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on a branch between two parallel wires ; in
the third, several lamps arc placed upon a
branch ; and, in the last, groups or bunches
of lamps are strung upon one wire. For
a large number of lamps, Mr. Sawyer con-
siders the first arrangement impracticable,
and the last, which he has adopted, the
most desirable. Regarding the cost of in-
candescent lighting, the conclusion is reached
that it is not more than one seventh of that
of gas for equal light, while the cost of
plant, repairs, etc., will be much less. As to
the future of incandescent lighting, and its
relations to other forms of illumination,
Mr. Sawyer expresses himself as follows ;
" The application of electricity to public and
private illumination is a realization of the
near future no longer to be questioned. It
is not probable, however, that electricity
will ever entirely supersede gas ; indeed, it
does not appear that illuminating gas has
materially affected the consumption of illu-
minating oils. There is room, and will doubt-
less continue to be room, for all methods
of artificial lighting, and it is not likely
that, for many years to come, we shall wit-
ness anything more than the extensive use
of electricity — public buildings and private
residences, streets, and squares better illu-
minated than at present, and the new form
of light keeping pace with the progress of
older and well-tried institutions."



The Cause of Color among Races and the
Evolution of Physical Beauty. By
William Sharpe, D. D. New edition, re-
vised and enlarged. New Yoik : G. P.
Putnam's Sons. 1881. Pp. 36. Price,
75 cents.

The author's views are partly based on
observations made among the different races
of India. lie supposes that lighter-colored
peoples are developed from darker colored
ones by a process of evolution which cor-
responds with the advance of civilization,
and is promoted by the increa.«ing habit of
wearing clothing. The qualities which give
a dark color to the skin are those which
are necessary to preserve it against the in-
clemency of the elements. As clothing be-
comes more general, fuller, and more regu-
larly worn, they become less important for
protection, and are finally nearly obliterated.



LITERARY NOTICES.



125



The Boy Engineers : What they did and
HOW THEY DID IT. A Book for Bovs.
By Reverend J. Lckis. New York:
G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 344. Price,
$1.75.

This useful book is another result of
the author's intelligent interest in the me-
chanical education of boys. He has con-
tributed various volumes to this object,
dealing with the subject in different ways,
but all aiming at a practical familiarity
with mechanical operations, and successful-
ly to combine working and thinking. The
" Boy Engineers " begins with the construc-
tion of a plain and simple workshop which
a couple of boys extemporize, and then it
follows them through a course of self-cult-
ure in mechanics. They first get up a grind-
stone for their purposes and learn to sharp-
en tools. Then they make a lathe and go
on with the preparation of various work-
shop appliances. A wooden clock was next
constructed, and then they proceeded to
make an organ. Carpentry and the problem
of house-construction were next attacked,
and after that they devoted themselves to
all sorts of mechanical contrivances and
operations such as might constitute a fitting
preparation for the thorough study of en-
gineering. The book is well adapted to in-
terest enterprising boys, and is full of ir
formation that will be useful to many grown
men.

American Sanitary Engineering. By Ed-
ward S. Philbrick, C. E. New York :
" The Sanitary Engineer," 1881. Pp.
129.

In the dozen lectures comprising this vol-
ume Mr. Philbrick has made a very excellent
statement of the main conditions to be ob-
served in sanitary construction, and present-
ed the chief considerations which show the
need and importance of such work. In his
introductory lecture he points out the great
progress that has been made toward a high-
er standard of cleanliness, and the need of
a continuance in the same direction to meet
the conditions of modern life. The first of
his two lectures upon ventilation he devotes
to a very full statement of the conditions
which affect the purity of the air, the vitia-
tion of it produced by respiration, lights
and fires, the proper amounts of watery
vapor for different temperatures, the influ-



ence of the materials of walls in allowing
an air circulation, and the position of the
rooms with regard to exposure to the ex-
ternal air, the results of the most trust-
worthy experiments being given on these
points. In the second lecture on this
subject the various ways of moving air
arc considered ; and in this connection the
different methods of heating are treated,
their several advantages as determined by
experience being indicated. In speaking of
gaslight he points out what has been fre-
quently pointed out before, but has been
very little heeded, that, by the simple device
of placing a duct above a chandelier, air
vitiation by gas can be entirely obviated.
This construction also secures excellent ven-
tilation. The chapters upon drainage and
sewage include a consideration of the dif-
ferent systems of sewage disposal, the
proper construction of sewers, the means of
ventilating them, and brief descriptions of
closets, traps, and the various appliances
connected with the water-carriage system,
which the author regards as the only prac-
ticable system for cities. The subject
throughout is considered with reference to
American climatic conditions.



