D. S. (David Samuel) Margoliouth.

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yak iX. Asia) ; e, Japanese ; /, Colorado Indian (N. America); g, English.

Tlius the upper and lower parts of the profile combine to give the
faces of these less civilized peoples a somewhat ape-like slope, as dis-
tinguished from the more nearly upright European face.


Let us now glance at the evident points of the living face. To
some extent feature directly follows the shape of the skull beneath.
Thus the contrast just mentioned, between the forward-sloping negro
skull and its more upright form in the white race, is as plainly seen in
the portraits of a Swaheli negro and a Persian, given in Fig. 4. On
looking at the female portraits in Fig. 5, the Barolong girl (South
Africa) may be selected as an example of the effect of narrowness of
skull (fj), in contrast with the broader Tartar and North American
faces {<!,/). She also shows the convex Afi'ican forehead, while they,
as well as the Hottentot (o), show the effect of high cheek-bones. The
Tartar and Japanese faces {d, e) show the skew-eyelids of the Mongo-
lian race. Much of the character of the human face depends on the
shape of the softer parts — nose, lips, cheeks, chin, etc. — which are often
excellent marks to distinguish race. Contrasts in the form of nose
may even exceed that here shown between the aquiline of the Persian
and the snub of the negro in Figs. 4 and G. European travelers in
Tartary in the middle ages described its flat-nosed inhabitants as hav-
ing no noses at all, but breathing through holes in their faces. By
pushing the tips of our own noses upward, we can in some degree imi-
tate the manner in which various other races, notably the negro, show
the opening of the nostrils in full face. Our thin, close-fitting lips
differ in the extreme from those of the negro, well seen in the portrait

Fig. C— African Negho.

(Fig. 6) of Jacob Wainwright, Livingstone's faithful boy. With the
purpose of calling attention to some well-marked peculiarities of the
human face in different races, a small group of female faces (Fig. 5) is
given, all young, and such as would be considered among their own


people as at least moderately hamlsoine. Setting aside hair and com-
plexion, there is still enough difference in the actual outline of the feat-
ures to distinguish the negro, Caft're, Hottentot, Tartar, Japanese, and
North American faces from the English face beloAv.

The color of the skin, that important mark of race, may be best
understood by looking at the darkest variety. The dark hue of the
negro does not lie so deep as the innermost or true skin, which is sub-
stantially alike among all races of mankind. The negro, in spite of
his name, is not black, but deep brown, and even this darkest hue does
not appear at the beginning of life, for the new-born negro child is
reddish-brown, soon becoming slaty-gray, and then darkening. Nor
does the darkest tint ever extend over the negro's whole body, but his
soles and palms are brown. The coloring of the dark races appears to
be similar in nature to the temporary freckling and sunburning of the
fair white race. On the whole, it seems that the distinction of color,
from the fairest Englishman to the darkest African, has no hard and
fust lines, but varies gradually from one tint to another.

The natural hue of skin farthest from that of the negro is the com-
l)lexion of the fair race of Northern Europe, of which perfect types
are to be met with in Scandinavia, North Germany, and England. In
such fair or blonde people the almost transparent skin has its pink
tinge by showing the small blood-vessels through it. In the nations
of Southern Europe, such as Italians and Spaniards, the browner com-
plexion to some extent hides this red, which among darker peoples in
other quarters of the world ceases to be discernible. Thus the differ-
ence between light and dark races is well observed in their blushing,
which is caused by the rush of hot red blood into the vessels near the
surface of the body. The contrary effect, paleness, caused by retreat
of blood from the surface, is in like manner masked by dark tints of

The range of complexion among mankind, beginning with the tint
of the fair-whites of Northern Europe and the dark-whites of Southern
p]urope, passes to the brownish-yellow of the Malays, and the full-
brown of American tribes, the deep-brown of Australians, and the
black-brown of negroes. Until modern times these race-tints have
generally been described with too little care. Now, however, the
traveler, by using Broca's set of pattern-colors, records the color of any
tribe he is observing, with the accuracy of a mercer matching a piece
of silk. The evaporation from the human skin is accompanied by a
smell which differs in different races. This peculiarity, which not
only indicates difference in the secretions of the skin, but seems con-
nected with liability to certain fevers, etc., is a race-character of some

