D. S. (David Samuel) Margoliouth.

The Popular science monthly (Volume 19) online

. (page 108 of 110)
Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 108 of 110)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

him. But we affirm that the people of your
honorable country dislike the Chinese be-
cause they see the p'.ain appearance and the
patched clothes of our poor, and do not
think how many spirits there are among
us whom they could respect and love."

2. The results of Chinese labor in Cali-
fornia are considerable. In railroad-build-
ing, in farming, fruit-culture, and the rec-
lamation of swamp-lands, in mining and
manufacturing, and in such special indus-
tries as cigar- and shoe making and laundry-
work, they have been of particular service.
Governor Low estimated that four fifths of
the grading on the Central Pacific Railroad
was done by Chinese laborers. Mr. Charles
Crocker, one of the builders of that road,
testified before the Congressional investi-
gating committee : " If I had a big job of
work that I wanted to get through quickly,
and had a limited time to do it in, I should
take Chinese labor to do it with, because of
its greater reliability and steadiness, and
their aptitude and capacity for hard work.
They are equal to the best white men."

On this point, however, there is some dis-
crepancy in the evidence, one estimate being
that three Chinamen are needed to do the
work of two first-rate white laborers. In
domestic service the Chinese hold an un-
questioned place. No one who has had ex-
perience of them will underrate their intel-
ligence and faithfulness. A great want of
the American conununity is that of good
house-servants. To what is the lack of
supply due? To our liberal institutions,
the spirit of which makes domestic service
of any kind seem degrading in American
eyes, and even after a short term of resi-
dence in the eyes of the European immi-
grant. But, in the case of the Chinese im-
migrant, who, it is complained, docs not
" assimilate " with us, this moral condition
is not set up. This lack of assimilability
may be owing to our inquisitorial treatment
of him ; but it will be time enough to decide
whether he will assimilate, or wishes to
assimilate, with us, when we shall have
admitted his rights as a human creature.
Meanwhile, as Mr. Seward might have
pointed out, it is precisely because he docs
not assimilate that he makes the best house-
servant that our community has yet seen.
He has no thought of becoming an alder-
man or a mayor, or of being promoted from
the kitchen to Congress. lie comes to do
the day's work for the day's wages; he
does it faithfully and contentedly, and there
the matter ends. If American politicians
have taken pleasure in the rapid assimila-
tion of the Celtic contingent in our immi-
gration, American housekeepers, on the
other hand, would welcome a class of ser-
vants a little less in haste to assimilate, and
a little more disposed to serve. If the
American home is in danger of extinction,
as some foreign critics have predicted, and
our families are to be driven into hotels for
the lack of cooks and chambermaids, it will
not be because a race of real servants could
not be brought from China.

3. The main objection to Chinese im-
migration, as already intimated, is political,
and not social. Political equality, political
availability, have been made the test, and
unjustly so. Mr. Seward reviews other
grounds of objection in detail, and con-
cludes by saying : " I .dispute earnestly the
statement that they are a sers'ile class ; that



they interfere with the labor of our people ;
that they send money out of the country ;
that they have set up a qwisi government of
their own upon our soil; and that they do
not accommodate themselves to the require-
ments of our life." That they are a vicious
people has been argued from their sexual
immorality, which, however, is not greater
than would be expected in a celibate com-
munity like that of the Chinese in Califor-

4. As to the fear of an overflowing im-
migration of the Chinese, in case immigra-
tion should be freely permitted, the fact is
that the Chinese arc not, and never have
been, a migratory people, but are, on the
contrary, more strongly attached to their
native soil than the people of any Western
nation — except, perhaps, the French. They
have not even " settled up " their own out-
lying districts, as Formosa, central and
northern Manchooria, and the vast regions
of inner Mongolia. And it is to be added
that the demand for Chinese labor in
California lessens yearly as the country is
cleared up. The whole question is one that
could safely be left to the operation of
natural laws, social and economic. As it
stands, it has been sadly muddled by gov-
ernmental interference.

Mr. Seward does not deal with the phil-
osophic aspects of the question, though
they are constantly suggested by his book.
One can not leave it without perceiving, for
instance, the strong side of the Chinese
conservatism. The rulers of China see
that conservatism, ancient routine, the es-
tablished order of things, mean a condition
of stable equilibrium for the people, or, in
the terminology of our day, that the indi-
vidual nation is adjusted to its environment ;
and they wisely refuse to break up this ad-
justment by the too hasty introduction of
foreign works or devices of any kind. At
the present writing the Chinese policy seems
to us a sounder one than that of Japan,
where the changes introduced within twenty
years are such as to imperil the institutions
which had been perfecting themselves for
many centuries. But inquiries like this are
outside of the province of this work ; mean-
while, Mr. Seward has given us a full, in-
telligent, and temperate treatment of the
whole question of Chinese immigration.

