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culiar mass of dark pigment-granules, called
pheodium, outside the central capsule, and
have, with few exceptions, a well-developed,
always extra-capsular, siliceous skeleton,
which forms very varied and delicate struct-
ures, usually radiating outward in hollow
siliceous tubes.

Industrial Accidents, etc.— Mr. T. A.

Brocklcbank suggests that the amount of
sickness and death incurred in industrial
operations in England, as a direct result of
the conditions under which they are carried
on, is a subject that demands investigation.
In 1877 he compiled tables for use before
the House of Lords, which gave returns of
deaths and injuries by boilers in mines, on
railways, and at factories, with totals for
1873, 1874, 1875, and 1876, of 107,000
men, women, and children ; and he estimates,
on the basis of the facts contamcd in these
tables, that 500,000 workmen will be killed
during the ten years, 1877 to 1886, as follows :
in mines, 300,000 ; on railways, 70,000 ; in
factories, 180,000. Sir Edward Watkin also
has made a statement in the House of Com-
mons to the effect that 100,000 persons are
killed annually in industrial occupations in
England. Facts are dted to show that the
accidents that are reported compose only a
part of those which take place, and to make
it appear probable that Mr. Brocklebank's
estimate is a very moderate one.

Sewage-Farming. — The Royal Agricult-
ural Society has recently awarded two prizes
of one hundred pounds sterling each for the
best managed sewage-farm, the one utiliz-
ing the sewage of not more, the other that
of more than twenty thousand people. Nino
farmers competed for the two prizes. Tlie
judges stated in their report that there was
a very considerable difference, both in the



286



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



amount of capital engaged upon the several
farms, and in the gross returns per acre.
The gross returns and the amount of wages
paid per acre were greatest in cases where
market-gardening was in vogue. It was re-
marked that a Ijfrge area of ordmary agri-
cultural land attached to a sewage-farm
does not always add to the profit of the un-
dertaking. Statistical tables showing the
number of persons living or working on the
farms, and the number of children on them,
make it appear that the average annual
mortality upon them does not exceed three
per thousand, and that " sewage- farming is
not detrimental to life or health." About
one hundred sewage-farms are in operation
in England.

Dablts of the Green Lizard. — Sarah P.
Monks has contributed to "The American
Naturalist " an interesting study of the hab-
its of two green lizards, or American cha-
meleons, which she has kept in her rooms.
The first, a female, came from South Caro-
lina in November, and was kept in a room
warmed with a furnace. It was very lively
and ran about a great deal during the win-
ter, but paid no attention to the flies till the
warm spring-days came, when it greedily de-
voured them and eagerly lapped water with
its tongue. When a male lizard was put in
the cage in May, a curious ceremonial court-
ship took place between the pair, each ani-
mal raising itself to the full extent of its
forelegs and bowing its head and the fore-
part of the body in a regular and dignified
manner as if it had a hinged joint at the
shoulder. Both lizards would scamper off
when they found that their actions were ob-
served ; and, if a fly came near them, they
would dart after it " like a flash of green
light." The changes of color in the creat-
ures were frequent and marked, but the
observations upon them were contradictory
and unsatisfactory. The changes were dif-
ferent in the two specimens : the same
causes did not affect them both alike ; and
the changes came on without regard to the
object on which they were placed, or to the
amount of light and darkness. They would
become green or light-brown when placed
in sunlight, but would also assume the same
colors in the darkest room. When disturbed
they would sometimes become darker, but at



other times would not change. The changes
were rapid, taking place in from two to
eight minutes ; and at one time one of the
lizards changed from green to light-brown,
then back to green again, in five minutes.
They would go to sleep as soon as it became
dark, and in the gloom of a storm, and would
wake again on the appearance of the sun,
although they were not exposed to its di-
rect rays. They assumed various positions in
sleeping — sometimes, when it was cool,
lying close up under a bit of loose bark,
sometimes curled in a comer behind a small
jar, sometimes stretched out on a limb or
along the twigs. When in a crevice or
hole, they took any shape that was conven-
ient, but on sticks and twigs they arranged
themselves so as to imitate the general form
of the branches. The changes of the skin
do not appear to depend upon any particu-
lar time or season, but upon the general
health and growth of the animal. One of
the lizards changed twice in seventeen days,
the other only four times in five months.
The skin split along the back and the upper
sides of the legs, and came off in large frag-
ments. The lizard would seize a bit in hia
mouth and pull it off as if it were an inveit-
ed glove, and would then eat it. The bits
of skin that remained around the jaws and
eyes seemed to annoy the animal very much.
When the tail had been broken off and re-
newed, as was the case with one of the liz-
ards, the exuviation of that part took place
independently of the rest of the body.

