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on the shores of the bay. They can only
flourish on certain grounds, though the
young are widely scattered through these
waters, as the partial development of in-
dividuals everywhere attests. This Part
closes with another article by the same au-
thor, on " The Acquisition and Loss of a
Food-Yolk in Molluscan Eggs."

Incomplete as our account of these pa-
pers must necessarily be, enough has been
said to show that they are the records of a
large amount of original thoroughgoing sci-
entific research, the results of which will
become increasingly valuable as they are
more generally known. But of the man-
ner in which these records have been brought
together we can not speak so favorably.
Several of the memoirs were first published
elsewhere, and in their collection the origi-
nal paging and numbering of the plates
have been allowed to stand. The lack of
uniformity thus caused is very confusing,
and, as the high character of the work will
make it widely sought for purposes of ref-
erence, much future trouble may be ex-
pected from this defect in its make-up.



The Irish Land Question. By Henry
George. New York : D. Appleton & Co.
18S1. Pp. 85. Price, 25 cents.
In this essay Mr. George applies to the
Irish land question the doctrine maintained
in his now well-known work " Progress and
Poverty," and appeals to the Land Leagues
to openly espouse the reform he advocates.
He insists that there is nothing special in
Irish distress ; that it is not due to English
oppression, but that it is the direct result of a
land system that" prevails in every civilized
country. He points out that so far from Irish
land tenure being worse than that of other
countries, it is even more favorable to the ten-
ant, and tliat, as a matter of fact, the land of
Ireland is uniliM'-renti'd. He argues forcibly



I against the various schemes for a greater
subdivision of the land, showing that these
I can benefit the tenant but to a limited ex-
tent, while to agricultural laborers and arti-
sans they can bring no relief whatever. He
therefore urges the reform he advocates, as
' a final solution, not only of the land question
in Ireland, but in every other country, and
feels confident that, if the Irish trouble could
be adjusted on this basis, the extension of
the system to other countries would be but
a matter of time. At the very outset of any
proposal for the state to resume the owner-
ship of the land, the question of compensa-
tion to landholders must be met. In his
previous work Mr. George has argued that
the landholders ought to receive no compen-
sation, an opinion for which he has been
somewhat sharply criticised. In the present
essay he again takes up the question and
argues it at greater length. He denies that
the case is one to which the statute of limita-
tion can be made to apply, and claims that
the landholder is not deprived of what is
rightfully his, but simply estopped from
further enjoying the fruits of the labor of
others.

The remainder of the essay is devoted to
an insistence upon the importance of the
right solution of the land question and the
benefits that would follow the one the author
proposes.

Medical Hints on the PRonrcTioN and
Management of the Singing Voice. By
Lennox Browne, F. R. C. S., Edinburgh.
Eighth edition, revised, enlarged, and
illustrated. New Y^ork : M. L. Ilolbrook
& Co. Paper. Pp. 77. Price, 25 cents.

This essay, which was first given in the
form of a paper before a Musical Associa-
tion, is intended to furnish the information
most necessary and desirable for singers to
possess, in a practical, untechnical shape.
It considers — 1. The laws of musical sound
bearing on the question discussed ; 2. The
organs of the human voice regarded as parts
of a musical instrument, and their various
functions as such ; 3. The management of
those parts under control of the vocalist
which may perfect the voice; 4. The de-
fects occasioned by mismanagement ; and,
5. Directions on the hygiene and medical
and dietetic management of the voice. The
last topic is treated in full.



THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MOXTHLY.



Report of the Commissioner of Educa-
tion' FOR 1878. Washington: Govern-
ment Printing-office. 1880. Pp. 730.

The office of the Commissioner of Edu-
cation is a peculiar one. It has no author-
ity, but depends wholly upon voluntary as-
sistance for the collection of the informa-
tion which it undertakes to digest and dif-
fuse, and its recommendations, if it makes
any, can pass only for what they are intrinsi-
cally worth. Its function, as the Commis-
sioner well remarks, is that of '"a national
clearing-house ' of educational information,
where what has been done is carefully record-
ed, and that which indicates the good or bad
may be selected." That its work is more
appreciated every year is shown by the
steadily increasing number of its correspond-
ents at home, who numbered 7,135 in 1878,
and the extension of its connections abroad.
The present volume contains full informa-
tion, with all the details, on the condition of
public and private education in the United
States, arranged by States, and according to
the grade and character of the institutions,
and one of the most satisfactory accounts of
the condition of education in foreign coun-
tries that the Commissioner has yet been
able to present.