I which, he thinks, within bounds, would be
wisely encouraged.

Discovery of Paleolithic Flint Imple-
MESTS IN Upper Egypt. Py Professor
Henry \V. Haynes. Pp. 5, with Seven

MM. Brugsch, Mariette, and Chabas,
have denied that any paleolithic imple-
ments occurred in Egypt; M. Arcelin, Dr.
Hamy, M. Lenorinant, the Abbe Richard,
and Sir John Lubbock, have asserted that
they have found them. The general im-
pression has been that the stone implements
of Egypt, which were always used ceremo-
nially in the embalming process, were all
neolithic, and of historic times. The au-
thor went to look for himself, and claims
that he found near Cairo, and near Ilelouan,
in the desert, and in the valley west of
Thebes, palaeolithic implements of the true
St. Acheul type, with the other forms that
usually occur with them, some of which were
exhibited in Paris, and have been referred to
in articles by M. de Mortillet and himself,
which have been published in " The Popu-
lar Science Monthly." Sixty illustrations
of the implements are given in the plates to
the present work.

A Memorial of Joseph Hesry. Published
by order of Congress. Washington:
Government Printing-Office. Pp. 528.
A public commemoration of the ser-
vices of Joseph Henry in behalf of the
Smithsonian Institution and of scientific
progress in America was held, under the
auspices of the Regents of the Institution
in conjunction with the two Houses of Con-
gress, on the ICth of January, 1879. The
present volume contains the verbatim report
of the proceedings on the occasion, pub-
lished under the direction of Congress, to-
gether with the addresses which were de-
livered at other memorial meetings, of
Princeton College, and several scientific so-
cieties. In the memorial services at the
Capitol, Professor Asa Gray, in behalf of
the Board of Regents, gave a brief state-
ment of the life, studies, experiments, dis-
coveries, and general scientific work of Pro-
fessor Henry ; Professor W. B. Rogers made
a -special review of his electrical studies and
1 discoveries. Mr. Garfield showed how, when



: I

all others had failed, he solved the true
meaning of Smithson's bequest in a way of
which the world has recognized the correct-
ness, and Mr. S. S. Cox how he had labored
to give that meaning effect; and General
Sherman bore testimony to Professor Hen-
ry's personal qualities as a scientific teacher
and guide; while the Hon. Hannibal Ham-
lin demonstrated the satisfactory manner in
which he had managed the financial and <
material interests of the institution, and
the excellent condition in which he left it.
To these minutes are added a memorial dis- j
course by Samuel B. Dodd, and reminis- ,
cences by Professor Cameron, at Princeton
College ; the discourse of President Welling,
of Columbian University, before the Philo-
sophical Society of Washington ; the dis-
course hy William B. Taylor before the
same body on " The Scientific Work of Jo-
seph Henry," full and elaborate enough to
make a volume by itself ; and addresses by
Professor J. Lovering, Professor Simon
Newcomb, and Professor A. M. Mayer, be-
fore the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences, the National Academy of Sci
ences, and the American Association, re-
spectively. The special subject of the last
address is " Henry as a Discoverer." The
recognition of the simplicity, gentleness, and
strict integrity of Professor Henry's char-
acter is a distinct feature in all of the ad-

Anniversary Memoirs of the Boston So-
ciETY OF Natural History. Published j
in Celebration of the Fiftieth Anniver- '
sary of the Society's Foundation, 1830-
1880. Boston : Published by the Society.
Pp. 635, with 44 Plates. Price, $10.

