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forest directors, a person skilled in law, a professor of agriculture, a
professor of forest management, and two professors of mathematics.

After passing all examinations, the candidate is assigned to the
general district foresters as an assistant, to enable him to become prac-
tically acquainted with his duties, and he receives a tract of forest to
manage. After six to ten years, according to the number waiting, he
gets a position as general district forester. The number of forest dis-
tricts in Baden at present is one hundred and ten, to about four of
which appointments are made annually. The Forest Direction has
its seat in Carlsruhe, and is composed of six members, who are in-
spectors.

The aids to instruction at this forest school are a valuable collection
of objects pertaining to the subject, a chemical and physiological lab-
oratory, to which a greenhouse is annexed, and a forest garden. The
area of forests in Baden is 1,202,493 acres.

A school of forestry was established in connection with the Uni-
versity of Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1825, with two chairs of
forestrv and a course of three years. In 1831 this school was imited



3i8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

with the university, of whicli it now forms a department. The funda-
mental and auxiliary sciences, mathematics, natural sciences, chemistry,
agriculture, law, etc., are taught by the professors of the university,
while those studies that immediately relate to forestry come within
the care of this special department.

The academic forest garden occupies six hectares, and Giessen and
Schiffenberg forest-reviers in the neighborhood afford opportunities
for practical study. The course of instruction extends through two
years. Two excursions are made weekly, at which the subject of the
lectures is practically illustrated, and the various operations of sylvi-
culture are shown. Besides these, journeys of one or two weeks at a
time are taken in summer, under the guidance of one of the teachers.
The students of the forest institute enjoy the same rights as those of
the university. The average attendance in the forestry department
for several years past has been only about fifteen.

In the Grand-duchy of Saxe- Weimar is a forest institute, at Eise-
nach, with three professors and a course of instruction extending through
three semesters. This institute Avas founded as a private school in
1808 by Oberforstrath Konig, at Rhula, but was made a state institu-
tion in 1830.

The Ducal Polytechnic School of Brunswick, founded in 1745 by
Duke Charles I, and the first polytechnic school ever established, has
a department of forestry.

In addition to these forest schools of the first order, as they may
be termed, are subordinate schools at "Weihmstephan and at Lichten-
hof, near Nuremberg, besides numerous academies and private schools
in which the principles of forestry are taught. Many forestry associ-
ations also, in one Avay or another, encourage the study of this science.

When we consider the limited territory of Germany, as compared
wnth our own country, one can not take even this cursory observation
of its forest schools without having the conviction impressed upon
him that forestry is there regarded as a subject of the first importance,
and that it has interests and relations which are very much if not alto-
gether overlooked by us.

France has an eminent forest school at Nancy, which Avas estab-
lished more than fifty years ago, and has a director and ten professors.
It is designed to prepare agents for the state forest service, and foresters
for the management of forests belonging to communes and public es-
tablishments. The number of pupils admitted is regulated by the
wants of the administration from time to time. During the last fifty
years, the school has graduated about a thousand men. In addition
to those admitted to be trained for the public service, a certain number
are admitted who are called externes. Great Britain, which has no
school of forestry of her own, sends annually to Nancy from five to
ten pupils to be trained for the management of her forests in India,
and in the South African and other colonies.



EUROPEAN SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY. 319

The course of instruction at Xancy covers two years, and is very
much like that at the German schools.

Another school, called the school of Forest Guards, at Barres, was
established in 1865, by the Director-General of Forests, on what had
been the estate of an eminent arboriculturist, M. Vilmorin. It has
been reorganized recently and its plan has been extended.

■ An Agronomic Institute has been established lately at the Con-
servatory of Arts and Trades at Paris, having for its object the ad-
vancement of agriculture. It has fifteen professors, several of whom
will be instructors of forestry in some of its branches. In addition to
the instruction in forestry thus given, the French forestry administra-
tion is accustomed to send out agents to instruct classes in forestry at
sevei-al of the agricultural schools. There are also inferior forest
schools for the education of subaltern foresters at Grenoble and Yillers-
Cotterets.