Photometric Researches. By William II.
Pickei'.ixg. Extracted from the Pro-
ceedings of the American Academy of
Arts and Sciences. Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts: University Press. 1881.

Vert little is known with accuracy of
any terrestrial high temperature, while esti-
mations of that of the sun vary between the
extreme limits of several million and two
thousand degrees. In the researches to
which this paper is devoted. Professor Pick-
ering has endeavored to determine some of
these temperatures by means of the amount
of violet rays given off, these being the rays
most abundant at the highest temperature.
The exact relation between these factors is
unknown, but, by assuming one which his
experiments led him to regard as probable,
Professor Pickering has been able to make
out a table which docs not differ widely
from the most reliable determinations here-
tofore made. The lights of a candle, gas-
flame, lime, magnesium, the electric arc,
moonlight, and sunlight were each examined
by means of a spectroscope and photome-



ter, and the relative brilliancy of the red, yeh
low, green, and violet rays determined. The
standard used was an Argand gas-flame with
a small screen interposed, so that the light
yielded was just "67 candle-power, and a
candle was found to be wholly unsatisfac-
tory for the purpose. The relative inten-
sities of these portions of the spectrum were
in each of the lights as follows, that of the
yellow rays being taken at 100 : Candle, 73,
100, 104, 134; gas, 74, 100, 103, 125; lime,
59, 100, 113, 285 ; magnesium, 50, 100, 223,
1,129; electric light, 61, 100, 121, 735;
moonlight, 87, 100, 155, 363 ; sunlight, 45,
100, 250, 2,971. The great preponderance
of the violet rays in burning magnesium
over those of any other artificial light clearly
indicates a higher temperature, while by the
same test that of the sun is much greater.
The temperatures for all the lights measured
are : Candle and gas, 1,200' C. ; lime, 2,000°
C, about that of melted platinum; electric
arc, 3,500° C. ; magnesium, 4,900° C. ; sun,
22,000° C. This method of obtainmg tem-
peratures gives promise of being of great
value, for, as pointed out by Professor Pick-
ering, if the relation between increase of
temperature and increase of violet rays were
accurately determined, wc could very readily
determine the temperature of the heavenly
bodies.



Studies of the Food of Birds, Insects,
AND Fishes, made at the Illinois State
Laboratory of Natural History. Nor-
mal, 111. Paper. Pp. 160.

The State Legislature of Illinois recently
authorized an investigation of the food of
! the birds of the State, with especial refer-
, ence to agriculture and horticulture, and a
I similar investigation of the food of fishes,
I with especial reference to fish-culture. The
papers in this collection are the first results
, of the work. As the investigation proceed-
ed it was found that, to be full, it must
include a consideration of parts of the gen-
eral subject of the reactions between groups
of organisms and their surroundings, organic
and inorganic. With this view the special
papers are preceded by a more general one
on " Some Interactions of Organisms." Pa-
pers are also given on " Insectivorous Cole-
optera," and on " The Food of Prcdaceous
I Beetles."



LITERARY NOTICES.



121



United States Commission of Fish and
Fisheries. Part VI. Report of the
Commissioner FOR 1878. A. Inquiry into
the Decrease of Food-Fishes. B. The
Propagation of Food-Fishes in the Wa-
ters of the United States. Washington :
Government Piinting-Olfice. 1880. Pp.
988.

The present report brings down the his-
tory of the work of the commission to the
end of 1878, and a part of it, especially
that connected with the propagation of salm-
on, to the date of the actual planting and
disposition of the young fish in 1879. The
scale of operations was increased during
the year, in correspondence with the in-
creased appropriations made by Congress,
without bringing any material addition to
the expense of the management. The his-
tory of the operations includes the record
of the progress of the planting of different
varieties of salmon, of which we may men-
tion the planting of California salmon in
the Southern rivers, and of the measures to
promote the increase of the white-fish, shad,
herring, carp, and cod. The attempt to in-
troduce the sole met with a second failure.
An experiment in the artificial propagation
of the sponge of commerce, by planting
cuttings of live sponges, was successful, and
gave much encouragement. The supple-
mental papers are of great interest, and
constitute of themselves a respectable li-
brary of ichthyological literature. They cm-
brace numerous articles, by American, Scan-
dinavian, and German writers, on subjects
connected with fishery expositions, the sea-
fisheries, deep-sea research, the natural his-
tory of marine animals, and essays general,
special, and practical, on the propagation of
the different kinds of food-fishes.