The part of the human body which shows the greatest variety of
color in different individuals is the iris of the eye. This is the more
noticeable because the adjacent parts vary particularly little among


mankind. Professor Broca, in his scale of colors of eyes, arranges
shades of orange, green, blue, and violet-gray. But one has only to
look closely into any eye to see the impossibility of recording its com-
plex j^attern of colors ; indeed, what is done is to observe it from a
distance, so that its tints blend, into one uniform hue. It need hardly
be said that what are popularly called black eyes are far from having the
iris really black like the pupil ; eyes described as black are commonly
of the deepest shades of brown or violet. These so-called black eyes
are by far the most numerous in the world, belonging not only to
brown-black, brown, and yellow races, but even prevailing among the
darker varieties of the white race, such as Greeks and Spaniards. In
races with the darker skin and black hair, the darkest eyes generally
prevail, while a fair complexion is usually accompanied by the lighter
tints of iris, especially blue.

From ancient times, the color and form of the hair have l)een
noticed as distinctive marks of race. Thus Strabo mentions the
Ethiopians as black men with woolly hair, and Tacitus describes
the German warriors of his day with their fierce blue eyes and tawny
hair. As to color of hair, the most usual is black, or shades so dark
as to be taken for black, which belongs not only to the dark-skinned
Africans and Americans, but to the yellow Chinese and the dark-
whites, such as Hindoos or Jews. In the fair- white peoples of North-
ern Europe, on the contrary, flaxen or chestnut hair prevails. Thus
we see that there is a connection between fair hair and fair skin, and
dark hair and dark skin. But it is impossible to lay down a rule
for intermediate tints, for the red-brown or auburn hair common in
fair-skinned peoples occurs among darker races, and dark-brown hair
has a still wider range. Our own extremelv mixed nation shows cverv

Fig. 7.— Sections of Eair, highly magnified (after Prunei). o, Japanese; b, German ; c, Af-
rican negro ; d, Papuan.

variety, from flaxen and golden to raven black. As to the form of the
hair, its well-known differences may be seen in the female portraits in
Fig. 5, where the Africans on the left show the woolly or frizzy kind,
where the hair naturally curls into little corkscrew spirals, while the
Asiatic and American heads on the I'ight have straight hair like a
horse's mane. Between these extreme kinds are the flowing or wavy
hair, and the curly hair which winds in large spirals ; the English hair
in the figure is rather of the latter variety. If cross-sections of single
hairs are examined under the microscope, their differences of form are
seen as in four of the sections by Pruner-Bey (Fig. 7). The


circular Mongolian hair [a) hangs straight ; the more curly European
hair {b) has an oval or elliptical section ; the woolly African hair (c)
is more flattened ; while the frizzy Papuan hair (</) is a yet more
extreme example of the flattened ribbon-like kind. Not only the color
and form of the hair, but its quantity, vary in different races.

That certain races are constitutionally fit, and others unfit, for cer-
tain climates, is a fact which the English have but too good reason to
know. It is well known that races are not affected alike by certain
diseases. "While in equatorial Africa or the West Indies, the coast-
fever and yellow fever are so fatal or injurious to the new-come
Europeans, the negroes, and even mulattoes, are almost untouched by
this scourge of the white nations. On the other hand, we English
look upon measles as a trifling complaint, and hear with astonishment
of its being carried into Feejee, and there, aggravated, no doubt, by
improper treatment, sweeping away the natives by thousands. It is
plain that nations moving into a new climate, if they are to flourish,
must become adapted in body to the new state of life. Fitness for a
special climate, being matter of life or death to a race, must be reck-
oned among the chief of race-characters.