' The Safe Mannfaetnre of Dynamite. —

The French Academy of Sciences has re-
cently awarded a prize of twenty-five hun-
dred francs to Messrs. Boutmy and Foucher
for introducing new modes of producing
nitro-glycerine in quantity, by means of
which the manufacture of dynamite has
been rendered much safer than it has here-
tofore been. The old method, in which
fuming nitric acid, or a mixture of that
substance and sulphuric acid, was made to
act on glycerine, and the mass was suddenly
immersed in water, often resulted in the
production of enough heat to decompose a
part of the nitro-glycerine, and occasion a
violent explofsion in spite of the best refrig-
erating processes that could be employed.
The principle of the new process consists in



NOTES.



287



obviating the greater part of the heat by
first engaging the gl_vcerine in a combination
with sulphuric acid, which forms a sulpho-
glyceric acid, and then destroying this com-
pound slowly by means of nitric acid. Two
liquors are prepared in advance — a sulplio-
glyceric and a sulpho-nitric liquor (the lat-
ter with equal weights of sulphuric and ni-
tric acids). These disengage a considerable
amount of heat; they are allowed to cool,
and are then combined in such proportions
that the reaction takes place slowly. In the
old method the nitro-glycerinc is separated
almost instantaneously, and rises in part to
the surface, rendering washing difficult ; in
the new method it forms in about twenty
hours, with a regularity which prevents dan-
ger, and goes to the bottom of the vessel, so
that it can be washed rapidly. In the works
of Messrs. Boutmy and Toucher at Vouges,
where the new process has been employed,
no life has been lost for six years, and the
general health has been excellent.



NOTES.

The annual meeting of the National Acad-
emy of Sciences was held in Washington,
D. C., bogin^iiug April 19th, under the presi-
dency of Professor W. H. Rogers, of Boston.
The sessions continued through four days,
and were marked by the reading of a large
number of papers, of general as well as
special interest. None of the papers re-
ceived more attention than that of Professor
IJell concerning his later experiments in the
production of sound by radiant energy, which
we publish. Professor Barker, in his paper
on " Incandescent Lighting," also touched
a subject which engages general interest.
The papers of Professor Pumpelly, on the
lelation of soils to health, of Professor
Morse, on the utilization of the sun's rays in
heating and ventilating, and others, show
tliat the Academy does not neglect practical
subjects. Mr. W. II. Dall gave an account
of the " Land Ice in Kotzebue Sound," of
wliich mention has already been made in
the " Monthly " ; and Professor T. Sterry
Hunt described the " Auriferous Gravels of
California." President Garfield visited the
Academy, and was warmly welcomed. Tiie
meeting was more than ordinarily inter-
esting.

TiiK Boston Society of Natural ni.<tory
announces that a sea.side laboratory, capa-
ble of accommodating only a limited number
of students, will be open under the direction
of its curator, Alpheus Hyatt, at Annisquam,



near Gloucester, Massachusetts, from June
5th to September 15th. As the purpose is
simply to afford opportunities for the study
and observation of common types of ma-
rine animals under suitable direction and
advice, no attempt will be made to give any
stated course of instruction or lectures.
The work will be adapted to meet the wants
of those who have already made a begin-
ning in the study of natural history. Tlie
apparatus will consist of the simplest labo-
ratory furniture, collecting instruments, and
row-boats, and a yacht for dredging excur-
sions after the latter part of July.

AcHiLLE Delesse, an eminent French
geologist, died March 21th. He was en-
gaged through most of his life as a mining
engineer, and was at one time Professor of
Geology and Mineralogy at Besan9on, and at
another Professor of Agriculture, Drainage,
and Irrigation in the Ecole des Mines. He
was author of works on some of the min-
eralogical features of the Vosges, of " Re-
searches on the Origin of the Rocks," geo-
logical and hydrological maps of the city of
Paris, and the rainfall of Paris, and, in con-
junction with JIM. Langel and De Lappa-
rent, issued for twenty years the annual
"Revue de Geologic." He was for two
years President of the Geological Society of
France.

