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named by American geologists, and to their reference to correspond-
ing horizons on the European scale, beginning with the Permian and
including the Niobrara and Laramie Cretaceous, the Wahsatch, Bridger,
White River, Truckee, Loup Fork, and Pliocene Tertiary f onnations.

The scientific writings of Professor Cope are quite voluminous, and
mainly technical in characterr. They relate to a variety of departments
of natural history. The full list of them includes nearly three hundred
titles of papers which have been published in the official reports of the
Government surveys, the proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of
Sciences, of the American Philosophical Society, the American Asso-
ciation for the Advancement of Science, in the " American Journal of
Science and Arts," the " American Naturalist," the " Penn Monthly,"
and through other channels. By far the largest number of these papers
relate to the reptiles and fishes discovered in the different geological
formations, extending from the Atlantic coast to the Rocky Mountains,
in the surveys of which he has participated. Probably the next largest
number concern the cetaceans and mammalia of those formations.
About a dozen of them relate to the reptiles and fishes of tropical
America ; half as many embody studies of the fauna, living and
fossil, of caves. Many papers describe living reptiles and fishes. More



SKETCH OF EDWARD D. COPE. 113

than thirty papers, published separately in advance by Professor Cope
as " Paleontological Bulletins," were included in the official reports
of the Government geological surveys of the Territories as special re-
ports of the departments of the work which were assigned to him, in-
cluding general geology, and the identification, classification, and
descriptions of new fossils and species. Among papers which do not
fall exactly under any of these heads may be mentioned those " On the
Fresh- Water Origin of Certain Deposits in West New Jersey "; "The
Birds of Palestine and Panama compared"; " On some New and Little-
known Myriapoda from the Southern Alleghanies "; "Intelligence in
Monkeys "; " The Significance of Paleontology"; " Biological Research
in the United States"; articles on "Osteology" and "Comparative
Anatomy " in Johnson's " Cyclopajdia "; " Excursions of the Geological
Society of France"; "The Fauna of the Lowest Tertiary of France";
" A New Deer from Lidiana"; "The Modern Museum"; * Pliocene
Man," etc. Ilis papers on evolution form a separate department. Pro-
fessor Cope has been a diligent student of this subject, and has opin-
ions of his own upon it. Among his principal contributions to its lit-
erature are : " On the Origin of Genera " (1868) ; " Method of Creation
of Organic Types" (1871); "Evolution and its Consequences " (1872);
"Homologies and Origin of the Molar Teeth of Mammalia Educa-
bilia" (1874) ; "Consciousness in Evolution" (1875) ; "Relation of
Man to Tertiary Mammalia" (1875) ; "On the Theory of Evolution"
(187G) ; "The Origin of the Will" (1877) ; "The Relation of Animal
Motion to Animal Evolution" (1878); and "A Review of the Modern
Doctrine of Evolution" (1879).

Professor Cope was for a long time Secretary and Curator of the
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, and was chief of the
Department of Organic Material of the Permanent Exposition of that
city. He received the Bigsby gold medal of the Royal Geological So-
ciety of Great Britain in 1879 ; is a member of the Geological Society
of France, and of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science.



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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



EDITOR'S TABLE.



THE PROTOPHOXE IN RESEARCH.

THE elegant research of Professor
Tyndall, which we pubhsh in the
present nuniber,will well repay the care-
ful attention of our readers. It is of in-
terest, not only on account of the very
complete confirmation of results pre-
viously obtained by this physicist, but
also on account of the novel method
employed, and the promise this gives
of wide utility. The photophone is
barely six months old, but these experi-
ments show that it already has a large
field of usefulness before it, and it is,
perhaps, not too much to expect that it
will prove to be one of the most deli-
cate instruments at the command of the
physicist. The experiments are further
interesting for the very conclusive dem-
onstration they afford of the causes to
which tlie action of the instrument is
due. From the first, Professor Tyndall
states, he was convinced that the sounds
given out by bodies upon which the in-
termittent beam of light impinged were
due to their expansion and contraction
under the influence of radiant heat, and
this opinion is most fully borne out by
the results obtained. The experiments,
while showing the great delicacy of this
beautiful instrument of Professor Bell,
also incidentally show that some of the
expectations with regard to it are un- j
founded. One of these is, that with it i
sounds upon the sun may be heard.
The fallacy of this has been recently ,
pointed out, and the arrangement of the
apparatus adopted by Professor Tyndall
clearly exhibits it. It consists in as-
suming that the sound given out by the
absorptive body is the reproduction of
a previous sound, while in reality all
that is necessary is that the impinging
beam be intermittent — its variations
may be produced in any manner what-
ever.