The Food of Fishes. By S. A. Forbes.
Bulletins of the Illinois State Laboratory
of Natural History, November, 1880.
Pp. 62.

The author assumes that, by reason of
its isolation from the land and from other
water systems, a far more complete and in-
dependent equilibrium of organic life and
activity is found in a single body of water
than in any equal body of land. Hence
each form of life must be studied with ref-
erence to its relation to other forms and to
its whole environment, of which its food
relations are one of the most important
features. A number of definite general cor-
respondences between structure and food
arc indicated by the study of certain struc-
tural conditions about the mouth, throat,
and gills of fish, of which it is hoped a full
enough knowledge may be reached to en-
able the character of the food of an un-
known species to be determined by a mere
inspection of the fish itself. The present
paper is a contribution to the study in these
relations of the Acaidhopteri.



126



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



Extracts from Chordal's Letters. New
Yoik: "American Machinist" Publish-
ing Co. Pp. 320. Price, $1.50.

This is a collection of letters contributed
during the past two jcars to the " American
Machinist," and published under the above
title. They treat of all sorts of topics con-
nected with the work and management of a
machine-shop in a bright, attractive style,
and are very interesting reading to others
than machinists. To the young mechanic
the book is of especial value for its constant
insistence upon the necessity of good work
if a man would rise, and its scorn of the
careless and shiftless workman. The author
does not stop to moralize, but this thesis is
presented at every turn in the many exam-
ples and illustrations of shop-work given,
and in a way to enable the dullest reader to
see its bearing.

Tide-Tables for the Atlantic Coast of
THE United States for the Year 1881.
The same for the Pacific Coast. Wash-
ington: Government Printing-office. Pp.
129 and Go. Price, 23 cents each.

The tables give for every day of the
year the approximate predicted times and
heights of the tides at the principal ports
on either coast, including fifteen ports on
the Atlantic and four ports on the Pacific
coast. For intermediate ports, tables of tidal
constants are appended, from which the
times and heights of the tides may be com-
puted for those places by applying the cor-
rections which are designated to the figures
assigned to the principal ports with which
they arc grouped.

Report os the Marine Isopoda of New
England and Adjacent Waters. By
Oscar Harger. (From the Report of
the United States Commissioner of Fish
and Fisheries, 187S.) Paper, pp. 168.
The report includes descriptions of the
species of Isopoda which are at present known
to inhabit the coast of New England and
the adjacent regions, as far as New Jersey
on the south and Nova Scotia on the north.
Besides the special labors of the Fish Com-
mission, the collections of Professors Ver-
rill and Smith, of Yale College, and others,
have been used as aids in the study. The
descriptions are full, and nearly all the spe-
cies are fiprurcd in more or less of detail.



The family, named from all the legs being
thoracic and generally similar, is represent-
ed on land by the common "sow-bugs,"
"hill-bugs," and wood-lice.

A Syllabus of Anglo-Saxon Literature.
By J. M. Hart. Adapted from Bern-
hard Ten Blink's " Geschichte der eng-
lischen Litteiatur." Cincinnati : Robert
Clarke & Co. 1881. Pp. 69.

This work furnishes a history and analy-
sis of Anglo-Saxon literature in its whole
field and in the view of its various relations,
with commentaries calling attention to its
leading characteristics, and pointing out the
peculiarities of particular authors and works.

Second Biennial Report of the Superin-
tendent OF Public Instruction of the
State of Colorado. Denver: Tribune
Publishing Company. 1S79-I880. Pp.
134.

This pamphlet contains, in addition to
the Superintendent's review of his work for
two years, a synopsis of the public-school
system of Colorado, the reports of the coun-
ty superintendents and of the University of
Colorado, and the addresses delivered at the
annual meeting of the State Teachers' As-
sociation. Of 35,566 children of school-age
in the State, 22,119 were enrolled in the
schools, and the average attendance was
12,618. The expenditure per capita of
school population was 811-07, and the ex-
penditure per capita of average attendance
was 131.38. The university was attended
by 121 students. The addresses before the
Teachers' Association include one on " In-
fluence," by the President ; a criticism of
classical education, by Mr. David Boyd ; and
a plea for the higher education of women,
by Mr. F. E, Smith.



Papilio: Devoted to Lepidoptera exclu-
sively. Organ of the New York Ento-
mological Club. New York: Henry
Edwards, 185 East 116th Street. Janu-
ary, February, and March numbers. Pp.
12, each. Price, $2.00 for ten numbers.