The Boston Society of Natural History,
having completed its fiftieth year in 1880,
celebrated the event by a jubilee meeting
on the 28th of April, and by the publica-
tion of this noble volume, containing the
history of the Society and a number of spe-
cial scientific papers. The book is a worthy
memorial of the work of one of the oldest
and most active of American scientific so-
cieties, and does justice to the part which
that body has taken in the promotion of sci-
entific research and the extension of scien-
tific knowledge in the United States. The
history of the Society is given from year to

year, and by periods of ten years each, with
a minuteness of detail which records every
gift of specimens, every trouble from the
ravages of insects in the museum, and even
such matters as the passage of a resolution
forbidding smoking in the room — things
which may seem superficially of little in-
terest, but which are instructive enough to
justify their place, for they show how the
life of the Society was maintained, what
mistakes it made, and what difficulties it
had to encounter. These features and ac-
cidents are such as are common to all simi-
lar societies, and this frank setting of them
forth, as lessons of experience by which
other bodies may be guided to tlio wisest
management, is a good work. The present
Society was preceded by the Linnaean Soci-
ety of New England, which was founded in
1814, and was the first organized effort to
excite the interest of the American public
in natural science. It had a successful and
prosperous career for several years, but
finally died out because it depended entirely
upon the voluntary effort of men whose
time was already wholly occupied w ith their
own business for its maintenance and the
care of its collections The museum — a fine
one for the period — was given to Harvard
College, which promised to provide a build-
ing for it and did not, and consequently it
was nearly all lost. The Boston Society of
Natural History was founded in ] 830, on the
same plan as the Linna^an Society, and by the
same leading men, and would probably have
met the same fate, but that it came into the
possession of a fund sufficient to put it on
a firm footing and enable it to employ spe-
cial curators for its collections. Its early
history is an epitome of the earlier develop-
ment of scientific thought in this country,
and, in its later history, it has kept pace
with the broadest expansion of that thought.
Its contributions to knowledge, as related
in the yearly records, appear important and
valuable when regarded in detail, and give,
when summed up, occasion for satisfaction
that we have had such a body laboring so
long and so industriously to lead the public
to higher objects of study, and that its vigor
is still waxing. Not the least important of
the works of the Society has been the insti-
tution of the practical scientific lectures to
teachers, with object-illustrations, for the



purpose of introducin|^ better methods of
instruction into the public schools. Besides
the annals of the meetings and work of the
Society, the memorial contains notices of the
lives and labors of its members, officers, and
benefactors, who have died during its ex-
istence, accompanied with nine portraits. In
the " special scientific papers " are included
articles on "The Classification of Lavas,"
by X. S. Shaler ; the " Species of Planorbis
at Steinheim," by Alphcus Hyatt; "The
Devonian Insects of New Brunswick," by
S. H. Scudder ; " The Cedar-Apples of the
United States," by W. G. Farlow; "A
Structural Feature in Deep-Sea Ophiuri-
ans," by Theodore Lyman ; " The Develop-
ment of the Squid," by W. K. Brooks;
" Limulus Polyphemus," by A. S. Packard,
Jr. ; " The Milkweed Butterfly," by Edward
Burgess; "The Development of Double-
headed Vertebrates," by Samuel F. Clarke ;
" The Tongues of Reptiles and Birds," by C.
S. Minot ; " A Special Anatomical Study in
Birds," by E. S. Morse; "The Crania of
New England Indians," by Lucien Carr ; and
"The Feeling of Effort," by William James.


PuoTEAN Aspects. Part L Indiges-

FoTHEKGiLL, M. D., Mcmbcr of the Royal
College of Phvsicians of London. New
York: William Wood & Co. Pp. 3-20.
Price, $2.

This is a book for the medical profes-
sion, and a very valuable one, as it is based
upon the latest scientific knowledge brought
to the test of practice. Physiology and
animal chemistry have made sure and very
important advances in late years, so that
the fundamental changes of digestion, nu-
trition, and excretion are far more clearly
understood than formerly. Physiology,
treating of the normal operations of the
living system, is the basis of all knowledge
of perverted or diseased action, and this
book is written from a strictly physiological
standpoint. It opens with an excellent his-
tory of the processes of natural digestion
in their several stages, including, of course,
the constitution of foods, and their trans-
formations under the influence of the di-
gestive secretions. From this point the
author passes on in succe-sive chapters to
the consideration of Primarv Indigestion,

Artificial Digestion, Ferments, Tissue Nu-
trition, Secondary Indigestion, Diet and
Drink, the Functions of the Liver, Liver
Disturbance, Biliousness, and the iledicinal
and Dietetic Treatment of Liver Derange-
ments. The subject will be pursued in an-
other volume devoted to the consideration
of Gout.

The author holds that disturbances of
digestion are terribly on the increase in the
present day, and he adds a valuable appen-
dix on " the failure of the digestive organs
at the present time," and on the " failure of
nutrition in children."