Of the results of previous experi-
ments confirmed by this later research,
the most important are those regarding
the behavior of dry air and the vapor of
water toward radiant heat. By a long
series of beautiful and refined experi-
ments. Professor Tyndall had sliown that
the former was perfectly transparent to
such heat, while water- vapor was a
powerful absorbent of it. These results
have been disputed by other experiment-
ers, and it needed, to definitely settle the
controversy, some more delicate method
of testing these substances than that
furnished by the instruments heretofore
at command. This has been supplied
by this latest acquisition of science, and
the first use of it appears to fully sus-
tain Professor Tyndall's position.



BOOK PnrSIOLOGY ABROAD.

We often hear subdued expressions
of doubt as to the quality of the phys-
iological teaching prevalent in girls'
schools. It is intimated that the knowl-
edge the pupils get upon this subject is
generally of a very loose and vague
sort, so as to be but of little practical
use. It is objected to what girls learn
about in their physiological studies, that
it is not entitled to be called knowl-
edge at all — that is, they do not really
hioic what they are studying about, but
only remember certain statements as
well as they can, while the information
they get is not of a kind fit to be used.
Whatever may be the fact in regard to
our own schools, it is pretty certain
that the physiology taught to girls in
some of the English schools is marked
with all the bad qualities sometimes as-
cribed to our own.

The London " Globe " gives a ludi-
crous illustration of the results of phys-



EDITOR'S TABLE.



115



iological teaching in the girls' schools
of the English metropolis. It seetns
that tha National Health Society, laud-
ably desirous of promoting the increase
of practical physiological intelligence,
offered prizes to be competed for by
the pupils of the girls' schools under
the control of the London School Board.
The response, however, was not very
lively. Out of two hundred and thir-
ty-four schools only eleven sent com-
petitors, it being presumed that in the
other schools physiology is either not
taught at all or so poorly taught that
there was no emulation. The eleven
scliools whicli were represented in the
examination, we are to suppose, were
the best girls' schools under the juris-
diction of the board. Two hundred
and fifteen girls attended and competed
for the prizes, the examination being
conducted by Mr. McWilliara, who re-
ported the result to the London School
Board.

The " Globe " says : " Many of the
children appear to have been utterly
unable to understand the ter^s of the
questions, 'Mention any occupations
which you consider to be injurious to
health, giving reasons for your answer.'
This question, Mr. McWilliam says, es-
pecially appears to have puzzled them.
One girl's complete answer to this
question is, ' When you have a illness
it makes your healtli bad, as well as
having a disease.' Another says, ' Oc-
cupations which are injurious to health
are carbolic acid gas which is impure
blood.' Another complete answer is,
' We ought to go in the country for a
few weeks to take plenty of fresh air
to make us healthy and strong every
year.' Another complete answer is,
' Why the heart, lungs, blood, which is
very dangerous.' The word 'function'
was also a great puzzle. Very many
answered that the skin discharges a
function called perspiration. One girl
says, ' The function of the heart is be-
tween the lungs.' Another says : ' What
is the function of the heart ? Thorax.'



Another girl, in answer to the sixth
question says, ' The process of digestion
is : We should never eat fat, because
the food does not digest.'

" Another class of errors is that of
exaggerated statements, one girl an-
swering, ' A stone-mason's work is in-
jurious, because when he is chipping
he breathes in all the little chips, and
then they are taken into the lungs.'
Another says, ' A bootmaker's trade is
very injurious, because the bootmakers
always press the boots against the tho-
rax, and therefore it presses the thorax
in and it touches the heart, and if they
do not die they are cripples for life.'
Several girls insist that every carpenter
or mason should wear a pad over the
mouth ; and one girl says that, if a
sawyer does not wear spectacles, he
will be sure to lose his eyesight. Fi-
nally, one girl declares that ' all me-
chanical work is injurious to health.'
Another child says that ' in impure air
there is not any oxygen, it is all car-
bonic acid gas.' Another says that if
we do not wash ourselves 'in one or
two days all the perspiration will turn
into sores.'