"N.\TrRE" doubts whether our Fish
Commissioners will be able greatly to in-
crease the yield of sea-fish, like shad, her-
ring, and cod. The arguments of Malthus
respecting the relations between food-supply
and the increase of population are thought
in England to be applicable to fish. " Sea-
fish, like all other animals," it says, " are
undoubtedly increasing in greater propor-
tion than their food; and it is obvious,
therefore, that, unless man can increase
their food, it is only lost labor to increase
their number."

Fanny, a very aged carp in the ponds at
Fontaineblcau, well known to the people of
Paris, has just died. She is said to have
been hatched during the reign of King
Francis I, and had become very gray.

The sixth session of the Summer School
of Biology of the Peabody Academy of Sci-
ence, Salem, Massachusetts, will commence
July 12th, and continue for four weeks.
Instruction designed csi)ccially for teachers.
Further information may be obtained from
Professor Edward S. Morse, of Salem.

Mr. William Pearce, of the Clyde ship-
building firm of John Elder & Co., has stated,
in a lecture on recent improvements in ma-
rine navigation, that the first steamers of
the Cunard Company, in 1840, were under
contract to go 8^ knots an hour ; were of
740 horse-power ; and consumed 4-,\; pounds



288



TEE POPULAR SCIEXCE MOXTELY.



of coal per horse-power. The Persia, built
in 1856, had side-lever engines, indicating
3,600 horse power, and consumed 3 .^ pounds
of coal per horse-power. The Gallia, built
in 1879, was fitted with compound engines
of 5,000 horse-power, and sailed with a
speed of 15^ knots an hour. The Persia
burned 6J tons of coal for every ton of car-
go it carried ; while the Gallia burned less
than half a ton, although it carried the car-
go 2 i knots an hour faster than the Persia.
The Arizona, with 6,000 horse-power, con-
sumed If pound of coal per indicated horse-
power, and carried o,4u0 tons of cargo at an
average speed of 16^ knots, burning less
than four hundred-weight per ton of cai-go at
a speed across the Atlantic faster than any
previously recorded.

Dr. Hiram A. CrTTixc, of Vermont, has
made a series of examinations into the dura-
bility under heat of different kinds of gran-
ite, sandstone, limestone, marble, conglom-
erate, slate, soapstone, and artificial stone.
Granite began to yield at a temjjerature of
between 700" and 80u^ ; it became cracked
between 800° and 900° ; generally cracked
between 800° and 950°; and was made
worthless by or before reaching a tempera-
ture of 1,000°. Sandstones showed a great-
er power of endurance, massive limestones
still greater, and marbles the greatest, while
conglomerates seem to have been among the
weakest stones. The least absorbent and
the most absorbent of the granites were
equally the granites most destructible by
heat.

The annual meeting of the Society for
the Promotion of Agiicultural Science will
bo held at Cincinnati, August 16th, the day
before the meeting of the American As-
sociation for the Advancement of Science.
Papers will be presented by Professor W. J.
Beal, on " Testing Seeds "; by Professor R. C.
Kedzie, on "The Ripening of Wheat" ; and
other essays, the subjects of which have not
been announced, will be I'ead by Professor
S. W. Johnson, Patrick Barry, Professors J.
H. Comstock, E. W. Ililgard, and A. J. Cook,
Messrs. J. J. Thomas, L. B. Arnold, and E.
Lewis Sturtevant, M. D.

The meeting of the French Association
for the Advancement of Science at Algiers
was successful in point of numbers, at least,
notwithstanding the troubles with Tunis. A
great many members had arrived on the 11th
of April, fresh ones were coming in every
boat, and it was thought that the attendance
would exceed a thousand.

Professor James Tensant, F. G. S., a
well-known mineralogist, has recently died
in London, at the age of seventy-three years.
He was the possessor of one of the largest
and most valuable collections of minerals,
was for many years Professor of Geology and
Mineralogy, afterward Professor of Mineral-



I ogy in King's College, London ; he held
office of " Mineralogist to the Queen,"



held the
and
was consulted by the Government, as one of
the best authorities on gems, with respect to
the cutting of the Koh-i-noor diamond. He
did useful work in preparing collections of
minerals and fossils suitable for educational
purposes and as a lecturer, and was author,
in connection with the late Professor Ansted
and the Rev. W. 0. Mitchell, of the treatise
on " Geology, Mineralogy, and Crystallogra-
phy " in Orr's " Circle of the Sciences."

