ; his admirable character in
legend, 238 ; never complained,
171 ; cannot be personified by
Satan in dreams, 219. See
especially Lectures I., II., and
VIII.

Moses, 185.

Moslems take part in Christian
feasts, 127. See Islam.

Mosques, entrance of forbidden to
Unbelievers, i ; used as de-
bating rooms, 41, 215, 227.



"Mother of the Book," divine
archetype of the Koran, 38, 209.

Mu'awiyah, his war with Ali, re-
ferred to, 52, 139. See Caliph.

Mukaukis, Moslem name for the
Byzantine governor of Egypt,
244.

Mukhtar(t687), political adventurer,
plays the part of prophet, 17,
56, 82 ; avenges the death of
Husain by wholesale massacres,
60.

Murjis, sect who held that faith took
precedence of works, 224.

Music, use of by Sufis, 177.

Mutawakkil, Caliph, enforces ordin-
ance of Omar, 121 ff.

Mu'tazils, "neutrals" or "separat-
ists," become prominent in
the Umayyad period, 213 ;
believed in the freedom of the
will, and had little respect for
tradition, 210, 212, 219.

Mysticism of Islam, different from
other forms, Lectures V., VI.

Nazzam (tabout 840), Mu'tazilite
doctor, 228.

Nestorius, monk who plays a part
in the Prophet's biography, 250.

Niffarl, Mohammed Ibn 'Abd al-
Jabbar (t354), author of the
Mawdkif^ mystic treatise de-
scribed in Lecture VI., 188-200.

Oaths, Moslem, can be cancelled,

48, 60 ; those of Jews and

Christians accepted in certain

cases. III; may be exacted of

defendant, 82.
Omar I., his copy of the Koran, 25,

36 ; his instructions to a judge,

90. See " Ordinance."
Omar II., his rulings on the subject

of taxes, 115 ; of churches, 120;

of etiquette, 155; of heretics,

210.
Oral tradition, 67, 84 ; alone valued,

87 ; ridiculed, 83.
Ordinance of Omar, explained, 118 ;

its enforcement, 1 18-125.
Othman, third Caliph, called the

"Tearer of the Books," 37 ; his

recension of the Koran, 36 ;

his unpopularity, 138 ; siege of



264 EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF MOHAMMEDANISM



his palace, 255 ; murdered, 37,
52 ; enactments during his
reign, 82, 93.
Othman, founder of the Ottoman
empire, described in the Hesht
Bihisht^ 104.

Pantheism, source of Islamic, Lec-
ture VI.

Paradise, its character in the Koran,
135, 180 ; entered by martyrs
immediately after death, 202 ;
Siafi reaction from to a higher
ideal, 145.

Penalties for abandoning Islam, 2 ;
for adultery, 78 ; for murder of
a Jew or Christian, 93, 113;
for theft, III, 228; for wine-
drinking, 82.

" Penitents," the, 56.

Perfume, use of, 164.

Persecution of Moslem heretics,2 10-
212, 217 ; of Jews and Chris-
tians, Lecture IV.

Philosophy, Moslem, origins of
political, 212.

Pickthall, M., quoted, 127.

Pilgrimage, Siafi sublimation of, 159.

" Pillars of Islam," i.e. the Creed,
Prayer, the Fast of Ramadan,
Alms, and the Pilgrimage, 51.

Poetry, employment of by Siifis, 177.

Poverty, Siifi cultivation of, 168.

Practice. See Sunnah.

Prayer, Sfifi treatment of, 148.

Property of enemies, law concern-
ing, 136.

Prophets, equality of, 17, 235.

Proselytism, Islamic, by the sword,
3 ; examples of other methods,

132, 133-

Rabl'ah 'Adwiyyah, woman saint,

her verses, 175.
Ramadan, the fasting month, 127,

150-152, 178.
" Readers," i.e. of the Koran, 56 ;

identified with the Kharijis, 37.
" Refugees," Meccans who migrated

with Mohammed, 19, 84.
Resignation, Sufi notion of, 172.

Saba'is, sect who held that Moham-
med would reappear, 209.
Sacrifice, rules concerning, 160.



Sa'd the copyist, 131.