" One girl states that ' when food is
swallowed it passes through the wind-
pipe and stops at the right side, some
of it goes to make blood, and Avhat is
not wanted passes into the alimentary
canal.' Another girl from the same
school says, ' Venous blood is of a dark
black color, and when it reaches the
heart it is made by the heart a bright
red color.' Several girls from the same
school repeat this last error. Another
girl says, ' The cliyle flows up the mid-
dle, of the backbone and reaches the
heart, where it meets the oxygen and
is purified.' Another says, ' The work
of the heart is to repair the different
organs in about half a minute.' An-
other says : ' We have an upper and a
lower skin ; the lower skin moves at
its will, and the upper skin moves when
we do.' "



u6



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



THE TTNDALL TRUST FUXD.
It may be recollected that, at the close
of his lectures in this country, 1872-73,
Professor Tyndall left all the money he
had received, except what was consumed
in expenses, as a trust, the income of
which was to be devoted to the assist-
ance of American students in physics
desirous of completing their studies in
Germany. The fund was intended, of
course, for those who were without suf-
ficient means of their own for the pur-
pose, and was to bo only available for
such students as had shown an inclina-
tion for original studies, and some ap-
titude and capacity in pursuing them.
Trustees were appointed to take charge
of the fund, which was at first so small
that it was thought best to let it accu-
mulate until the income became suffi-
cient to give a moderate support to two
students. The increase of the capital
has now reached a point at which the
income of the trust becomes applicable
for its purpose.

The original trustees appointed by
Professor Tyndall were Professor Jo-
seph Henry, of Washington; General
Hector Tyndale, of Philadelphia ; and
E. L. Youmans, of New York. The two
former are dead, and President F. A. P.
Barnard, of Columbia College, New
York, and Professor Joseph Lovering,
of Harvard University, Cambridge, have
been appointed in their places. Appli-
cations for the benefit of the trust can
he made to either of the trustees.



LITERARY NOTICES.

Studies from the Biological Laboratouy

OF Johns Hopkins University. Parts

I, II, and IV, and Scientific Results of

the Chesapeake Zoolo'^ical Laboratory,

Session of ] S7S, forming Part III. Bnl-

timore : John Murphy & Co. 1880.

Price, per Part, $1.00.

We can not too heartily congratulate

Johns Hopkins University in being able to

publish a work of such great value as the

one before us. Its fame abroad will rest



almost solely on these careful memoirs,
which have doubtless found their way into
the scientific libraries of the Old World,
and in return for which the university must
have gained many additions to its own
shelves. Through the liberal recognition of
the value of scientific work, the trustees of
the university can lay claim to a publication
having already reached four parts, number-
ing over five hundred pages, and illustrated
by forty admirable plates.

The first part contains an elaborate
paper on " The Normal Respiratory 5Iovc-
ments of the Frog, and the Influence upon
its Respiratory Center of Stimulation of the
Optic Lobes," by Dr. II. Newell Martin,
Professor of Biology in the University.
Among the many contradictory accounts in
regard to the mechanism of this process,
Professor Martin says that the first detailed
description by Townson in 1794 is essen-
tially correct in all respects. After giving
the conclusions of various authors, he de-
tails his own experiments, illustrated by
diagrams. These consisted in carefully re-
moving the central lobes and optic thalami,
and, after observing the diagram made by
the animal's respiratory movcmentg, he stim-
ulated the anterior cut ends of the optic
lobes by a crystal of salt, and carefully
noted the results. He found that irritation
of the optic lobes diminished the irritability
of the inspiratory center, and increased that
of the expiratory center. In conclusion he
points out that the results of chemical stim-
ulation of the corpora quadrigemina in the
mammal, as described by Ferrier, "corre-
spond with the results of chemical stimu-
lation of corresponding parts in the frog."

The next memoir, by Henry Sewell, B.
Sc., is on " The Development and Regenera-
tion of the Gastric Glandular Epithelium
during Foetal Life and after Birth." A pro-
longed study of the different cells in the
glands of the adult stomach having failed
to give the author such insight into their
various functions as he desired, recourse
was had to the stomachs of embryos ; his
material consisting mostly of embryo cats
and dogs. He shows in summing up that
" the stomach-glands are formed by ridge-
like outgrowths from the surface of the
mucous membrane. The hypoblastic cells,
at first in a single layer, become several



LITERARY NOTICES.