Xatural Theology. By John Bascom.
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1880.
Pp. 302. Price, $1.50.

Dr. Bascom, who is widely and favor-
ably known as one of the strongest thinkers
within theological lines, has here recast the
theistic argument, and has endeavored to
present it in a form which shall meet the
changed conditions and enlarged knowledge
of to-day. The argument is conducted in
excellent temper, and is in many respects a
strong and able presentation of what the
intuitive philosophy has to offer upon this



fundamental question. His attitude toward
current scientific doctrine and the spirit in
which he approaches his work are indicated
in the following quotation from the preface :
" The opposition has changed front, and so
renders a corresponding change necessary
on the part of the defense. This shifting
of the conflict has attended on a great in-
crease of knowledge, and new views of the
methods of development in the physical
world. We wish to recognize most fully
the value of these attainments, and to see
clearly their relation to theism. We are
quite prepared to accept evolution — the
present intellectual solvent of physical
problems— in all the facts it offers, while
we are still at liberty to give those facts
the interpretation which is most in keep-
ing with the two kingdoms, physical and
spiritual, which make up the universe in
its outer form and inner force. It is ex-
actly here that we hope' to add something
to the work of our predecessors — 1. In a
more complete recognition of all the results
of scientific inquiry ; and, 2. In pointing out
the relation of these facts to an intellectual
exposition of the universe." Dr. Bascom,
in his discussion of the nature of the Deity,
reaches the conclusion that a sufficient, posi-
tive, and consistent idea of his nature is ob-
tainable ; and he then, after stating the kind
of proof necessary, carries his search for it
through the organic world and into the " ra-
tional kingdom," closing his argument with
a consideration of the goodness of God and
the bearing the evidence of this has upon
his existence. The concluding chapter of
the work is devoted to a discussion of im-
mortality, its relation to natural theology,
and the proofs of it from the constitution
of man, and the character of the Deity.

Drainage for Health; or. East Lessons
IN Sanitary Science. By Joseph Wil-
son, M. D., Medical Director, United
States Navv. Philadelphia : Presley Blak-
iston. 1881. Pp. 68. Price, $1.
The author attempts, in this work, to
present the subject, briefly and correctly, so
far as he goes, in simple style and language,
and in so familiar a manner as to make easy
reading. He first discusses the subject of
land-drainage on farms and in country dis-
tricts ; next the drainage of cities and town-
houses, closets, and plumbing.



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



The Care and Culture of Children, A
Practical Treatise for the Use of
Parents. By Thomas S. Sozinsket, M.
D., Ph. D., author of the "Culture of
Beauty," etc. Philadelphia : II. C. Watts
& Co. 1880. Pp. 484. Price, $2.50.

The author's object in this work is to
give such information and advice as will en-
able parents to perform intelligently their
duty to their children in matters of physical
and mental training, in health and sickness.
The first part relates to the care of children,
and includes chapters on the conditions of
health, diet, clothing, cleanliness, exercise,
etc., the prevention of disease, and treat-
ment in sickness of whatever character. In
the second part, physical and intellectual
culture is discussed, with faithful attention
to details and an evident desire to cover
the whole subject. The style is in many
places brief and pointed, in others diffuse,

Baldwin Locomotive Works. Illustrated
Catalogue. Second edition. Philadel-
pia: J. B. Lippincott. 1881. Pp. 152.
Price, §5.

This, while being a very elegant trade \
catalogue, is also something more, by reason '
of the summary of the progress of locomo-
tive construction in this country which it
contains. The account is in the form of a
history of the works, but, as Mr. Baldwin
was one of the first and most successful loco-
motive-builders, the history of his efforts is
largely that of the continuous improvements
which have transformed the locomotive of
1830 into that of to-day. In the catalogue
proper the various types of locomotives now
made at the works are illustrated by photo-
graphs and scale drawings.

" Change " as a Mental Restorative. By
Joseph Mortimer-Granville. London :
David Bcgue. 1880. Pp. 32.

