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are most likely to be found and to be most
active. The lung is the organ most dili-
gently searched and severely tested ; and it
is the lung which is most liable to disease,
and in which, when disease is present, it is
most obvious. Fewer directions are given
concerning search for morbid conditions in
the other organs, "for, as it was known
that animals were but rarely perfectly
sound in their entire system, a more rigid
search would have been nearly tantamount
to depriving the people altogether of animal
food. But, although a search for other
diseased organs is not enjoined, any morbid



condition observed by the practiced eye of
the slaughterer insures the rejection of the
animal as food."

The Origin and Progress of Piscicnlt-
nrc. — M. Ph. Gauckler, in a recent work
on fresh-water fishes, has reviewed the his-
tory of pisciculture from the earliest times
to the present. In modern times, Dom
Pinchon, a monk of the Abbey of lioome,
in the fourteenth century, hatched fish in
boxes through which a current of water
was kept slowly flowing. The Chinese
practice of placing limbs of trees or herbs
in the spawning-places to collect the eggs
has been in vogue from time immemo-
rial in Europe, chiefly in the ponds of Bo-
hemia. A Swedish magistrate named Lund,
of Linkciping, adopted it successfully in
1761, after having casually remarked that
eggs which clung to juniper-branches did
better than those which fell to the ground.
In 1 834 Mauro Rusconi, an Italian, success-
fully propagated the tench, the bleak, and
the perch, in the lake of Como ; and JIM.
Agassiz and Vogt began at about the same
time their embryological experiments on the
Salmonidcc, with the view of multiplying
one of the species in the lake of Neufchiltel.
Mr. John Shaw, of Drumlanrig, adopted ar-
tificial culture to increase the product of
the salmon-tisheries of the river \ith, in
Scotland. His example was followed by
Lord Gray, on the Tay, in 1838, and by
others in 1841. Joseph Remy, of La BresEe,
in the Vosges, made his first experiments
in artificial reproduction, having, by his
own investigations, discovered a process of
which Jacobi had given an account, but
which had not attained publicity eighty
years before. M. Coste, of the College of
France, perceived the importance of this
discovery and adopted it in 1850, while he
secured a suitable reward to Remy. The
attention of several persons in France was
directed to pisciculture by the enthusias-
tic publications of M. Coste, and the experi-
ments of M. de Quatrefages and other mem-
bers of the Society of Acclimation. They
were encouraged by the gratuitous distribu-
tion of eggs and fry, which were liberally
furnished to French and foreign customers
from the establishment of Huningue. Dur-
ing the later years of the French adminis-



POPULAR MIS CELL ANY.



141



tration, the quantity distributed amounted
to twenty millions a year for species of the
salmon family only. The business of prop-
agation has been extensively carried on in
England as a commercial speculation. Since
1854 the Messrs. Ashworth have put 260,-
000 salmon in Lough Corrib, Connaugbt,
Ireland. A special establishment has been
erected at Perth, and Cooper's fish-ladders
have been put in all the rivers frequented
by salmon. Important establishments for
the artificial propagation of salmon have
been created in Holland. The basins of
the Zoological Garden of Ghent and of the
Horticultural Society of Brussels have been
adopted for purposes of hatching. Several
lakes in Switzerland have been largely re-
stocked by artificial means. The most prac-
tical results, according to M. Gauckler, in the
perfection of processes, have been gained
in America, and acknowledgment is freely
made of the value of the labors of Baird,
Livingston, Stone, Ainsworth, Seth Green,
Collins, Mather, and others, in bringing
down the science from the domain of spec-
ulation to that of palpable facts and remu-
nerative results.

Sanitary Proteetlon Assoeiations. — San-
itary protection associations have recently
been formed in Edinburgh and London, the
objects of which, as stated in the prospectus
of the London Association, are : 1. To pro-
vide their members, at moderate cost, with
such advice and supervision as shall insure
the proper sanitary condition of their own
dwellings; and, 2. To enable members to
procure practical advice, on moderate terms,
as to the best mode of remedying defects in
houses of the poorer class in which they are
interested. Tiie associations are not in-
tended as a substitute for a municipal in-
spection, or to conflict with the public au-
thorities, but to supplement their action.
The idea of the associations originated, ac-
cording to the statement of Professor Fleem-
ing Jenkin, the founder of the one at Edin-
burgh, in a paper read by him before the
Society of Arts, in his endeavoring to ex-
plain in a lecture the principles of sanitation,
so that they could be applied practically by
householders. Ho found that he could not
do it, but that, after all his efforts to make
the matter clear with general demonstrations