117



layers thick before the formation of the
ridges, and become single again over these.
... By the intersection of the ridges, pits
are left, which are the gland-pouches." The
" ovoid " cells are first specalized and later
the central cells, the latter alone being con-
cerned in the formation of pepsin.

The third article is by Professor Martin
and Dr. W. D. Booker. Its subject is " The
Influence of Stimulation of the Mid-Brain
upon the Respiratory Rhythm of the Mam-
mal." Ilaving found that chemical stimu-
lation of the mid-brain of the frog caused
accelerated or tetanic inspiratory and im-
peded expiratory movements, experiments
were made on rabbits to see if the same
phenomena were exhibited by mammals.
By an ingenious arrangement the animal was
made to breathe into a jar, the aperture of
which was covered by an elastic membrane,
and through a connecting lever was made
to record, on a revolving cylinder, all the
respiratory movements. The stimulus ap-
plied was by means of electrodes, connected
with a secondary coil of a Du Bois induc-
tion apparatus. The current from a single
carbon-bichromate cell was sent through the
primary coil.

Reference must be made to this memoir
for further details regarding the experi-
mental methods employed. The general
results are summed up as follows: "There
lies deep in the mid-brain of the rabbit,
beneath the posterior corpora quadrigemina
and close to the iter^ a respiration regulat-
ing center, similar to that in the corpora bi-
gemina of the frog : electrical stimulation of
this center causes accelerated inspirations
finally passing into tetanic fixation of the
chest in an inspiratory condition, and cor-
respondingly diminishes or altogether in-
hibits expiration."

The paper of Dr. I. Edmondson Atkin-
son, on the botanical relations of Tricophi/-
ton tonsuram, details some very careful
experiments in cell-culture made in order
to determine whether excessive polymor-
phism existed among these lower fungi.

Dr. W. K. Brooks closes Part I with
a memoir entitled "Preliminary Observa-
tions upon the Development of the Marine
Prosobranchiate Gasteropods." For material
the author studied two common marine snails
from the first segmentation of the egg to a



stage when it emerges with its full class
characters. Among other things he shows
that, while there is no stage that can be
considered as a specialized gastrula, there are
presented at different periods of its develop-
ment all the phases in the formation of a
gastrula ; and also that, while the gastrula
stage has disappeared, the gastrula form
persists.

Part II commences with a memoir by
Professor Martin and Edward M. Ilartwell,
on the respiratory function of the internal
intercostal muscles. The authors show how
conflicting are the opinions regarding the
particular mechanical work done by these
muscles ; and how impracticable it is to
decide by a simple mechanical study as to
whether these muscles are rib-elevators or
rib-depressors. Dogs and cats were used in
their experiments, which show that the mus-
cles in question are expiratory in their func-
tion throughout their whole extent.

The next paper, by Isaac Ott, M. D., en-
titled " Observations on the Physiology of
the Spinal Cord," is an account of the au-
thor's investigations of the secretory func-
tions, vaso-dilator centers, rhythmical func-
tions, genito-urinary functions, and path of
secretory and inhibitory fibers of the cord.

On the " Effect of Two Succeeding Stim-
uli upon Muscular Contraction," by Henry
Sewell, Esq., is a paper which affords an ex-
cellent example of how minute and exact
experiments should be conducted. Among
other interesting facts it is shown that a
"given maximal stimulus stirs up the un-
tired muscle to a more powerful contraction
when it has been preceded by the excite-
ment ordinarily producing contraction."

In the "So-called Heat Dyspnoea," by
Christian Sihler, M. D., is an attempt to get
at the causes of the increased respirations
in a dog, when it is subjected to a tempera-
ture warmer than its own body. Finding
previous experiments inconclusive, the au-
thor not only repeats these of Goldstein,
but details a number of new ones. His
conclusions are: 1. That Goldstein's experi-
ment with the tube is inconclusive ; 2. The
increased respiration following exposure of
the animal is due to two causes, skin stim-
ulation and warmed blood ; 3. Of these,
skin stimulation is the more powerful ; 4.
Apncca can be produced in heated animals,



ii8



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



if skin stimuli be cut off; 5. The direct
action on the respiratory centers of the
hotter blood of the heated animal is prob-
ably not, or not only, due to its temperature
but to its greater venosity.