Change — of place, surroundings, or oc-
cupation — is, the author believes, too often
prescribed without sufficient discrimination,
so that sometimes the patient's situation is
not improved, or may even be made worse, by
the new exercise or in the new place. The
present essay is a study of the manner in
which change may operate beneficially, of
the kind of change that is good, and of the
principles by which the prescription of it
should be guided.



Pueblo Pottery. By F. W. Putnam. From
the " American Art Pcview " for Feb.
ruary, 1881. Pp. 4, with colored Plate.

In this paper are described a number of
specimens of pottery of the Pueblos of New
Mexico, with peculiar decorations, some of
which provoke comparisons with the or-
namentation of the Cyprian potteries. The
largest vessel, from Zufii, is marked with
considerable taste, and displays striking fig-
ures of deer in black, and a conventional-
ized shrub in red. A water-bottle from San
Ildefonso is rudely fashioned in the shape of
a bird, and is decorated, like some of the Cyp-
rian pottery, with figures of birds painted in
black upon a white ground. A third vessel
shows a more common ornamentation of
Pueblo pottery. A compai^ison of modem
specimens with ancient shows that the art
has deteriorated. The ornamentation in
both kinds is confined to figures expressed
in color. Xo specimen of incised work is
known. The representation of natural forms
appears to be of modern introduction.



Adam Smith. By J. A. Farrer. New
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1881. Pp.
201. Price, $1.25.

This is the opening volume of a series
to be devoted to an exposition of the chief
contributions made to philosophy by English
thinkers. In explanation of the purpose of
the project, the editor. Professor Iwan Miil.
ler, says in the preface : " We seek to lay
before the reader what each English philos.
opher thought and wrote about the prob-
lems with which he dealt. . . . Criticism
will be suggested rather than indulged in,
and these volumes will be expositions rather
than reviews. ... It is hoped that the se-
ries, when complete, will supply a compre-
hensive history of English philosophy."
Professor II. Sidgwiek will contribute a
volume under the title of " Introduction to
the Study of Philosophy," and arrangements
have already been made for the early ap-
pearance of volumes upon Bacon, Berkeley,
Hamilton, J. S. Mill, Manscl, Bcntham, Aus-
tin, Shaftesbury and Ilutcheson, Ilobbes,
Hartley and James Mill. These will be
followed by others upon Locke, Hume, Pa-
ley, Reid, and later philosophic writers.
The design of the series is excellent, and,
if all the contributors do thcu- work as well



LITERARY NOTICES.



as Mr. Farrer has done bis, it will be a val-
uable one. The present volume is devoted
to an exposition of the "Theory of the
Moral Sentiments," in which the great econ-
omist endeavors to find for morals a secure
foundation in the sympathetic nature of
man. The work was in its time a notable
one, and remains one of the most valuable
contributions of English thought to the sub-
ject. Mr. Farrer writes clearly and appre-
ciatively, and has invested his subject with
an interest that will make the book attrac-
tive to a large nftmber of readers. The ex-
position closes with an examination of some
of the objections urged by writers at the
time of the publication of the "Theory,"
and is preceded by a brief biographical
sketch of Smith.

The Dkvovian In'sects of New Brunswick.
By S.vMDEL H. ScuDDER, Boston : Bos-
ton Societv of Natural History. 1880.
Pp. 41, with Plate.

Careful descriptions are given in this
essay of six specimens of broken wings which
were discovered in 1862 by Professor C. F.
Hartt, in the Devonian shales of Garleton,
near St. John, New Brunswick, and are now
preserved in the museums of the Natural His-
tory Society of St. John and of the Boston
Society of Natural History. The descriptions
and the authoi-'s conclusions are supplement-
ed by a review of the character and age of the
formation in which the remains were found,
by Principal Dawson, in which the evidence
that it is Devonian is carefully collated. The
wings are all of Nciiroptcra, and of species
to which are ascribed special relations with
the modern May-flies. From his detailed
examinations, Mr. Scuddcr reaches the con-
clusion that nothing appears to interfere
with the view he has formerly expressed,
that the general type of wing-structure has
remained unaltered from the earliest times ;
that the fossils are nearly all of synthetic
tvpes of a comparatively narrow range,
being about equally divided in structural
features between Ncuroplcra proper and
\)9.(i\\^o-N'curoptcm; that they bear marks of
affinity to the Carboniferous PaUeodiclyop-
tera, while they are often of more compli-
cated structure than most of them, but with
this exception bear little special relation to
Carboniferous forms ; that they were of great
size, had membranous wings, and were prob-



