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On the Malay Peninsula, at the extreme southeast corner of Asia,
appear the first members of the Malay race, seemingly a distant branch



3o8



THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MONTHLY.



of the Mongoloid, which spreads over Sumatra, Java, and other islands
of the Eastern Archipelago, Fig. 21 shows the Dyaks of Borneo,
Avho represent the race in its wilder and perhaps less mixed state.
The Micronesians and Polynesians show connection with the Malays
in language, and more or less in bodily make. But they are not Ma-
lays proper, and there are seen among them high faces, narrow noses,
and small mouths, which remiixd us of the European face. The Maoris




Fig. 22.— Colorado Indian (North America).



are still further from being pure ^Malays, as is seen by their more curly
hair, often prominent and even aquiline noses.

Turning now to the double continent of America, we find in this
New World a problem of race remarkably different from that of the
Old World. The traveler who should cross the earth from Nova Zem-
bla to the Cape of Good Hope or Van Diemen's Land would find in
its various climates various strongly-marked kinds of men, white, yel-
low, brown, and black. But, if Columbus had surveyed America from



THE RACES OF MANKIND.



309



tlie Arctic to thn Antarctic regions, he would have found no such ex-
treme unlikeness in the inhabitants. Apart from the Europeans and
Africans who have poui-ed in since the tifteenth century, the native
Americans in general might be, as has often been said, of one race.
Not that they are all alike, but their differences in stature, form of
skull, feature, and complexion, though considerable, seem variations of
a secondary kind. The race to which most anthropologists refer the
native Americans is the Mongoloid of Eastern Asia, who are capable
of accommodating themselves to the extremest climates, and who by
the form of skull, the light-brown skin, straight black hair, and black
eyes, show considerable agreement with the American tribes. Fig.




>v^\ -



Fig a —Swedes



22 represents the wild hunting-tribes of North America in one of the
linest forms now existing, the Colorado Indians.

Though commonly spoken of as one variety of mankind, it is plain
that the white men are not a single uniform race, but a varied and
mixed population. It is a step toward classing them to separate them
into two great divisions, the dark-whites and fair-whites {melanochroi,
.ranthochroi). Ancient portraits have come down to us of the dark-
white nations, as Assyrians, Phoenicians, Persians, Greeks, Romans ;
and when beside these are placed moderns such as the Andalusians,
and the dark Welshmen or Bretons, and people from the Caucasus, it
will be evident that the resemblance running through all these can
only be in broad and general characters. They have a dusky or



310 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MOXTHLY,

broAvnish-white skin, black or deep-brown eyes, black hair, mostly wavy
or curly ; tbeir skulls vary much in proportions, though seldom ex-
tremely broad or narrow, w^hile the profile is upright, the nose straight
or aquiline, the lips less full than in other races. Fig. 23, a group of
Swedes, represents the fair-whites, whose transparent skin, flaxen hair,
and blue eyes may be seen as well, though not as often, in England as
in Scandinavia or North Germany. The intermarriage of the dark and
fair varieties, which has gone on since early times, has resulted in num-
berless varieties of brown-haired people, between fair and dark in com-
plexion. But as to the origin and first home of the fair and dark races




Fig. 24.— GrpsT.



themselves, it is hard to form an opinion. Language does much
toward tracing the early history of the white nations, but it does not
clear up the difficulty of separating fair-whites from dark-whites.
Both sorts have been living united by national language, as at this
day German is spoken by the fair Hanoverian and the darker Austrian.
Among Keltic people, the Scotch Highlanders often remind us of the
tall, red-haired Gauls described in classical history, but there are also
passages w^hich prove that smaller darker Kelts like the modern Welsh
and Bretons existed then as well. A mixture of the white and brown
races seems to have largely formed the population of countries where
they meet. The Moors of North Africa, and many so-called Arabs



EUROPE AX SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY. 311

who are darker than white men, may be thus accounted for. It is thus
that in India millions who speak Hindoo languages show by their tint
that their race is mixed between that of the Aryan conquerors of the
land and its darker indigenes. An instructive instance of this very
combination is to be seen in the gypsies, low-caste wanderers who
found their way from India and spread over Europe not many centu-
ries since. Fig. 24, a gypsy woman from Wallachia, is a favorable
type of these latest incomers from the East, whose broken-down Hin-
doo dialect shows that part of their ancestry comes from our Aryan
forefathers, while their complexion, swarthiest in the population of
our country, marks also descent belonging to a darker zone of the hu-
man species.