Travelers notice striking distinctions in the temper of races. There
seems no difference of condition between the native Indian and the
African negro in Brazil to make the brown man dull and sullen, while
the black is overflowing with eagerness and gayety. So, in Europe,
the unlikeness between the melancholy Russian peasant and the viva-
cious Italian can hardly depend altogether on climate and food and
government. There seem to be in mankind inbred temperament and
inbred capacity of mind. History points the great lesson that some
races have marched on in civilization while others have stood still or
f;ilI('M back, and we should partly look for an explanation of this in


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Fig. 8.— Race or Popitlatiox aruanged bt Statcre (Qiietelet's method t.

differences of intellectual and moral powel-s. between such tribes as the
native Americans and Africans, and the old-world nations who over-
match and subdue them. In measuring the minds of the lower races,
a good test is, how far their children are able to take a civilized edu-
cation. The account generally given by European teacliers who have
had the children of lower races in their schools is that, though these


often learn as well as the white children u]) to about twelve years old,
they then fall off, and are left behind by the children of the rulinu

It will be well now to examine more closely what a race is. Single
portraits of men and women can only in a general way represent the
nation they belong to, for no two of its individuals are really alike, not
even brothers. What is looked for in such a race-portrait is the gen-

FiG. 9.— Cakibs.

era! character belonging to the whole race. It is an often-repeated
observation of travelers that a European landing among some people
unlike his own, such as Chinese, or Mexican Indians, at first thinks
them all alike. After days of careful observation he makes out their
individual peculiarities, but at first his attention is occupied with the


broad typical characters of the foreign race. It is just this broad
type that the anthropologist desires to sketch and describe, and he
selects as his examples such portraits of men and women as show it
best. It is even possible to measure the type of a people. To give an
idea of the working of this problem, let us suppose ourselves to be
examining Scotchmen, and the first point to be settled how tall they
are. Obviously there are some few as short as Lapps, and some as tall
as Patagonians ; these very short and tall men belong to the race, and
yet are not its ordinary members. If, however, the whole population
were measured and made to stand in order of height, there would be a
crowd of men about five feet eight inches, but much fewer of either
five feet four inches or six feet, and so on till the numbers decreased
on either side to one or two giants, and one or two dwarfs. This is
seen in Quetelet's diagram. Fig. 8, where the heights or ordinates of
the binomial curve show the numbers of men of each stature, decreas-
ing both ways from the central five feet eight inches, which is the
stature of the mean or typical man. Here, in a total of near 2,G00
men, there are IGO of five feet eight inches, but only about 150 of five
feet seven inches or five feet nine inches, and so on, till not even ten
men are found so short as five feet, or so tall as six feet four inches.

It thus appears that a race is a body of people comprising a regular
>et of variations, which center round one representative type. In the
-;ime way a race or nation is estimated as to other characters.

The people whom it is easiest to represent by single portraits are



uncivilized tribes, in whose food and way of life there is little to canse
difference between one man and another, and who have lived together
and intermarried for many generations. Thus Fig. 9, taken from a
photograph of a party of Caribs, is remarkable for the close likeness
running through all. In such a nation the race-type is peculiarly easy
to make out. It is by no means always thus easy to rejiresent a Avhole
population. To see how difficult it may be, one has only to look at an
English crowd, with its endless diversity. But, to get a view of the
problem of human varieties, it is best to attend to the simplest cases
first, looking at some uniform and well-marked race, and asking what
in the course of ages may happen to it.

The first thing to be noticed is its power of lasting. Where a
people lives on in its own district, without too much change in habits,
or mixture with other nations, there seems no reason to expect its
type to alter. The Egyptian monuments show good instances of this
permanence. Indeed, the ancient Egyptian race, who built the Pyra-
mids, and whose life and toil are pictured on the walls of the tombs, are
with little change still represented by the fellahs of the villages, who
carry on the old labor under new tax-gathei-ers. Thus, too, the Ethio-
pians on the early Egyptian bass-reliefs may have their counterparts
picked out still among the "White Nile tribes, while we recognize in the
figures of Pha?nician or Israelite captives the familiar Jewish profile of
our own day. Thus there is proof that a race may keep its special
characters j)lainly recognizable for over thirty centuries, or a hundred
generations. And this permanence of type may more or less remain
when the race micjrates far from its earlv home, as when African ne-