This magazine is pubUshed monthly, ex-
cept in the two " summer vacation " months.
In connection with its special subject it will
embrace within the scope of its articles
notes on the transformations and diseases
of the Lepidoptera, their use and detriment



POPULAR MISCELLANY.



127



to the human race, the parasites which prey
upon them and assist in keeping them in
check, descriptions of new species, etc. The
three numbers contain an article on the
" Importance of Entomological Studies," a
biographical sketch of M. Achille Guenee,
and numerous descriptions of species, with
a chromolith illustration of Edwardaia bril-
liaiis.



PUBLICATIOXS RECEIVED.

How we feed the Baby. By C. E. Page, M. D.
New York: Fowler & Wells. 1881. Pp. 144.
Price, 75 cents.

Unsclentiflc Materialism. By S. H. Wilder.
Reprint from " The Iiuematiuual Review."
New York. 1881. Pp.16.

Annual Address of the President of the Mid-
dletown Scientilic Association. By Rev. Fred-
erick Gardiner, D. D. MiddLtown, Connecticut.
1881. I'p. 19.

The Endowment of Scientific Research. By
Professor Oeorije Daviilson, Ph. D. Fiom an
Address before the California Academy of Sci-
ences. Pp. 8.

Our Trees in Winter. By John Robinson.
From the • Bullet in'" of the Essex (Ma.'-sachu-
eetts) Institute. Pp. 16.

Department of Science and Arts, Ohio Me-
chanics' Institute. Cincinnati. 1881. Pp. 13.

"The CoOperatnr." A Monthly Journal de-
voted to the Promotion of Cooperative Action in
all its Forms. Vol. I, No. 1. New York: A. R.
Footc. 1881. Pp.16. Price, II a year.

Essay upon Ensilage. By J. M. Bailey. Pp. 10.

Report of the Director of the Detroit Ob-
servatory of the University of Michiiran, from
October 1, 1879. to January 1, 1881. Ann Arbor,
Michigan. 1881. Pp. 20.

Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration. By
Joseph D. Weeks, A. M. Boston : Rand &
Avery. 1881. Pp.73.

Preliminary List of the North American Spe-
cies of Aiirotia. By A. R. Grute. Washington.
Is81. Pp. 16.

Climatology of Florida. Bv C. J. Kenworthy,
M. D. Savannah, Georzia. 1881. Pp. 70.

Railroads and Telegraphs : Who shall control
them ? By F. H. Giddinjjs. Springfield, Massa-
chusetts. 1,S81. Pp. 13.

President's Inausrural Address before the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. By
K. H. Thurst .n. Pp.16.

The Gradual Dispersion of Certain Mollaska
in New England. By Edward S. Morse. Pp. 6.

Annual Report on the Surveys of Northern
and Northwestern Lakes, in Charge of C. B.
Comstock. Washington. 1880. Pp. 94.

Quarterly Report of the Chief of the Bureau
ofStatistics,Trea:<ury Department, for the Three
Months ended September 30, ISSO. Washiiictou:
Government PrintinirOfflce. 1881. Pp. \Si.

Annual Report of the Ontario Institution for
the Eduralion of the Blind. Toronto : C. Blackett
Robinson. 1S81. Pp. 28.

Simple Apparatu* for determining Specific
Heats of Solids and Liquids with Small Quanti-
ties of M'ltorial. By J. W. Mallet. F. K S. From
" The American Chemical Journal." Pp. 14.

Failure of Vaccination. By Carl Spinzig.
M. D. St. Louis. 1881. Pp. 15.

The Rocky Mountain Locust. Bv Charles V.
Riley, Ph. D. Pp. 50. With Maps. '



A New Order of Extinct Jurassic Reptiles.
Discovery of a Fossil Bird in the Jurassic of
Wyoming; and Note on American Pterodactyls.
By O. C. Marsh. Reprint from "The American
Journal of Science," April, 1881.

Annual Report of the Board of Health of the
State 01" Louisiana for 1880. New Orleans: J. 3.
Rivers. 1881. Pp. a'4.

.\nnual Report of the Superintendent of the
Yellowstone National h ark for 1880. Washing-
ton: Government Printing-Offlce. 1881. Pp.64.

On Quebracho-Bark. By Dr. Adolph Hansen.
Translated from the German. Pp. 13.

Meteorological Researches. By William Fer-
rell. On Cyclones, Tcrnadoes, and Waterspouts.
Being Part II of Appendix No. 10, of Report of
the Superintendent of the United Stales Coast
and Geodetic Survey. Washington : Govern-
ment Printing-Offlce. 1880. Pp.95. With Plates.