The death is reported of Mr. F. A. No-
bert, the celebrated producer of test-plates
for miscroscopists. He had been engaged
for many years in ruling micrometers and
diffraction plates, and produced one set of
lines — his nineteenth band — equivalent to
about 112,000 lines to the inch, which he
believed could never be seen resolved in the
micro.scope. Dr. Woodward eventually pro-
duced photographs of the finest of these
lines; when Mr. Xobert ruled a new plate,
the finest band of which — the twentieth —
was of a fineness equivalent to about 224,-
000 lines to the inch.

The Xew York Electrical Society was
formed in this eity on the 8th of February
last, with the purpose of bringing persons
engaged in operations connected with elec-
tricity into closer connection and a.^sociation
with each other for improvement in knowl-
edge of electric art and science, and for so-
cial intercourse. The first regular meeting
of the society was held on the 2d of March,
when the organization was completed. Its
real work was begun at the meeting of
March 16th, when a paper was read by 5Ir.
F. W. Gushing on the " Harmonic Telegraph "
of Professor Elisha Gray. The preliminary
meeting was participated in by between
thirty and forty electricians and telegra-
phists : more than two hundred members
had been enrolled at the meeting of March
16th.

Sir Philip Egerton, Bart., M. P., one of
the Vice-Presidents of the Geological Socie-
ty, died in London, April 5th, in the seventy-
fifth year of his age. He was chosen a
Fellow of the Geological Society in 1829,
and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1831,
and was also a Fellow of the Society of An-
ticjuaries, antiquary to the Royal Academy,
trustee of the British Museum, and one of the
senate of London University. He was the
author of fifty-one scientific papers, chiefly
devoted to studies of fossil fishes, and gen-
erally published in the journal of the Geo-
logical Society, besides several papers in
which he was joint author with other per-
sons. He was owner of a collection of fos-
sil fishes of remarkable value, it being but
little inferior to that of the Earl of Ennis-
killen, which is, perhaps, the finest in the
world.




CHARLES THOMAS JACKSON.



w^



T II E



POPULAR SCIENCE
MONTHLY.



JULY, 1881.
THE RACES OF MANKIND.*

Br E. B. TYLOE, F. E. S.

ANTHROPOLOGY finds race-differences most clearly in stature
and proportions of limbs, conformation of the skull and the brain
within, characters of features, skin, eyes, and hair, peculiarities of con-
stitution, and mental and moral temperament.

In comparing races as to their stature, we concern ourselves not
with the tallest or shortest men of each tribe, but with the ordinary or
average-sized men who may be taken as fair representatives of their
whole tribe. The difference of general stature is well shown where a
tall and a short people come together in one district. Thus, in Aus-
tralia the average English colonist of five feet eight inches looks clear
over the heads of the live feet four inch Chinese laborers. Still more
in Sweden does the Swede of five feet seven inches tower over the
stunted Lapps, whose average measure is not much over five feet.
Among the tallest of mankind are the Patagonians, who seemed a race
of giants to the Europeans who first watched them striding along their
cliffs draped in their skin cloaks ; it was even declared that the heads
of Magalhaens's men hardly reached the waist of the first Patagonian
they met. INIodern travelers find, on measuring them, that they really
often reach six feet four inches, their mean height being about five feet
eleven inches — three or four inches taller than average Englishmen.
The shortest of mankind are the Bushmen and related tribes in South
Africa, with an average height not far exceeding four feet six inches.
A fair contrast between the tallest and shortest races of mankind may
be seen in Fig. 1, where a Patagonian is drawn side by side with a

* Abridged from Chapter III of " Anthropolopv : An Introduction to the Study of
Man and Civilization." By Edward B. Tylor, D. C. L., F. R. S. New York : D. Appleton
& Co. 1881.

VOL. XIX. — 19



290



THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MOXTIILY.



Bushman, whose head only reaches to his breast. Thus, the tallest
race of man is less than one fourth higher than the shortest, a fact
which seems surprising to those not used to measurements. In general,
the stature of the women of any race may be taken as about one six-
teenth less than that of the men. Thus, in England a man of five feet
eight inches and a woman of five feet four inches look an ordinary
well-matched couple.