The Austrian Empire is second only to Germany in the abundance
and character of its forest schools and in the general interest taken in
the subject of forestry. At the head of the Austrian schools stands
the Imperial High School of Agriculture and Forestry at Vienna. This
was founded by a royal decree of 1872, upon the basis of a reorgan-
ized forest school originally established at Mariabrunn, near Vienna,
at the entrance of the beautiful Wienerwald. The school occupied
an old monastery, and in it were gathered the amplest apparatus for
study, including very fine museums and collections. By the decree of
1872 this school was united with the Agricultural College of Vienna,
and the two now constitute one school in two sections. The agricultu-
ral section was opened in 1872, the forest section in 1875. The con-
solidated institution is designed to give the best instruction both in
agriculture and forestr3^ The course of instruction extends over three
years. Two classes of students are admitted : the ordinary, who must
bring a certificate that they have comj)leted a course at a gymnasium
or upper real-school, or a department school of equal rank ; and the ex-
traordinary, who must have sufficient preparatory training at least to
enable them to understand the lectures, and who must have reached
the age of seventeen years. The latter class are also obliged to pay
tuition fees and can not receive the state stipends of which the ordi-
nary pupils may avail themselves.

What are called secondary schools of forestry are established at
Weisswasser in Bohemia, Eulenberg in Moravia, and at Lemberg in
Galicia. These schools are formed on the Gei-man model. The course
of instruction embraces two years. The requirements for admission
are attendance for one year at a lower real-school or gymnasium, and
in some cases a year's forest practice besides. Tuition is practically
free.

There are also schools of forestry in Hungary. One is the Royal
Hungarian Mining and Forest Academy at Schemnitz, which has been



322 THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MONTHLY.

language of the royal ordinaiice for its management, " has for its end
to educate able forest managers by free instruction " ; subordinate to
this, a system of district forest schools, of which the same ordinance
says, " The aim of these forest schools is, through gratis instruction,
to form good foresters " ; and, finally, the common schools, together
with private elementary schools of forestry, aided to some extent by
the Government.

The Forest Institute at Stockholm ranks with the best forest
schools of Europe. Its course of instruction and its management are
so nearly like those in use at Xancy, at Neustadt-Eberswalde, and
elsewhere, that we need not speak of them in detail.

The district forest schools are established at suitable points in
the public forests. They are under the oversight of the Forest Bureau,
and each under the visitation of the forest inspector in whose district
of service the school is situated. Each forest school is presided over
by a president, who is at the same time the teacher of the school, with
a forest overseer as his assistant. The course of instiniction embraces
one full year, at the end of which the pupils have a public examination.
In 1874 there were seven schools of this kind. There were alse thir-
teen private elementary schools of forestry, supported in part by gov-
ernment aid. It is also a noticeable feature of the system of education
in Sweden that horticulture and tree-planting are taught in the Falk
schools, or common schools. From the report of 1873 we find that in
that year 59,860 pupils received such instruction. The same ratio
would give 600,000 pupils for the United States.

Spain and Portugal, ranking lowest almost of all European coun-
tries in the proportion of their forest area to their total surface, the
one having, on the authority of Reutzsch, 5*52, and the other 4'40 per
cent., are yet not without their forest schools. A School of Forest
Engineers was established in 1846, at Villaviciosa, not far from Madrid,
In 1869 it was transferred to San Lorenzo del Escurial, It is under
the direction of the Minister of Agriculture. Is has a director, nine
professors, and two assistants. The course of instruction extends to
three years.

An Agricultural Institute was founded at Lisbon in 1852. It was
reorganized in 1865 as the General Institute of Agriculture. The
course of instruction embraces rural engineering, sylviculture, agrono-
my, forest engineering, and veterinary medicine. The corps of in-
struction consists of ten professors and five substitutes, as they are
called. The institute is well furnished with grounds, cabinets, and
collections adapted to give practical instruction in the studies
taught.