Thus to map out the nations of the world among a few main varie-
ties of man, and their combinations, is, in spite of its difficulty and
uncertainty, a profitable task. But to account for the origin of these
great primary varieties or races themselves, and exactly to assign to
them their earliest homes, can not be usefully attempted in the present
scantiness of evidence.



EUROPEAX SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY.

By X. II. EGLESTON.

THE word " forestry " has not yet come into familiar use in this
country, and its meaning is understood only by the few ; " school
of forestry " is still less comprehensible. It is only natural that our
people, occupying a region covered to a great extent with a dense and
varied growth of trees, in regard to which no apprehension of defi-
ciency has been suggested until within a comparatively short time,
should have entertained little thought of the forest as a thing to be
specially cared for and cultivated. Much less should it have occurred
to them to make its maintenance an object of scientific study, to put
the school and the wood, education and trees, into close association,
and to think and speak of " schools of forestry."

Both these terms, however, are well understood abroad, and the
time has come, in the changed condition of things here, when we
should know what they mean, and that practically.

The " school of forestry," or whatever equivalent may be used in
different countries, signifies an organization for the purpose of giving
instruction in regard to all that pertains to the growth of trees, espe-
cially in masses, and their management, including their natural history,
their adaptation to the arts, and their influence upon human welfare.
It regards the forest in altogether a different light from that in which
it is considered with us, or in fact from that in which it has been
considered in any country until within a comparatively recent pe-



312 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY,

riod. Instead of an accidental growth of trees, spared from the gen-
eral clearing of the ground, which have been suffered to come up in
a hap-hazard sort of way, exposed to assault and damage of various
kinds, from insects, from browsing cattle allowed to roam freely among
them, and from the carelessness, if not the wanton waste, of man, the
forest is regarded as a growth carefully provided for, the conditions
of its increase are diligently studied beforehand, and all means are
used to develop it to the fullest measure of its value according to
the purpose for which its cultivation has been undertaken. In short,
forestry looks upon the growth of a piece of woods as we look upon
the growth of plants in a garden, or a crop in the field of a farmer, as
the result both of science and art. Only it is a nobler growth than
these, and requires a higher science and nicer art, inasmuch as the trees
measure their age by centuries and not by months or seasons, as do the
oi'dinary crops of the garden and the field, and because they have
important relations, controlling relations even to agriculture itself, to
climate, to commerce, and the industrial arts, and so to the highest in-
terests of national life.

The work of forestry, as understood in Europe, contemplates not
only the proper care of existing woodlands, but the replanting of dis-
tricts which have been stripped of their forests, and also the plant-
ing of forests in new places, where such planting may be advanta-
geously done. Schools of forestry have their origin in the desire to
accomplish this most successfully. The growth of a forest is the
work of a century, and even more. It is not properly to be under-
taken with only the limited intelligence or care with which we culti-
vate the annual crops of our fields. If the work is begun without
adequate preparation, or is conducted in a faulty manner, the mistake
can not be remedied soon, if at all. If one makes a mistake in the
culture of ordinary crops, he can correct it the next year ; but, if he
plants a forest on an erroneous plan, the mistake is not one of a year,
but of a hundred, or even two hundred years. Not only is it neces-
sary that the botany of the trees should be understood, the nature and
habits of the various species be studied, and their adaptations to dif-
ferent soils and situations, as well as to different practical uses when
grown, be regarded, but the laws of meteorology are to be consid-
ered and conformed to. The knowledge of geology and mineralogy
is also involved, as well as the laws of mechanics. Indeed, no sooner
is the subject taken into consideration in its true character, than it
is seen to be interwoven with a very large range of studies, so that
something like schools of forestry seem almost at once desirable, if not
indispensable.