We have said that this volume has been
made for physicians, but it would be a mis-
take to infer that it had been exclusively
prepared for them, and will not be of great
value to non-professional readers. The in-
formation it contains ought to be widely dif-
fused, and persons of ordinary intelligence
can learn a great deal from it that will be
of the highest practical use. It can not, of
course, be mastered without study, but no
subject will better repay careful attention.
The general ignorance in relation to foods,
their composition, preparation, and physio-
logical effects, and the causes of indigestion
in its various forms, is something lament-
able, and the daily practice that results
from this ignorance is almost heathenish.
There are, moreover, abundance of quack-
ish books on these subjects which so mis-
lead people that they are than nothing.
It is, therefore, important that the circula-
tion of really valuable volumes on such top-
ics as the one before us should be in every
way promoted.

Ranthorpe. By George Henry Lewes.
New York: William S. Gottsberger.
Pp. 326. Price, 75 cents.

There are not many novels that survive
their generation; they generally fall into
an early and deserved oblivion. Mr. Lewes
was not eminent as a novelist, his efforts
in this direction being, indeed, regarded
rather as failures than successes ; but, after
the lapse of a generation, his first essay of
this kind reappears in a new and Ameri-
can edition. Mr. Lewes began with novel-
writing, went on into dramatic composition,
passed from this to philosophy, and finally
emerged in the field of science. His novels,


therefore, do not embody the results of his
long and varied studies, but they have the in-
terest of being his first and freshest intellect-
ual work. " Kanthorpe " was written at the
age of twenty-five, though it was published
five years later, in 1847. lie says, in the
preface, after acknowledging the defects of
the book : " That the faults are not more nu-
merous is owing to the admirable criticisms
of two eminent friends, who paid me the
compliment of being frankly severe on the
work submitted to their judgment. Sen-
sible of the kindness in their severity, I
have made them what, for an author, must
be considered as a magnificent acknowl-
edgment — I have adopted all their sugges-
tions " !

It is not difficult to explain why " Ran-
thorpe" was not a success in the ordinary
sense of a popular novel ; but the expla-
nation will probably give the reason why it
has been since recalled to the attention of
the reading world. It was of too didactic
a quality to suit the tastes of novel-readers
in search of mere sensation. It is full of
moralizings, and, although the topics are
secular enough, it is rather prcacliy. But
there is a good deal of wisdom in it that is
not without its use. The hero of the book
runs a literary career, goes first into poetry
and fails, then into the drama, and his

tragedy is d d. The main interest of

the volume is in the copious side discus-
sions on the causes of failure in literary
adventure, and we have a vivid and read-
able illustration of ideas which the author
subsequently developed in his review ar-
ticles on " The Principles of Success in Lit-
erature." From this point of view the
book is instructive, while the plot keeps up
the reader's interest in the usual way.

Sewer-Gas axd its Dangers; with an
Exposition of Common Defects in House-
Drainage, and Practical Information
relating to their Remedy. By George
Prestos Brown. Chicago : Jansen, Mc-
Clurg & Co. Pp. 242. Price, §1.25.
This work is the result of investigations
made by an impartial inquirer in the city of
Chicago into the extent to which sewer-gas
is responsible for sickness and discomfort.
An amazing prevalence of defects of all
kinds in the construction and working of
the house-drains was discovered, of which

the dwellers in the houses generally seemed
unconscious. The conditions were not ex-
ceptional or peculiar to Chicago, but may be
considered as general and common to all
large towns in which the improvements
suggested by the most recent experience
and knowledge have not been adopted.
Many particular defects are described, and
cases of sickness that were traced to them
noticed. Illustrations are given of bad
drainage in actual houses whose appearance
promised a better condition. The dangers
which bad sewers and drains entail are
forcibly presented; and suggestions are
given for remedying and preventing the
evils which they occasion.

The WiLDERSESs-CiRE. By Marc Cook,
author of " Camp Lou." New York :
William Wood & Co. Pp. 153. Price,


" Camp Lou " was a magazine article
which related how the author, being in a
decUne with lung-disease, was restored to
health by camping in the Adirondacks. It
called out more inquiries for minor details
than the writer could answer individually,
and he has therefore put all the information
that was sought in the questions in this
little volume. The book describes the " Wil-
derness " country and the conditions of the
camp ; considers the practicabiUty of weak
persons wintering in the region described,
furnishes a summary of several cases that
have been treated in the method recom-
mended, or one like it, and considers the
questions of necessary outfit and expense.

A Text-Book of Anatomy, Physiology,
AND Hygiene. By J. T. Scovell. Terre
Haute, Indiana : Moore k Langen, Print-
ers. Pp. 88, with six plates.