Denmark and Finland also have their schools of forestry, the one
at Copenhagen, under the title of the Royal Veterinary and Agricult-
ural High School, and the other at Evois.

Russia has several schools scattered throughout her vast territory.



EUROPEAX SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY. 323

For although her forests, particuhirly in the northern portion, seem
inexhaustible, yet even among these the waste by accidental and de-
siirned burnings has at length shown the necessity of care and economy
in forestry management. The forests of Russia have been swept off
vear by year by fires until portions of the country are suffering in a
change of climate and in other respects as the consequence. The
Volga is diminished in volume ; navigation is becoming more difficult ;
fuel is getting scarce ; and the services of those trained in forest
schools are needed in Russia almost as much as they are in Italy or
Spain.

The Agronomic Institute at St. Petersburg is designed to give the
best education in both agriculture and sylviculture, and is organized
for this purpose in two sections. Those admitted to it must have
finished a course of instruction at some gymnasium. It has one hun-
dred and fifty students in the forestry section, a three years' course of
<tudy, and graduates annually about forty pupils.

The Agricultural and Forestral Academy at Petrovsk, near Mos-
cow, founded in 18G5, is similar in character and course of instruction
to the institute at St. Petersburg. In 1872 it had three hundred and
thirty-three pupils in attendance.

About fifty miles from St. Petersburg is the forest school of Lis-
sino, a school of the second class, whose graduates receive the rank of
forest conductors. The course of studies is of a practical character,
und is of three years in extent.*

* This sketch gives a partial idea of the importance that is attached to forestry in coun-
tries whose age and experience have carried them beyond the stage of wasteful expenditure

f resources in wood through which we are passing, to the point where necessity compels
tiem to do all that is possible to make amends for their former recklessness, and to en-
deavor by every means to restore what they have lost. The trees are recognized as one of
man's most valuable inheritances — with which his fortunes, public and private, are inti-
mately associated ; and no interest in state or nation is paramount to that of having them

'reserved and properly cared for. The sources of information in regard to forestry and
i ' nest schools are of course as yet chiefly foreign. J. Croumbie Brown, of Haddington,
England, for some time Government botanist at the Cape of Good Hope, has published
several volumes bearing more or less directly on the subject. Hon. C. C. Andrews, late
Minister to Sweden and Norway, has made a valuable report to the Department of State
on the forests and forest-culture of Sweden. A report on forests and forestry, in con-
nection with the International Exhibition at Vienna, in 1873, has also been made by John
A. Warder, one of our commissioners. A voluminous report upon forestry has also been

iide, under the direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture, in pursuance of an act of
"ongress of 1876, by Franklin B. Hough, which contains a large amount of valuable iu-
; irmation. We have drawn from these, in addition to the numerous French and German

' iblications on forestry, for the facts here given in regard to forest schools.



322 THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MONTHLY.

language of the royal ordinance for its management, " has for its end
to educate able forest managers by free instruction " ; subordinate to
this, a system of district forest schools, of which the same ordinance
says, " The aim of these forest schools is, through gratis instruction,
to form good foresters " ; and, finally, the common schools, together
with private elementary schools of forestry, aided to some extent by
the Government,

The Forest Institute at Stockholm ranks with the best forest
schools of Europe. Its course of instruction and its management are
so nearly like those in use at Nancy, at Neustadt-Eberswalde, and
elsewhere, that we need not speak of them in detail.

The district forest schools are established at suitable points in
the public forests. They are under the ovei'sight of the Forest Bureau,
and each under the visitation of the forest inspector in whose district
of service the school is situated. Each forest school is presided over
by a president, Avho is at the same time the teacher of the school, with
a forest overseer as his assistant. The course of instruction embraces
one full year, at the end of which the pupils have a public examination.
In 1874 there were seven schools of this kind. There were alse thir-
teen private elementary schools of forestry, supported in part by gov-
ernment aid. It is also a noticeable feature of the system of education
in Sweden that horticulture and tree-planting are taught in the Falk
schools, or common schools. From the report of 1873 we find that in
that year 59,860 pupils received such instruction. The same ratio
would give 600,000 pupils for the United States.