and diagrams, professional advice had to be
sought by each householder for his own
particular case. What advice could the
public obtain? The plumber and builder
were interested parties, and not always com-
petent ; engineers held their services at too
high a rate to be readily accessible to the
majority ; public officers could not be called
upon unless there was probably some actual
serious defect to be remedied. The thought
occurred that an association of householders
might be formed, to employ an engineer, at
a fixed salary, who should make an inspec-
tion, draw plans, and propose improvements,
for each subscriber, at an expense to the
latter only of his annual subscription. The
subscription to the Edinburgh Association
was fixed at one guinea a year. The sum
has been found enough to answer the in-
tended purpose, and the work has been
conducted with entire satisfaction and suc-
cess in that city for three years. The Lon-
don Association requires an entrance-fee
of two guineas for houses of less than four
hundred pounds rental, and subsequent an-
nual fees of one guinea. A person joining
either association and paying the entrance-
fee obtains all the privileges of member-
ship for a year without committing himself
to any further payments. He has a right
to a thorough professional inspection of all
the water and drainage apparatus in his
house, including every pipe, tap, cistern, and
sanitary convenience, for efficiency, leak-
age, smells, and ventilation, and the main
drain between the house and the town sew-
er, the opening of which, however, is at his
expense. As soon after the inspection as
may be, he may receive a detailed report,
describing the condition of his house,
accompanied by a sketch diagram showing
every pipe and trap, in connection with
which recommendations for improvements
are made when necessary, with rough esti-
mates of the probable cost if they are de-
sired. The wishes of the occupier are taken
into account, the more important are dis-
tinguished from the less important alter-
ations, and the suggestions are specific
enough to enable the occupier to consult
intelligently with his plumber or builder on
the subject. The society has no interest in
recommending any expenditure, and the oc-
cupier has his option whether he will incur



142



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



any or not. If he concludes to have the
work done, he may have it inspected, when
it is completed, or nearly so, and obtain a
Certificate as to the sanitary condition of
his premises. The second year's inspection
is a simpler matter than the first year's, for
it is guided by the results of the previous
inspection, and has to be only comparative.
With respect to the efficiency of this sys-
tem. Professor Jenkin says that it has been
shown that the required services can be ren-
dered in a thorough and efficient manner by
one resident engineer, for four hundred and
fifty or even five hundred houses in one year.
Twelve hundred houses have been put in
order in Edinburgh, and there has not been
during three years one case of complaint
that the houses were not thoroughly exam-
ined, or that the reports were not sufficiently
detailed ; but, at the annual meetings of the
society, member after member has arisen to
express his satisfaction at the work.

Dnst, the Nnflens of Fog. — According
to the researches of Mr. John Aitken, as
described in a paper read by him before the
Royal Society of Edinburgh, the formation
of fogs and clouds is dependent on the
presence of dust in the atmosphere. His
view was illustrated by an experiment in
which steam was mixed with air in two
large glass receivers, one of which was filled
with common air, the other with air that
had been filtered. Clouds appeared in the
former vessel, while the air in the other one
remained perfectly transparent. Similar
results attended an experiment with the
air-pump, in the receiver of which a little
water was placed to saturate the air. On
removing a part of the pressure, a fogginess
appeared, or nothing was visible, according
as the air in the receiver was unfiltered or
filtered. From these and other similar ex-
periments, Mr. Aitken has concluded that,
whenever water-vapor condenses in the at-
mosphere, it always does so on some solid
nucleus ; that dust-particles in the air form
such nuclei ; that if there were no dust,
there would be no fogs, no clouds, no
mists, and probably no rain ; tha^ the super-
saturated air would convert every object on
the surface of the earth into a condenser
on which it would deposit ; and that our
breaths, when thev became visible on a cold