The beginning of forest schools may be dated from 1770, when
Frederick the Great established a course of theoretical instruction in
forestry at Berlin. This, however, was irregular, dependent upon the
competency of the professors at the university, for the time being, to



EUROPEAN SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY. 313

give instruction upon the subject. The course was greatly deficient, at
the best, on account of its entire lack of technical teaching. This de-
fect, felt more and more, finally led to the establishment of an academy
for forest instruction at Berlin in 1821, under the general superintend-
ence of Pfeil, then Oherforstrath. The academy was not organically
connected with the university, but was brought into such an association
with it that the professors and apparatus of instruction belonging to
the university could be used for teaching the fundamental and acces-
sory sciences, while technical forestry was taught by professors in the
academy specially qualified for the work. This arrangement, how-
ever, did not prove satisfactory. Too much prominence was given to
the accessory sciences, and too little to forestry proper. Especially
was the lack of suflicient instruction in practical forestry felt, there
being no suitable woodland in the neighborhood of Berlin in which
the theoretical instruction could be practically illustrated and applied.
Excursions to distant forests, which could be made only infrequently,
did not meet the want. On the advice of the superintendent, seconded
by the energetic support of the two Ilumboldts, the academy was
removed in 1830 to Neustadt-Eberswalde, about twenty-four miles
northeast of Berlin, under the name of the High Institution for Forest
Science. The school was now in the immediate vicinity of two large
forest districts, affording every facility for instruction in practical
forestry. The superintendent of the academy was made also adminis-
trator of the forest districts. Associated with him, as instructor in
forestry proper, were two others as teachers of the natural sciences
;ind of mathematics and geodesy. At the same time a teacher of
I*russian jurisprudence, with jaarticular reference to forest matters,
was added, and, after an interval of twenty years, a second teacher of
forest science was appointed. Since 180G important changes have
been made in the organization of the academy, and the number of
instructors has been largely increased. There are now three teachers
of forest science, a teacher of mathematics, physics, mechanics, and
meteorology ; one of chemistry, mineralogy, and geognosy ; one of
botany, one of zoology, and one of jurisprudence. In addition, there
are a royal chief forest officer, as assistant teacher of road-construc-
tion, geodesy, and plan-drawing, and also a chemist as assistant teacher
of geology. The principal forest meteorological station of Germany
is also in connection with this school.

The course of instruction in the schools of forestry extends from
two years to two and a half, or five semesters, the tendency having
been constantly to protract the time. The course at Neustadt-Ebers-
walde embraces fi.ve semesters. The branches taught are arranged in
three groups, viz., " Fundamental Sciences," " Principal Sciences," and
"• Secondary Sciences." Under the heading of " Fundamental Sciences "
are included : 1. Natural Sciences. — Chemistry, theoretic and applied ;
physics and meteorology ; mineralogy and geognosy ; botany, and



314 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

forest botany in particular, with anatomy of plants, vegetable physi-
ology and pathology, and botanical excursions ; microscopy ; zoology,
with especial study of forest insects, preparations, and excursions : to
all of which 840 hours are allotted. 2. Mathematics. — Geodesy ; inter-
est and rent account ; wood-measuring ; surveying and leveling exer-
cises ; plan-drawing exercises : 440 hours. 8. Economical Sciences. —
Public economy and finances : 48 hours. Whole time allotted to
" Fundamental Sciences," 1,328 hours. In the " Principal Sciences " are
included what relate especially to forests, their cultivation, protection,
technics in various branches, legal and customary usages, etc., with
forest excursions : to all of which 980 hours are allotted. In the "Sec-
ondary Sciences " are jurisprudence (civil and criminal law, constitu-
tional rights, etc.), construction of roads, and shooting exercises : to
which 340 hours are given. Of the total, 2,G48 hours of instruction,
50 per cent, are given to the "fundamental," 37 per cent, to the "prin-
cipal," and 13 per cent, to the " secondary " sciences. The average
time of- lessons, counting the five semesters as including ninety-three
weeks, is 28"5 hours per week, or 4'9 hours per day. From this it will
be seen that nearly five hours are given to lectures each day. Nearlv
as much more time is expected to be given to study, making almost
ten hours of daily work for the students. If we compare this with
the average time during which the students in our colleges are em-
ployed, it will be seen that a course of instruction at one of these for-
est academies is more than equivalent, in the amount of work done, to
an ordinary college course.