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences
of Hhiladelphia. Vol. viii, second series. Phila-
delphia. 1874-1881. Pp. lia With Plates.

Practical Plionics. By E. V. De Graff. A. M.
Pp. 108. Price, 75 cents. Regent Schools of the
State of New York. By C. W Bardeen. Pp.24. .

Price, 25 cents. Sugiiestions for teaching i'rac- *

tioiis. By W. W. Davis. Pp. 4:^. Price, 23 cents.
New York Examination Questions. Pp. 111.
Price, 25 cents. Hints on Orthoepv. By C. T.
Po(der, A. M. Pp. 15. Price, 10 cents. Hand-
books for Youn2 Teachers. No. 1, First Steps.
By Henry B. Buckham, A. M. Pp. 152. Price.
75 cents. Syracuse: C. W. Bardecn. 1881.

The Telescope. Bv Thomas Nolan. B. S.
New York: D. Van Nostraud. 1881. Pp. 75.
Price, 50 cents.

History of the Free-Trade Movement in Eng-
land. By Augustus Mongredieu. New York:
Ci. P. Putnam's Sous. 1881. Pp. 184. Price, 50
I cents.

I Victor Hmro: His Life and Work. From the
I French of Alfred Barbou. Bv Frances A. Shaw.
Chicago : S. C. Griggs & Co. 1881. Pp. 207.
Price, $1.

Our Native Perns. By Lucien M. Underwood,
Ph. D. Bloomiugtou, Illinois. 1861. Pp. 116.
Price. $1.

Sir William Hamilton Bv W. H. S. Monck.
M. A. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1;81.
Pp. 192. Price, $1.95.

The Science of Mind Bv John Bascoiv.
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1881. Pp.
456. Price, J;2.

History of the Christian Relicion to the Tear
Two Hundred. Sy Charles B. Waite, A. M.
Second edition. Chicago: C. V. Waite & Co.
1881. Pp. 4M. Price, $2.50.



POPULAR MISCELLANY.

Dealth and Material Prosperity.— The

report of the Board of Health of Xew II.i-
ven contains, in a letter from Professor
Brewer, President of the Board, to the
Common Council of the city, a convincing
statement of the closeness of the relation
between a good sanitary condition and the
material prosperity and wealth of a city or
community. An individual, to prosper by
his labor, must be reasonably well ; the
same is equally true of a community or
state. In the intense competition of mod-



128



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY



ern times, no sickly community can be
prosperous. It may be intelligent, and
moral, and industrious, but it must be
poor. Hence it is a duty, imposed not only
by the claim of the individual on the com-
munity, but also by the vital interest of the
community itself, to protect every person
in it against those diseases and dangers
whose power for evil has grown along
with our civilization. The wonderfully
rapid accumulation of wealth, far surpass-
ing anything ever witnessed in the past,
which is one of the characteristics of mod-
ern times, is not due to improvements in
machinery, to applications of science, to
the spread of education, the decrease of
wars, or the more extended production of
precious metals, though all these have con-
tributed their part, so much as to the better
average health of civilized countries and
the longer average term of life which is
now secured to workingmen. Even now,
a single pestilence like those with which
Savannah and Memphis have recently been
afflicted, may set the most prosperous city
back many years. New Haven has had but
one visitation of yellow fever, but it took
the city eight or ten years to recover from
the visible effects of it, and a permanent
loss of " what might have been " was suf-
fered at a critical period in the commercial
development of the city, the value of which
can never be ascertained or guessed. The
sanitary work, which is of such importance
in this aspect of civic life, is often over-
looked, because of its unobtrusive charac-
ter ; and it is never more efficient than
when it is least obtrusive. In the ordina-
ry pursuits of business, the clang of ma-
chinery, brilliant scientific applications, the
bustle, etc., "are more conspicuously in the
eyes of the public than the quiet, persist-
ent, unromantic, but heroic fight with un-
seen but unwholesome influences which lurk
in the air of our towns. These influences,
mostly growing out of our modes of life,
are ever present in all our cities, ever grow-
ing unless checked, always producing dis-
ease, and from time to time especially in-
viting pestilence." Few cities can afford
to allow a pestilence to invade them. " A
single epidemic, but one fourth as bad as
that of Memphis last year, would cost this
city," says Professor Brewer, speaking of



New Haven, "more, and leave us with
higher taxes, than the most expensive sys-
tem of sewers and of garbage collection
that was ever dreamed of here." More-
over, a pestilence is only an intensified
manifestation of disease, and most of its
disastrous effects may be produced by pro-
longed but general ill health ; and it is
perfectly safe to say that no Northern city
can be really prosperous and really sickly
at the same time.