A-V' ^ -7;,_ {_^_/_

Fig 11 — Cafl«v A\om\n

groes are carried into America, or Israelites naturalize themselves from
Archangel to Singapore. Where marked change has taken place in
the appearance of a nation, the cause of this change must be sought
in intermarriage with foreigners, or altered conditions of life, or both.
The result of intermarriage or crossing of races is familiar to all



F^niTlish people in one of its most conspicuous examples, the cross be-
tween white and negro called mulatto. The mulatto complexion and

Fig. 12.— Aueta (Negrito), Puilippine Islasd.s.

hair are intermediate between those of the parents, and new inter-
mediate grades of complexion appear in the children of white and

Fig. 13.— Melanesians



mulatto, called quadroon or quarter-blood, and so on ; on the other
hand, the descendants of negro and mulatto, called sambo, i-eturn tow-
ard the full negro type. This intermediate character is the general
nature of crossed races, but with more or less tendency to revert to
one or other of the parent types. To illustrate this. Fig. 10 gives the
portrait of a Malay mother and her half-caste daughters, the father
being a Spaniard ; here, while all the children show their mixed race,
it is sometimes the European and sometimes the Malay cast of feat-
ures that prevails. The effect of mixture is also traceable in the hair,
as may often be well noticed in a mulatto's crimped, curly locks, be-
tween the straighter European and the woolly African kind. The
Cafusas of Brazil, a peculiar cross between the native tribes of the
land and the imported negro slaves, are remarkable for their hair,
which rises in a curly mass, forming a natural periwig which obliges
the wearers to stoop low in passing through their hut-doors. This is
seen in the portrait of a Cafusa (Fig. 11), and seems easily accounted
for by the long stiff hair of the native American having acquired in
some degree the negro frizziness.

Fig. 14.— South Austkaltas (Man).

Fig. 13.— South .Australian (Woman).

Within the last few centuries it is well known that a large fraction
of the world's population has actually come into existence by race-
crossing. This is nowhere so evident as on the American Continent,
where since the Spanish conquest such districts as Mexico are largely
peopled by the mestizo descendants of Spaniards and native Ameri-
cans, while the importation of African slaves in the West Indies has
given rise to a mulatto population. By taking into account such inter-


crossing of races, anthropologists have a reason to give for the endless
shades of diversity among mankind, without attempting" the hopeless
task of classifying every little uncertain group of men into a special
race. Among the natives of India, a variety of complexion and feature
is found which can not be classified exactly by race. But it must be
remembered that several very distinct varieties of men have contrib-
uted to the population of the country. So in Europe, taking the
fair nations of the Baltic and the dark nations of the Mediterranean
as two distinct races or varieties, their intercrossing may explain the
infinite diversity of brown hair and intermediate complexion to be
met with. If, then, it may be considered that man was already divided
into a few great main races in remote antiquity, their intermarriage

Fig. 16.-DRAVIDIAS Hill-man (after Fryer).

through ages .since will go far to account for the innumerable slighter
varieties which shade into one another.

It is not enough to look at a race of men as a mere body of people
happening to have a common type or likeness. For the reason of their
likeness is plain, and indeed our calling them a race means that we
consider them a breed whose common nature is inherited from com-
mon ancestors. Now, experience of the animal world shows that a
race or breed, while capable of carrying on its likeness from generation
to generation, is also capable of varying. It must be admitted that
our knowledge of the manner and causes of race-variation among
mankind is still very imperfect. The great races, black, brown, yel-
low, white, had already settled into their well-known characters before



written record began, so that their formation is hidden far back in tht
l^rehistoric period. Nor are alterations of such amount known to
have taken i^lace in any people within the range of history.

That there is a real connection between the color of races and the
climate they belong to, seems most likely from the so-called black
peoples. Ancient writers were satisfied to account for the color of tl;e
Ethiopians by saying that the sun had burned them black, and, though
modern anthropologists would not settle the question in this off-hand
way, yet the map of the world shou's that this darkest race-type is
principally found in a tropical climate. The main line of black races

Fig. 17.— Calmltk (after Goldsmid).