The forest schools, as at present existing, may be divided into
three classes, according as they are forest schools strictly and inde-
pendently — that is, schools situated in the forest as well as teaching the
art of forest management — or as they form only a part of the general
course of instruction at the university or polytechnic school ; or as,
again, they are united with agricultural schools, and the attempt is
made to teach forestry and agriculture together. There has been of
late years a good deal of discussion, in Germany especially, as to
which of these arrangements is to be preferred. The academies at
Neustadt-Eberswalde, Miinden, Eisenach, and at Nancy, in France, are
examples of the first class. Those at Giessen, at the Polytechnic School
at Zurich and the projected arrangement at the university of Munich,
are examples of the second class ; while the establishments at Hohen-
heim, Vienna, St. Petersburg, and Stockholm, are examples of the
third class.

On behalf of the first class it is urged that when the academy is
located in the forest there Avill be greater facilities for the practical
study of all that relates to the growth of trees, their influence upon
climate, and the like. On behalf of a connection of the forest acade-
mies with the universities and polytechnic schools or with schools
of agriculture, it is urged that this would be an economical arrange-



EUROPEAN SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY. 315

ineiit because only the technical teaching of forestry would have to
be provided for, instruction in the fundamental and allied sciences
bein<ij already abundantly secured in the necessary endowment of the
ordinary educational establishments. The argument for the union of
the separate forest schools with the universities, as put by Dr. Richard
Hess, formerly Professor of Forestry and now director of the Forestry
Department of the University of Giessen, in a recent work of his,
may be taken as a fair exhibition of the reasoning of those who favor
the union of the forest schools with the universities. He claims that
the universities can always command for their various chairs men of
the highest ability, and this, in the tirst place, because the position of
such a professor is the most independent one, the instructors in the
forest schools being dependent upon the director ; secondly, because
the universities have better libraries and apparatus than the forest
schools can have by themselves ; thirdly, the natural stimulation of
colleagues in allied chairs is a powerful motive to excellence ; fourthly,
the latest developments of science in the related departments of in-
struction will be found in the universities ; fifthly, the professors in
connection with the universities receive a better income than those in
the isolated forest schools ; and, finally, the academic atmosphere of
the great university is of value, and helpful to professors and students
alike. These reasons are forcibly urged in addition to those econom-
ical considerations which we have already mentioned. Professor Hess
also adduces the practical fact that the forests of Hesse show the very
best management, and are visited by foresters from abroad on this ac-
count, and that the forest management of Hesse took a high position
at the Congress of Foresters held in connection with the Vienna Ex-
position in 1873,

The tendency of opinion, especially in the central and southern
portions of Germany, seems to be in favor of attaching the forest
academies to the universities. More and more there is demanded, in
those Avho are called to important positions in the forestry service, the
most thorough academical education, and one now has vei"y little
chance of gaining a high position in the management of the govern-
ment forests who has not had a complete university education. With-
out this he can hope to occupy only a subordinate place. The tendency
of the opinion of those most competent to judge in the case is shown
also by the fact that at a convention of foresters held at Freyburg in
1874, and numbering three hundred and sixty-nine members, it was
declared unanimously that the isolated system of forest instruction
will no longer suffice, and the study of forestry in connection with the
universities was favored.