This work is designed as a text-book,
to be supplemented with the study of other
works more completely discussing the points
considered, of which a partial list is given.
It presents the principles of the science
plainly, clearly, and briefly, in well-framed
sentences, and is arranged after a logical
classification of the divisions and subdivi-
sions of the subject. In addition to this, the
section on hygiene is practical. The illustra-
tions are given in engravings in separate




Extra Census Bulletin. Report on the Cotton
Production of the State of Louisiana. By Eu-
gene W. Uili^rd. Illustrated. WashiiiL'tOD : Gov-
ernment Printing Olfice. 188L Pp. W.

Studies in Astronomy. By Arthur K. Bartlett.
Published by the author. Battle Creek, Michi-
gan. Pp. 56. Price, 35 cent*.

•The Utah Review." Rev. Theophilus Hilton,
A. M , Editor Vol. I, No. 1. Juiv, 1681. Salt
Lake: H. P. Palmerslon & Co. Monthly. Pp.
31. $2 a year.


Report of Field Experiments with Fertilizers.

Professor W. O. Atwator. 15*0. From the
Beport of the Connecticut Board of Agriculture.
Pp. 56.

First Annual Report of the Astronomer in
charge of the Horological and Thcrmometric
Bureaus of the Winchester Observatory of Yale
College. By Leonard Waldo. New Haven. 1881.
Pp. 32.

" The Journal of the American Agricultural
Association." Vol. I, No. 1. Joseph H. Reall,
Editor. New York. Published by the Associa-
tion. 1881. Pp. 260.

Report on Hawaiian Leprosv. Bv A. W.
Saxe, M. D. lUu-trated. Santa Clara, Califor-
nia. 1831. Pp.26.

To the Ensjlish-speakin^ Popnlations in
America. Europe, Asia. Africa, and Oceanica,
concerning Tesiimonials on "Origin, Progress,
and Destiny of the En"lish Language and Liter-
ature." Bv John A. Weisse, M. D. New York :
J. W. Boutbn. 1891. Pp. 49.

Proceedings of the California Pharmaceutical
Society and College of Pharmacy, and Report of
the Twelfth Annual Meeting held at San Fran-
cisco, January 13, 1881. San Francisco: Joseph
Winterburn A Co. 1881. Pp.66.

The Reasoning Faculty of Animals. By Jo-
seph F. James. Reprint from " The American
Naturalist." Pp. 12.

A Great Lawyer. By Charles C. Bonney.
Chicago : Legal News Co. 1881. Pp. 12.

" The Honr-Glass : A Popular Weekly Illas-
trated Journal." Chicairo : Everett W. Fish &
Co. Vol. I, No. 4. July 30, 18S1. Pp. 6. 50
cents a year.

Report of Professor Spencer F. Baird. Secre-
tarv of the Smithsonian Institution, for the Year

1880. Washin;.'ton : Government Printing-Offlce.

1881. Pp.83.

On Maximnm Synchronous Glaciation. By
W. J. McGee. Salem, Massachusetts. 1881. Pp.

A Memoir upon Loxolophodon and Uinta-
therinm. By Henry F. Osbom, Sc. D. Accom-
panied bv Siratigraphical Report of the Bridge
Beds in the Washakee Basin. By J. B. McMas-
ter, C. E. Illustrated. Princeton, New Jersey.

Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics
for Three Months, enriing March 31, ls81.
Washington : Government Printing-Offlce. 18S1.
Pp. 100.

The L'niversity of Texas. By Professor Alex-
ander Hogg. Pp. 7.

Circulars of Information of the Bureau of
Education. Nos. 6 and 7. 1880. and 1 and 2,
1881. Washington : Government Printing-Offlce.

Fashion in Deformity. By Professor W. H.
Flower. London : Macmillan" & Co. 1881. Pp.
85. 75 cents.

The Foreigner in China. By L. N. Wheeler,
D. D. Chicago : S. C. Griggs & Co. 1881. Pp.
868. $1.25.

The Bible and Science. By T. Lander Bmn-
ton, M. D.. F. R. S. Loudon : Macmillan & Co.
18S1. Pp.415. $2.50.

A Sketch of Ancient Philosophy, from Thales
to Cicero. By Joseph B. Mayor, M. A. Cam-
bridge: University PresB. Ib81. Pp. 254. 75

Botany. Outlines of Morphologv, Physiologj-,
and Classification of Plants. By W. K. McNal),
M. D., F. L. S. Revised for Americnn Students

Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 108 of 110)