Dr. W. K. Brooks has an exhaustive
paper entitled " Observations upon the Early
Siagcs in the Development of the Frcsh-
Watcr Pulmonates," in which he discusses
the works of Lankester, Fol, Rabl, Jhering,
and others. The plates accompanying his
paper are models of clearness.

S. F. Clarke follows with an interesting
illustrated paper on " The Development of
Amblystoma," which closes the number.

Part III, devoted to the work of the
Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory during
the session of 1878, begins with an account
by Professor W. K. Brooks of the organi-
zation of the school, its location at Fort
Wool, and the methods of study adopted.
This is followed by lists of the plants and
animals observed at Fort Wool — the former
by Mr. N. B. Webster and the latter by Mr.
P. R. Uhler. The next paper, by Dr. Brooks,
is on the development of Lingula and the
systematic position of the Brachiopoda. He
succeeded in getting the free-swimming larva
of Lingula at a stage similar to the one de-
scribed by Professor McCready many years
ago, and carried it through to the early
stage of the adult form. It is useless to
attempt to do justice to this valuable con-
tribution without the plates which accom-
pany it.

The other papers in this part are " On
the Larval Stage of Squilla," by Dr. Brooks,
and the " Description of Lucifer Typus," by
Walter Faxon.

Part IV contains a paper of great sci-
entific and economic value, on the devel-
opment of the oyster, by Dr. Brooks. Ger-
man and French authorities had stated that
eggs of the oyster were fertilized within
the body of the parent, and were carried
by them until they had reached an advanced
stage of development, when, provided with
shells of their own, they were discharged,
and swam freely in the water until they be-
came attached. Misled by these statements.
Dr. Brooks had failed the season before in
securing any results. On the loth of May
he commenced operations by opening oys-
ters every day throughout the breeding-sea-



son. His success in artificially fecundating
the egg was remarkable. Millions of eggs
were fecundated with but little trouble. He
traced their developmental history from the
segmentation of the egg to those stages al-
ready described by European naturalists.
He found the female oyster in various con-
ditions : some in which the ovaries were
largely distended, and the eggs fairly oozing
from the oviducts ; others in which the
ovaries were half filled, and others still
wherein the ovaries were quite empty, and
in no case did he find a single fertilized egg
in the ovary. Dr. Brooks emphatically says
that, so far as the oyster of Chesapeake
Bay is concerned, " the eggs are fertilized
outside the body of the parent, and that,
during the period which the young Euro-
pean oyster passes inside the mantle cavity
of its parent, the young of our oyster swims
at large in the open ocean." A very clear
description is given of the anatomy of the
oyster, as well as some practical points in
regard to their artificial fecundation. A
careful estimate shows that an average-
sized female oyster contains about nine mill-
ion eggs; an unusually large oyster may
contain as many as sixty million eggs.

Dr. Brooks's investigations have a very
practical bearing on the question as to the
final exhaustion of the natural oyster-beds
on our coast by unlimited dredging.

One would naturally think that with
such remarkable fecundity the question of
extermination need be hardly entertained,
but the eggs after fertilization, if left un-
protected, meet at every moment of their
e-xistence enemies who devour them, and,
when at a later stage they rise on the water
and form a film on the surface, fishes de-
vour them by millions. Dr. Brooks has
shown that if the egg is not immediately
fertilized it soon perishes, and of course in
its natural home the chances of its fertili-
zation are infinitely less than in the artifi-
cial method actually tried.

In a recent paper by Dr. Mobius a long
table is given showing the number of oys-
ters taken yearly from the Bay of Cancale,
on the coast of Norway, during the last
hundred years. Dr. Brooks reproduces this
table, to show that unlimited dredging has
greatly reduced the production.

Without detailing the process here, Dr.



LITERARY NOTICES.



Mobius estimates that each oyster born has
iTTsfrTTij of a chance of reaching maturity.
In the case of the American oyster, the
number of eggs being very much greater,
each one's chance of survival is very much
less.

He shows, too, how extremely circum-
scribed arc the beds upon which the oyster
thrives, and that it is a mistake to suppose
that the oysters are promiscuously scattered



Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 14 of 110)