One of the most recently established schools is that at Miinden
under the directorship of Dr. Gustav Heyer. Its management is like
that at Neustadt-Eberswalde, and the average number of students has
been about seventv-five. The Central Forest Institute at AschaJffen-



3i6 THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MOXTHLY.

burg, Bavaria, one of the most distinguished schools, has grown out
of a forest institute established originally in 1807, which by a decree
of the Government in 1874 was united with the University of Mu-
nich. It is under the direction of Stumpf, who is assisted by five
professors. This school has had the benefit and honor of the labors
of Dr. Ernst Ebermayer, whose work on the " Physical Influences
of Forests on the Earth and Air," published in 1873, in two vol-
umes octavo, ranks as one of the most important treatises upon thi<
subject.

The Royal Saxon Forest Academy at Tharandt is justly distin-
guished. It is now under the care of Dr. J. F. Judeich, who was
president of the jury of award on exhibitions of forestry at Vienna in
1873. The course of instruction occupies two years and a half, under
a director aided by four professors and two assistants. The average
attendance of students is about fifty, more than half of whom are
foreigners. The number in attendance has lately been much increased.
and several Americans are reported among them.

In Wiirtemberg is the agricultural and forestral academy at Hohen-
heim, which has grown out of two separate institutions founded in
1818, and united two years afterward. It was reorganized in 1865, and
is now one of the most important of the German schools, its course of
instruction both in agriculture and forestry being very full. It is
located on a princely estate near Stuttgart. It has a noble park of
twenty acres, and extensive plantations or nurseries of trees and plants
both native and foreign. Between seven and eight hundred acres of
land are devoted to the purposes of agriculture, and between five and
six thousand acrts are devoted to the study and uses of forestrj^ This
academy is probably the best specimen which Germany affords of tin
combined agricultural and forestral school. It has extensive and valu-
able collections. Its course of instruction extends to two and a half
years. Its faculty consists of a director, nine professors and seven
adjunct professors, two reviewers, and one assistant.

Professor Mathieu, of Nancy, describing this institution in the
" Review of "Woods and Forests," says : " The little kingdom of Wiir-
temberg, with scarcely two million of inhabitants, has spared nothing
in providing itself with whatever could contribute to the success of
instruction or to the progress of science. This truly liberal spirit has
led to the establishment of magnificent agricultural galleries, where
we find collected, to the number of sixteen hundred, the various tools
and machines employed in laboi's of the field ; elegant rooms filled with
forestral collections, implements, woods, and various products ; cab-
inets in botany, zoology, mineralogy, and geology ; instruments for
use in studies of physics and geodesy ; a station for experiments con-
cerning woods, and another for meteorology. Its library numbers
five thousand five hundred volumes, and its reading-room contains
numerous periodicals in all languages, of which forty-nine are scientific.



EUROPE AX SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY. 317

auricultural, or forestral journals, and thirty-five are of the political,
literary, or illustrated class."

The design of this academy is, in the words of another, '• to impart
a thorough, practical, and professional education to those who are to
become the owners or managers of estates, and to farmers and foresters
in public or private service, and to enable them to become champions
of progress among their colleagues in business,"

At the University of Ttlbingen, a chair of Agriculture and Forestry
has existed since 1817.

The Polytechnic School at Carlsruhe, in Baden, has a department
of forestry, with two professors. From thirty-five to forty students
attend, of whom about one fifth are foreigners. The requirements for
admission are as follows : Citizens of the state, who wish to enter the
state forestry service, after attending a full course at the gymnasium,
are admitted, and must pass through a course of four years, of which
the first two are devoted to those fundamental and auxiliary studies
Avhich do not relate directly to forest-science, but which serve as a
preparation for the remaining two years' studies, or the forest-course
proper. Foreigners may attend the first two years or not, as they pre-
fer. An age of seventeen years is required for admission. At the close
of the second year the state students must pass an examination in
natural philosophy and mathematics ; but if they fail they are allowed
one more trial. This examination entitles them to enter upon the last
two years of special forest studies, in which they are taught agricult-
ure, forest jurisprudence, and the higher mathematics, when they are
again examined, and, if passed, are qualified for a place in the state
service. The examination at the end of the first two years is by the
]n'ofessors of the polytechnic school, and the final examination by the



Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 39 of 110)