Spain and Portugal, ranking lowest almost of all European coun-
tries in the proportion of their forest area to their total surface, the
one having, on the authority of Reutzsch, 5*52, and the other 4'40 per
cent., are yet not without their forest schools. A School of Forest
Engineers was established in 1846, at Villaviciosa, not far from Madrid.
In 1869 it was transferred to San Lorenzo del Escurial. It is under
the direction of the Minister of Agriculture. Is has a director, nine
professors, and two assistants. The course of instruction extends to
three years.

An Agricultural Institute was founded at Lisbon in 1852. It was
reorganized in 1865 as the General Institute of Agriculture. The
course of instruction embraces rural engineering, sylviculture, agrono-
my, forest engineering, and veterinary medicine. The corps of in-
struction consists of ten professors and five substitutes, as they are
called. The institute is well furnished with grounds, cabinets, and
collections adapted to give practical instruction in the studies
taught.

Denmark and Finland also have their schools of forestry, the one
at Copenhagen, under the title of the Royal Veterinary and Agricult-
ural High School, and the other at Evois,

Russia has several schools scattered throughout her vast territory.



EUROPEAX SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY. 323

For although her forests, particuhirly hx the northern portion, seem
inexhaustible, yet even among these the waste by accidental and de-
sicjned burnings has at length shown the necessity of care and economy
in forestry management. The forests of Russia have been swept off
vear by year by fires until portions of the country are suffering in a
change of climate and in other respects as the consequence. The
Volga is diminished in volume ; navigation is becoming more difficult ;
fuel is getting scarce ; and the services of those trained in forest
schools are needed in Russia almost as much as they are in Italy or
Spain.

The Agronomic Institute at St. Petersburg is designed to give the
best education in both agriculture and sylviculture, and is organized
for this purpose in two sections. Those admitted to it must have
finished a course of instruction at some gymnasium. It has one hun-
dred and fifty students in the forestry section, a three years' course of
study, and graduates annually about forty pupils.

The Agricultural and Forestral Academy at Petrovsk, near Mos-
cow, founded in 18G5, is similar in character and course of instruction
to the institute at St. Petersburg. In 1872 it had three hundred and
tliirty-three pu.pils in attendance.

About fifty miles from St. Petersburg is the forest school of Lis-
sino, a school of the second class, w^hose graduates receive the rank of
forest conductors. The course of studies is of a practical character,
:iiid is of three years in extent.*

* This sketch gives a partial idea of the importance that is attached to forestry in coun-
tries whose acjc and experience have carried them beyond the stage of wasteful expenditure
if resources in wood through which we are passing, to the point where necessity compels
tiiem to do all that is possible to make amends for their former recklessness, and to en-
deavor by every means to restore what they have lost. The trees are recognized as one of
man's most valuable inheritances — with which his fortunes, public and private, are inti-
mately associated ; and no interest in state or nation is paramount to that of having them
preserved and properly cared for. The sources of information in regard to forestry and
forest schools are of course as yet chiefly foreign. J. Croumbie Brown, of Haddington,
England, for some time Government botanist at the Cape of Good Hope, has published
several volumes bearing more or less directly on the subject. ITon. C. C. Andrews, late
Minister to Sweden and Norway, has made a valuable report to the Department of State
on the forests and forest-culture of Sweden. A report on forests and forestry, in con-
nection with the International Exhibition at Vienna, in 1873, has also been made by John
A. Warder, one of our commissioners. A voluminous report upon forestry has also been
made, under the direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture, in pursuance of an act of
Congress of 1870, by Franklin B. Hough, which contains a large amount of valuable in-
formation. We have drawn from these, in addition to the numerous French and German
publications on forestry, for the facts here given in regard to forest schools.