ably aquatic in early life; that some of
them were plainly precursors of existing
forms, while others seem to have left no
trace ; that they show a remarkable variety
of structure, indicating an abundance of
insect-life at that epoch ; that they differ
remarkably from all other known types, an-
cient or modern, and some of them appear
to be even more complicated than their near-
est living allies ; that we appear to be, so
far as either greater unity or simplicity of
structure is concerned, no nearer the begin-
ning of things in the Devonian epoch than
in the Carboniferous ; and that " while there
are some forms which, to some degree, bear
out expectations based on the general deriv-
ative hypothesis of structural development,
there are quite as many which are altogether
unexpected, and can not be explained on
that theory, without involving suppositions
for which no facts can at present be ad-
duced." We observe that some of the views
of the author are questioned by other natu-
ralists.

Orange Insects: A Treatise on the In-
jurious AND Beneficial Insects found
ON the Orange-Trees of Florida. By
William II. Ashmead. Jacksonville,
Florida: Ashmead Brothers. Paper.
Pp. 78.

The author has been engaged in special
studies of the insects of the orange since
1876, and publishes this volume in answer
to numerous inquiries for information re-
specting them from cultivators. He gives
systematic descriptions of numerous species,
with illustrations of the most of them, and
notes on the character of their relations —
whether beneficial or injurious — to the trees.

Circulars of Information of the Bureau
OF Education: No. 4, Rural School
Architecture. With Illustrations. Pp.
106. No. 5, English KrnAL Schools.
Pp. 26. Washington : Government Print-
ing-Office. ISSi).

The former work has been prepared by
Mr, T. M. Clark, an architect of Boston,
with the design of giving principles and di-
rections suggestive of the plans best to be
adopted under a variety of circumstances
rather than of laying down rules to be in-
considerately followed. It is intended to
cover the whole subject of school architect-
ure, with especial attention to the proper



124



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



heating and efficient ventilation of the build-
ings. It begins with the consideration of
the site and the digging of the well, and
closes with the elevations and finishings of
the schoolhouses. An article on log school-
houses is added. Circular Xo. 5 is a state-
ment of the working of the English educa-
tion act of 1870 in districts outside of cities,
prepared for the department, by Mr. Henry
W. Hulbert.

Electric Lighting by Lscaxdescesce. By |
W. E. Sawyer. New York : D. Van j
Nostrand. 1881. Pp.189. Price, $2.50. |
In these chapters Mr. Sawyer has given
a resume of the present condition of electric
lighting by incandescence, describing the
chief apparatus that has been so far de-
vised. He begins his exposition with a con-
sideration of the various electric generators,
as these necessarily are at the foundation of
any system of electric lighting. Of these
the two important classes are those of the
Gramme type, in which he includes those of
Maxim and Brush; and those of the new
Siemens type, in which he places his own
and Edison's. The Wilde, De Mcritens,
and Lontin machines are also described,
the first being characterized as the " germ
of a perfect generator," in that in it the in-
tensity of the magnetic field is uninfluenced
by the resistance of the external circuit,
and a larger part of the entire current can
therefore be used than in accumulative ma-
chines. The review of incandescent lamps
includes those of Starr and King, Lody-
guine, Konn and Kosloflf, Bouliguine, Fon-
taine, Farmer, Sawyer, Edison, and Maxim, in
which the carbon is protected from the at-
mosphere, and those of Reynier and Wer.
dermann, in which it bums in the air. Of
the former, only the last three are regarded
as practicable lamps, and of these the Max-
im is considered as, in all essential particu-
lars, a duplication of that of Edison. With
regard to the duration of the carbon, Mr.
Sawyer holds that the hope of making it
permanent is chimerical, as no material will
stand the strain to which an incandescent
conductor is subjected, and that the part of
wisdom, therefore, is to provide for its re-
newal. In treating of the division of the
current, four systems are considered — the
series, the multiple, the multiple-series, and
the series-multiple system. In the first, the



lamps are strung one after the other upon
one wire ; in the second, each lamp is hung



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