morning, and every puff of steam as it es-
capes into the air, show the impure and
dusty condition of the atmosphere. Ex-
periments with other vapors than that of
water showed that their condensation is
governed by a similar rule. The condensa-
tion is not produced by any particles which
we can see, or even by those which are re-
vealed by the sunbeam, for these may be
driven off by heat and the fogs still be vis-
ible, but by vastly more numerous, infini-
tesimally small, and invisible particles which
heat will not drive away. These particles
may be furnished by the spray from the
ocean, by meteoric matter, by the operation
of almost every force. The products of
all kinds of combustion give rise to them.
The use of purer forms of coal, or even of
gas, does not avoid them, nor even appear
to diminish their number. Common salt is
one of the most active fog-producers, but
the products of burned sulphur exceeded
in this respect all the other substances ex-
perimented upon. The density of the fog
I depends on the amount of fine dust in the
, air. If only a few particles are present, only
; a few fog-drops form, and they are heavy
and fall like rain ; if there are many, the
' more dust the finer are the fog-particles,
I and the longer they remain suspended in the
air. Though the use of more perfect forms
j of combustion is not likely to prevent the
I generation of fogs, it will, by preventing
1 the accumulation of smoke which now comes
I down into fogs and mixes with them, re-
move the cause which makes them so dark
and extremely annoying.

Electric Lights for the French Coasts.
— M. E. Allard, Director of the Central
Lighthouse Service, has submitted to the
French Minister of Public Works propo-
sitions for lighting the coasts of France
with the electric light. He would begin by
substituting the electric light for the pres-
ent oil-lights in forty-two of the principal
lighthouses, and adding sound-signals in
twenty of them. The mean range of visi-
bility of the present oil-lights is twenty-
two miles on the ocean-coast and twenty-
seven miles on the Mediterranean coast.
Within these radii tlicy can be depended
upon as signals dnriig one half of the
year ; during the other half of the year



NOTES.



43



they arc liable to be interfered with by
unfavorable atmospheric conditions, so as
to greatly reduce their radii of visibility.
With electric lights having the powers that
M. Allard proposes to apply, the period
during which the penetrative power may
be deficient will be reduced to sixty days,
or one sixth of the year on the ocean, and to
twenty-four nights, or one fifth, on the Med-
iterranean coast. The cost of the proposed
changes is estimated at seven million francs,
or eight million francs if sound-signals are
also provided. It is believed that the cost
of keeping up the light after the change is
made will be several times less than that of
maintaining the oil-lamps.



NOTES.

A THERMOMETRic burcau has been es-
tablished, in connection with the Winches-
ter Observatory of Yale College, for the
more accurate graduation and verification
of thermometers. The thermometers in com-
mon use are, as a rule, not graduated with
any approach to scientific accuracy, and
the best of them, however exact they may
be when new, increase their readings rapid-
ly within a few months, so as to become
as much as 2' in error in the course of a
year. This is a matter of particular impor-
tance with clinical thermometers, of which
several thousand are bought every year ;
and to instruments of this class special at-
tention is paid.

The late Mr. Frank Buckland has be-
queathed his valuable museum of " Econom-
ic Fish Culture " to the British nation, with
the sum of £5,000 to go to the nation on the
death of Mrs. Buckland, to be applied to
the foundation of a professorship of eco-
nomic pisciculture in connection with the
Bucliland Museum and the Science and Art
Department at South Kensington.

A scOGESTios to employ artificial lights
for the capture and destruction of noxious
insects has found considerable favor. A
medal was awarded at the last exhibition of
agriculture and insectology in Paris for a
lamp especially adapted for catching insects.
The electric liu'ht has been found to be a
very effective insect-trap, and its eventual
coming into use for this purpose in bug-
infected gardens and orchards may be re-
garded as among the things that are pos-
sible.

Arteriooraphy is the name which Dr.
Comtc, a French army-surgeon, has given
to a novel application of tattooing as a help



in the saving of lives. Believing that a
large proportion of deaths by bleeding
from wounds received in battle might be
avoided if the men knew just where to apply
compression to the arteries till the surgeon
should come. Dr. Comte has marked the
most suitable points for the application by
tattooed designs on the skins of the men of
his regiment.

Mr. Thomas Meeha.v, of Philadelphia, has
observed that the Yucca gloriosa has the
property of collecting moisture on the outer
surface of its flowers to such an extent
that drops will fall to the ground. In the
plant in which this peculiarity was first
noticed, the whole outside of the flowers
was covered with moisture ; it accumulated
in drops at the tip of each leaf of the peri-
anth, and the under leaves showed by their
appearance that a dropping of water had
been going on for some time. Mr. Meehau
could not decide whether the liquid was an
exudation from the leaves, or had been con-
densed from the atmosphere through some
special property of the plant, like that
which is attributed to the rain-tree {Pithece-
lobium saman) of Peru.