Sahib Ibn 'Abbad (936-995), famous

minister and scholar, a Mu'tazil,

217.
Sahl al-Tustarl (815-896), Sufi, 90,

156.
Saints, cult of, 54, 125 ; their con-
duct a recognised subject of

study, 139, 142, 146, 166.
Saldt, plural salawdt^ Moslem

prayer, 147.
Satih, wizard, 245.
Schools of law, 97, 107.
Science, natural, in the Koran, 203.
" Scroll," the Veracious, 65.
Sea, mystic passage about, 198.
Sects, "people of fancies," 208 ;

their origin, 209 ; their legal

status, 211.
SeljQk empire, 104, 217.
"Servant of the Lord" in Isaiah

interpreted of Mohammed, 235.
Shabib (1696), insurgent, his hard

heart, 204.
Shafi'I, Mohammed Ibn Idrls (767-

820), founded the science called

Principles of Jurisprudence, 40;

his treatise, called the Umm^

described in Lectures III. and

IV.
Shifa, mother of a Companion, 246.
ShI'ites, partisans of Ali and

his descendants, 58 ; accept

Othman's Koran, 218.
Sickness, Sufi appreciation of, 155.
Siffin, battle of (37 A.H.) between

Ali and Mu'awiyah, 240.
Sinai, churches on, 125.
SirrI Sakati (tabout 865), mystic,

I73-*
Slavery, name applied to status of

tolerated cults, 100 ; rare

example of disapproval of, 223.

Slaves, manumission of, a virtuous
act, 78, 137, 165 ; a non-
Moslem may not have a
Moslem slave, 1 15.

State paper inserted in Koran, 33.

Sujhh, people of the, humble
followers of the Prophet in
Medinah, 255, 257.

5?7;?=" wearer of wool," 141 ; few
notices of them till Abbasid
times, 139, 142 ; exaggerate
the performances prescribed



INDEX



265



in the Koran, Lecture V. ; pro-
ceed to pantheism from the
first article of the Mohammedan
creed, Lecture VL

Sufyan Thauri (t777), early jurist,
80.

Sunnah^ plural sunan^ " the beaten
track," originally the custom
of the community, gradually
interpreted as the practice of
the Prophet, 66, 69-71, 75-98.

Sunnites, orthodox Moslems who
recognise the legitimacy of the
first three Caliphs, 220.

Tabarl (838-923), historian and
commentator, 21, 25, 56, 68,
etc.

Tabijk, Mohammed's expedition
to, 255.

Tawasm, treatise of Hallaj, 182.

Thomas, Acts of, matter taken
from by Siifis, 144.

Thumamah Ibn al-Ashras (tabout
825), philosopher who dis-
approved of slavery, 223.

Travels of traditionalists, 84.

Trench, battle of, 32.

Tribal narratives, 41.

Tribute {jizyaJi) from members of



tolerated cults, 84,
105, 140.



99, 100,



'Ubaidallah b. al-Hasan, philoso-
pher whoheld that contradictory
opinions might be right, 221.

♦Ubaidallah b. Ziyad (t686),
Umayyad governor of Kufah



who sent forces against Husain,
61 ; employed Persian tax-
collectors, 130.

Uhud, battle of, 14, 31.

Unbelievers, question of their
identity with evil-doers, 221.

'Utbah, mystic, 154.

Vicinity, technicality of the higher
Sufism, 192.

Wahb Ibn Munabbih (+770), cited

for fanciful accounts of the

Bible, 154.
Wakfah^ "understanding," highest

stage of pantheism, 188.
Wealth, of the Companions, 136;

not discouraged by the Koran,

.135-
" Wisdom " in the Koran identified

with the Sujinah^ 68.
Writing of any book save the Koran

forbidden, 67.
Written documents suspected, 87.

Yazid L, 72, 117.
Yazld IIL, 211.

Yemamah, campaign of shortly
after the Prophet's death, 6.

Zachariah, 221.

Zaid, adopted son of Mohammed,
whose wife Zainab was taken
by the Prophet, 14, 49.

Zoology of Jahiz described, 225.

Zubair, cousin of the Prophet, 60,
240.



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Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe early development of Mohammedanism; lectures delivered in the University of London, May and June 1913 → online text (page 18 of 18)