Stretches along the hot and fertile regions of the equator, from Guinea
in AVest Africa to that great island of the Eastern Archipelago, which
has its name of Xew Guinea from its negro-like natives. The type of
the African negro race perhaps shows itself most perfectly in the
nations near the equator, as in Guinea, but it spreads far and wide
over the continent, shading off by crossing with lighter-colored races
on its borders, such as the Berbers in the north, and the Arabs on the
east coast. As the race spreads southward into Congo and the Caffre
regions, there is noticed a less full negro complexion and feature, look-



ing as though migration from the central region into new climates had
somewhat modified the type. There are found in the Malay Penin-
sula and the Philippines scanty forest-tribes apparently allied to the
Andanianers and classed under the general term Negritos (i. e., " little
blacks " ), seeming to belong to a race once widely spread over this
])art of the world, whose remnants have been driven by stronger new-
come races to find refuge in the mountains. Fig. 12 represents one of
them, an Aheta from the island of Luzon. Lastly con^e the wide-
spread and complicated varieties of the Eastern negro race in the region
known as Melanesia, the " black islands," extending from New Guinea to
Feejee. The group of various islanders (Fig. 13), belonging to Bishop

Fig. IS.-CoRE.^xf

Patteson's mission, shows plainly the resemblance to the African negro,
though with some marked points of difference, as in the brows being
more strongly ridged, and the nose being more prominent, even aqui-
line — a striking contrast to the African. The great variety of color
in ]\Ielanesia, from the full brown-black down to chocolate or nut-
brown, shows that there has been much crossing with lighter popula-
tions. Finally, the Tasmanians were a distant outlying population be-
longing to the Eastern blacks.

In Australia, there appears a thin population of roaming savages,

TOL. XIX.— 20



strongly distinct from the blacker races of Kew Guinea at the north,
and Tasmania at the south. The Australians, with skin of dark
chocolate-color, may be taken as a special type of the brown races of
man. AVhile their skull is narrow and prognathous like the negro's, it
differs from it in special points, and has peculiarities which distinguish
it very certainly from that of other races. In the portraits of Austra-
lians (Figs. 14, 15), there may be noticed the heavy brows and project-
ing jaws, the wide but not flat nose, the full lips, and the curly but
not woolly black hair. On the continent of India, the Dravidian hill-
tribes present the type of the old dwellers in South and Central India
before tlie conquest by the Aryan Hindoos. Fig. 16 represents one of
the ruder Dravidians, from the Travancore forests.

Fig. 19.— Finn (Man).

Fig. 20 —Finn (Woman).

The Mongoloid type of man has its best marked representatives on
the vast steppes of Northern Asia. Their skin is brownish-yellow,
the hair of the head black, coarse, and long, but face-hair scanty.
Their skull is characterized by breadth, projection of cheek-bones, and
forward position of the outer edge of the orbits, which, as well as the
slightness of brow-ridges, the slanting aperture of the eyes, and the
snub-nose, are observable in Fig. 17, and in Fig. o {d). The Mongoloid
race is immense in range and numbers. The great nations of South-
east Asia show their connection with it in the familiar complexion and
features of the Chinese and Japanese. Fig. 18 gives portraits from
Corea. In his wide migrations over the world, the Mongoloid, through
change of climate and life, and still further by intermarriage with



other races, loses more and more of his special points. It is so in the
southeast, where in China and Japan the characteristic breadth of
skull is lessened. In Europe, where from remotest antiquity hordes of
Tartar race have poured in, their descendants have often preserved in
their languages, such as Hungarian and Finnish, clearer traces of their
Asiatic home than can be made out in their present types of com-

[)lexion and feature. Yet the Finns (Figs. 19 and 20) have not lost
the race-differences which mark them off from the Swedes among
whom they dwell, and the stunted Lapps show some points of likeness
to their Siberian kinsfolk.

Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 38 of 110)