Carl WETrRECHT, one of the command-
ers of the Austro-Hungarian Polar Expedi-

j tion in the Tegetthofl', which discovered
Franz-Josef Land in 1874, died in Vienna,

j March 29th.

I MM. F. FocQiE and A. Michel Levy have
' produced an artificial basalt identical in all
' respects with the natural basalts, and par-
ticularly so with that of the plateaux of Au-
vergnc. The experiment is i-egardcd as es-
tablishing the igneous origin of the basalts.

M. Lefraxc has called attention in the
" Journal de Pharinacie " to woolen mat-
tres es as a possibly fertile nidus for dis-
ease. In a large city such mattresses may
represent millions of fleeces that have been
only partly cleared of grease, and have,
moreover, been affected by long use throuLdi
successive generations. They are rarely effi-
ciently purified, and might become an active
medium for the propagation of infection.

Sabino Berthelot, an eminent natural-
ist, died at Santa Cruz de TcncrifTe in No-
vember last, in the eighty-seventh year of
his age. He had made" the Canary Islands
his home for sixty years, and had done
much to increase the knowledge of their nat-
ural history. His principal work was the
preparation, in conjunction with Mr. Philip
Barker Webb, of a series of six quarto il-
lustrated volumes on that subject ("\at-
tural History of the Canary Islands"),
which was published in 182S. He was con-
sul of France, and a member of the princi-
pal scientific societies of the Canaries and of
Europe.



144



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



Mr. Potts, of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia, ob:«erves that the
order Spongida has many more representa-
tives in our fresh waters than has jrcnerally
been supposed. lie recently described to
the Academy three species of Six>ngilla
which he found in a small .stream ncai-
Philadelphia. Since then he has found the
Sfjongilla fragilis of Leidy plentifully in the
Schuylkill below the dam, and a lacustrine
form above the dam, and has obtained
a very slender green species which appears
creeping along stems of Sphagnum, etc., in
a swamp near Absecum, New Jersey ; a
beautiful species from the Adirondack
lakes ; another lacustrine form from the lake
near the Catskill Mountain House ; and four
species from an old cellar at Lehigh Gap,
Pennsylvania.

Mr. Edward R. Alston, a British work-
ing naturalist of growing reputation, died
in London, March 7th. lie contributed ar-
ticles to " The Zoologist " and other jour-
nals, chiefly on mammals and birds, pub-
lished an account of a journey to Archangel
and of the birds he observed there, was en-
gaged in the compilation of the part of the
" Zoloogical Record " relating to mammals,
and of the new edition (1874) of Bell's
" British Mammals," published a revision
of the genera of the liodentia (1876), and
" Memoirs on the Mammals of Asia Minor "
(1877 and 1880), and prepared the "Mam-
mals " of Salvin and Godman's " Biologia
Ccntrali- Americana " (1879 and 1880).

Honor to American Science. — Professor
John W. Draper has been elected one of the
twelve honorary members of the Physical
Society of London, under the presidency of
Sir William Thomson.

Professor S. Calvin, of the University
of Iowa, not R. S. Calvin, as it was errone-
ously printed, is the author of the article
entitled "A Piece of Coal," published in the
March number of the " Monthly."

Dr. James Lewis, a well-known Ameri- |
can conchologist, died at his home in Mo-
hawk, New York, February 23d. •

" Land and \Yater " has a curious ac- ,
count of a rat which, feeding upon the oys- I
ters in an oyster-cellar in London, was
caught by one of the mollusks and held fast
by the tail. It adds : " We have seen sev- j
eral instances of mice being caught by oys- |
ters. In the collection of the late Frank '
Buckland were several specimens, but in all [
these instances the mice were caught by I
their heads. In one case, two mice had
fallen victims to an oyster." |



Mr. John B. Hansler has made a study
of the source of the drift-ice which ac-
cumulates in the harbor of New York dur-
ing the severe weather of winter, and has



traced the principal part of it to the Tap-
pan Zee and Ilaverstraw Bay, In order to
prevent future obstruction of the harbor,
he proposes to confine the ice to the waters
in which it is formed, by stretching cable-
netting across the river at the narrows
below the Tappan Zee. The cost of the
structures needed to effect the object would
be, he believes, less than the amount of
damage now frequently suffered from ice in
a single season. The presumption that his
plan would be sufficient is strengthened by
the fact that the bridge of the Central Rail-
road of New Jersey over Newark Bay has
wholly stopped the d lifting of ice from that
water through the Kill van Kull.