Not only the stature, but the proportions of the body, differ in men
of various races. Care must be taken not to confuse real race-differ-





FiQ. 1.— Patagonian and Bushman.



ences with the alterations made by the individual's early training or
habit of life. A man's measure round the chest depends a good deal
on his way of life, as do also the lengths of arm and leg, which are not
even the same in soldiers and sailors. But there are certain distinc-
tions which are inherited, and mark different races. Thus, there are
long-limbed and short-limbed tribes of mankind. The African negro
is remarkable for length of arm and leg, the Aymara Indian of Peru
for shortness. Negro soldiers standing at drill bring the middle
finger-tip an inch or two nearer the knee than white men can do, and
some have been even known to touch the knee-pan. Such differences,
however, are less remai'kable than the general correspondence in bodily
proportions of a model of strength and beauty, to whatever race he
may belong. Even good judges have been led to forget the niceties
of race-type and to treat the form of the athlete as everywhere one
and the same. Thus, Benjamin West, the American painter, when Ik



TJIE RACES OF MAX KIND. 291

came to Rome and saw tlie Belvedere Apollo, exclaimed, " It is a
young Mohawk warrior ! " Much the same has been said of the pro-
portions of Zooloo athletes. Yet, if fairly-chosen photographs of Caffres
be compared with a classic model, such as the Apollo, it will be noticed
that the trunk of the African has a somewhat wall-sided straightness,
wanting in the inward slope which gives fineness to the waist, and in
the expansion below which gives breadth across the hips, these being
two of the most noticeable points in the classic model which our paint-
ers recognize as an ideal of manly beauty.

In comparing races, one of the first questions that occurs is, whether
people, who differ so much intellectually as savage tribes and civilized
nations, show any corresponding difl:"erence in their brain. There is,
in fact, a considerable difference. The most usual way of ascertaining
the quantity of brain is to measure the capacity of the brain-case by
filling skulls with shot or seed. Professor Flower gives as a mean
estimate of the contents of skulls in cubic inches — Australian, seventy-
nine ; African, eighty-five ; European, ninety-one. Eminent anato-
mists also think that the brain of the European is somewhat more coni-
])lex in its convolutions than the brain of a negro or Hottentot. Thus,
though these observations are far from perfect, they show a connection
between a more full and intricate system of brain-cells and fibers, and
a higher intellectual power, in the races which have risen in the scale
of civilization.

The form of the skull itself has been to the anatomist one of the
l)est means of distinguishing races. It is often possible to tell by in-
spection of a skull Avhat race it belongs to. In comparing skulls, some
mI" the most easily noticeable distinctions are the following :

When looked at from the vertical or top view, the proportion of
breadth to length is seen as in Fig. 2. Taking the diameter from back



!ii;. 2— Top View op Skulls, a. Ne^ro, index 70. dolichocephalic ; h. Enropcau, index 80, meso-
ccphalic; c, Samoyed, index 85, brachyccphalic.

to front as 100, the cross diameter gives the so-called index of breadth,
which is here about TO in the negro {a), 80 in the European (/>), and
85 in the Samoyed (c). Such skulls are classed respectively as dolt-
chocephalic, or "long-headed" ; mesoeephallc, or "middle-headed";
and hr achy cephalic^ or " short-headed." A model skull of a flexible



292



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



material like gutta-percha, if of the middle shape, like that of an ordi-
nary Englishman, might, by pressure at the sides, be made long like a
negro's, or by pressure at back and front be brought to the broad Tar-
tar form. In the above figure it may be noticed that while some




Fig. 3.— Sidk View of Skt



[.s. '/. Australian, prognathous ; e, African, prognathous'
orthogiiathous.



skulls, as b, have a somewhat elliptical form, others, as a, are ovoid,
having the longest cross diameter considerably behind the center.
Also in some classes of skulls, as in a, the zygomatic arches connecting
the skull and face are fully seen ; while in others, as b and c, the bulg-
ing of the skull almost hides them. In the front and back view of
skulls, the proportion of width to height is taken in much the same





Fig. 4.— a, Swaheli ; &, Persian.



way as the index of breadth just described. Next Fig. 3, which rep-
resents in profile the skulls of an Australian [d), a negro (e), and an
Englishman (/), shows the strong difference in the facial angle be-
tween the two lower races and our own. The Australian and African



THE RACES OF MAXKIXD.



293



;ire pror/nathoiis, or " forward-jawed," while the European is orthorjna-
thous, or '-upright- jawed." At the same time the Australian and
African have more retreating foreheads than the European, to the dis-
advantage of the frontal lobes of their brain as compared with ours.




Fio. 5.— Female Portraits, a, Nejjro (W. Africa) ; b. BaroIoTig (S. Africa) ; e. IloUentot ; d, Gil-



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