The Monnd-Bnildcrs,— The report of re-
tiring President Pratt, of the Academy of
Sciences of Davenport, Iowa, gives especial
attention to the researches respecting the
mound-builders, in which this association is
much interested. One of the members of the
society, the Rev. Mr. Gass, explored seventy-
five mounds during 1880, about fifteen of
which afforded relics to be deposited in the
museum. According to the evidence of the
mounds in the vicinity of Davenport, copper
was a rare and highly valued article among
the people who built them, so rare as to indi-
cate that they did not work the copper-mines
of Lake Superior or any others, and were not
in communication with any people who did.
The amount of drift copper still found in
the region indicates that a sufficient supply
for all that the mound builders seem to
have had could be accounted for from that
source. The copper was all hammered ; no
evidence exists of any of it ever having
been smelted or cast. The so-called copper
axes do not seem ever to have been used as
tools, and are supposed to have been kept
as badges of wealth and distinction. The
mound-builders smoked tobacco, but, as is
inferred from the form of the pipes,
ceremonially rather than for enjoyment.
I Among the great variety of animal forms
represented on the pipes, two distinctly re-
semble the elephant, mammoth, or masto-
don. Mr. Pratt declares that the Davenport
Academy has evidence — the only evidence
discovered so far — that the mound-builders
had a written language. It exists in the
shape of two inscribed tablets found in the
mounds and deposited in the museum of the
society, which have attracted considerable
attention in this country and Europe, and
to which, provided their genuineness can be
maintained, much importance is naturally



POPULAR MISCELLANY.



29



attached by archieologists. They were kept
at the Smithsonian Institution for two
months, and were carefully examined there
by members of the National Academy of
Sciences as well as by other persons ; hcli-
otype plates were taken of them, and they
were exhibited at the meeting of the Ameri-
can Association at Boston last August, Mr.
Pratt believes that the evidence of their
genuineness is sufficient. The society's col-
lection of mound-relics is regarded as one
of the best in the world.

The Saliva and the Gastric Juice.— Re-
cent researches reported by M. Dcfrcsne
throw new light on the relations of ptya-
linc, diastase, and the gastric juice. It
has been debated whether the saliva is de-
stroyed in the gastric juice or continues in
the stomach its action on starch. M. De-
fresne's experiments prove that the saliva
is paralyzed in pure gastric juice, but that
with a mixed gastric juice containing only
organic acids, saccharification proceeds as
well as in the mouth. Ptyaline, then, differs
from diastase in that it is only paralyzed
for an instant in pure gastric juice, but re-
covers its action in the mixed gastric juice
and in the duodenum, and is capable of
continuing the process of saccharification ;
while diastase is irrecoverably destroyed in
hydrochloric solutions or in pure gastric
juice, and is profoundly altei-ed after pass-
ing into the mixed gastric juice, so that if it
still dissolves starch it no longer saccharifies
it. Ptyaline is recommended as an excel-
lent reagent for demonstrating the differ-
ence between mixed gastric juice, which
owes its acidity to organic acids, and pure
gastric juice, the strength of which is de-
rived from hydrochloric acid.

Catting and SlaTe-making Ants.— The
Rev. Henry C. McCook has contributed to
the Academy of Natural Sciences, of Phila-
delphia, papers on a Northern cutting ant,
and on the American slave-making ant, both
of which are of much interest. The cut-
ting ant was observed at Island Heights on
Tom's River, New Jersey. Entrance to the
nest was afforded by a narrow tubular gal-
lery about two inches long, which led to a
spherical chamber about an inch and a

VOL. XIX. — 9



half in diameter. This chamber, or vesti-
bule, communicated with another chamber,
also generally spherical, but of more irreg-
ular outline, three and a half inches in
diameter, within which were several masses
of leaf-paper similar to that made by the
Texas leaf -cutting ant, but exceedingly fra-
gile and without the cellular arrangement of
the Texas paper. In pleasant weather the
insects worked in two columns, one going
each way — to the pine-trees and returning
to the nest — and moving very deliberately.
Those in the column returning homeward
were carrying little pieces of the pine-needle
or leaf, cut from seedling plants. They
bore the load on the head, with one end
held firmly by the mandibles, and the ef-
fect at a little distance was " to give them a

I shoulder-arms appearance." In cutting the
leaf, the ant climbed out to a position near

; the end and applied her mandibles, moving
around as she cut, till the piece was severed

I and fell. The architecture of the caves was

1 a miniature copy of those of the Texas cut-
ing ant. All the colonies were compara-
tively small, and without visible connection



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