M. de Molon has obtained from the peats
of Brittany, by means of suitable reagents,
benzine, paraffine, fatty oils, phenols, resin-
ous matters, acetic acid, and seventeen or
eighteen per cent, of a waxy substance anal-
ogous to the resins, which in distillation fur-
nishes enough paraffine to make the prep-
aration profitable. The same peat affords
an illuminating gas superior to tiiat ob-
tained from coal, and one third cheaper.

M. BoiRDON has devised a system of
drainage by means of which the under-
ground atmosphere of a whole vineyard
may be uniformly and effectively impreg-
nated with sulphuret of carbon for the pre-
vention of phylloxera. The expense of set-
ting the system in operation is great, but
after this a saving may be realized of four
fifths of the material it has hitherto been
necessary to use.

M. F. Zurcher has contributed a new
element to the discussion of the quc-^tion of
the relation between the number of sun-
spots and the rainfall. He has made a
comparison of the maximum heights of the
inundation of the Nile and of the numbers
of sun-spots as indicated by Wolf, for
forty-five years, from 1825 to 1870. The
curves representing the two values show a
parallelism throughout that is remarkable,
if nothing more.

M. Gaston Bonnier has found, from in-
vestigations recently made in Austria and
Hungary, that the intensity in the color of
flowers of the same species increases with
the altitude, though in a less marked degree
than the deepening of color that corresponds
with a greater height of latitude. The fact
has been made clear to him in many cases
by the comparison of colors in two, three,
four, and sometimes five places of increasing
altitude, in which the hues showed a grada-
tion of intensity. A microscopical exami-
nation disclosed that the change was not
occasioned by a new disposition of the color-
ing matter, but by an increase in the number
of grains of pigment on a given surface.




JULIUS ADOLPH STOCKHARDT.



THE



POPULAR SOIEiTOE
MONTHLY.



JUNE, 1881.



PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

By FELIX L. OSWALD, M. D.
CLOTHIXG.

"Xo better traveling babit tban hardy habits.''' — Sir Samuel Baker.

THE capacity of our ancestors to accommodate themselves to every
climate depended not only on their physiological faculty of adap-
tation, but also on their skill in protecting themselves by artificial means
from the inclemency of the higher latitudes. Houses and clothes are
a blessing if they answer this purpose by a close imitation of Nature's
own plan in sheltering her children from atmospheric vicissitudes ; but
in degree as they deviate from that plan their hygienic disadvantages
balance, or even outweigh, the gain in other respects. A swallow's
nest protects her brood from cold and rain without debarring them
from the fresh air ; a human domicile, too, should combine comfort
with the advantage of perfect ventilation ; and our clothes, like the fur
of a squirrel or the feather-mantle of a hawk, should keep us warm and
dry without interfering with the cutaneous excretions and the free
movement of our limbs.

Measured by these standards, the winter dress of an American
schoolboy is nearly the best, the summer dress of the average Ameri-
can, French, and German nursling about the worst that could possibly
be devised. At an age when the rapid development of the whole or-
ganism requires the utmost freedom of movement, our children are
kept in the fetters of garments that check the activity of the body in
every way : swaddling-clothes, undershirts, overshirts, neck-wrappers,
trailing gowns, garnitures, flounces, and shawls reduce the helpless
homimculus to a bundle of dry-goods, unable to move or turn, inca-
pable of relieving or intimating its uneasiness in any way save by the

TOL. XIX. — 10



146 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

use of its squealing apparatus, and consequently squealing violently
from morning till night. Out-doors, in the baby-carriage, "cold
draughts " have to be guarded against, and a load of extra wrappers
completely counteract the benefit of the fresh air ; faint with nausea
and suffocating heat the little mummy lies motionless on its back, re-
splendent in its white surplice, a fit candidate for the honors of a life
whose every movement of a natural impulse will be suppressed as a



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