324



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MOXTHLY.



PRODUCTION OF SOUXD BY IIADIAXT ENERGY



By ALEXANDER GKAIIAM BELL.

AT the time of ray communication to the American Association f
the loudest effects obtained were produced by the use of sele-
nium, arranged in a cell of suitable construction, and placed in a gal-
vanic circuit with a telephone. Upon allowing an intermittent beam
of sunlight to fall upon the selenium, a musical tone of great intensity
was produced from the telephone connected with it.

But the selenium was very inconstant in its action. It was rarely,

if ever, found to be the case that two pieces of selenium (even of the

„ . same stick) vielded the same

Fig. 7. ...

results under identical cir-
cimistances of annealing, etc.
"While in Europe last autumn,
Dr. Chichester Bell, of Uni-
versity College, London, sug-
gested to me that this incon-
stancy of result might be due
to chemical impurities in the
selenium used. Dr. Bell has
since visited my laboratory in
Washington, and has made a
chemical examination of the
various samples of selenium I
had collected from different
parts of the world. As I un-
derstand it to be his intention to publish the results of this analysis
very soon, I shall make no further mention of his investigation than to
state that he has found sulphur, iron, lead, and arsenic in the so-called
" selenium," with traces of organic matter ; that a quantitative exami-
nation has revealed the fact that sulphur constitutes nearly one per
cent, of the whole mass ; and that when these impurities are eliminated
the selenium appears to be more constant in its action and more sen-
sitive to light.

Professor W. G. Adams J has shown that tellurium, like selenium,
has its electrical resistance affected by light, and we have attempted
to utilize this substance in place of selenium. The arrangement of
cell (shown in Fig. 7) was constructed for this piirpose in the early

* Continued from page 197.

f "Proceedings of American Association for the Advancement of Science," .Vugust 27,
1880 ; see, also, "American Journal of Science," vol. xx, p. 305 ; " Journal of the American
Electrical Society," vol. iii, p. 3 ; " Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers and
Electricians," vol. ix, p. 404 ; " Annales de Cliimie et de Physique," vol. xxi.

X "Proceedings of the Royal Society," vol. xxiv, p. 163.




PRODUCTIOX OF SOUXD BY RADIAXT ENERGY.



325



part of 1S80 ; but wo failed at that time to obtain any indications of
sensitiveness with a reflecting galvanometer. We have since found,
however, that when this tellurium spiral is connected in circuit with a
galvanic battery and telephone, and exposed to the action of an inter-
mittent beam of sunlight, a distinct musical tone is produced by the
telephone. The audible effect is much increased by placing the tel-
lurium cell with the battery in the primary circuit of an induction-
coil, and placing the telephone in the secondary circuit.

The enormously high resistance of selenium and the extremely
low resistance of tellurium suggested the thought that an alloy of
these two substances might possess intermediate electrical properties.
We have accordingly mixed together selenium and tellurium in differ-
ent proportions, and, while we do not feel warranted at the present
time in making definite statements concerning the results, I may say
that such alloys have proved to be sensitive to the action of light.

It occurred to Mr. Tainter, before my return to Washington last
January, that the very great molecular disturbance produced in lamp-
black by the action of intermittent sunlight should produce a corre-
sponding disturbance in an electric current passed through it, in which
case lampblack could be employed in place
of selenium in an electrical receiver. This ^'°- ^•

has turned out to be the case, and the im-
portance of the discovery is very great,
especially when we consider the expense
of such rare substances as selenium and
tellurium.

Tlie form of lam])black cell we have
found most effective is shown in Fig. 8.
Silver is deposited upon a plate of glass,
and a zigzag line is then scratched through
the film, as shown, dividing the silver sur-
face into two portions insulated from one
another, having the form of two combs
with interlocking teeth.

Each comb is attached to a screw-cup,
so that the cell can be placed in an elec-
trical circuit when required. The surface
is then smoked until a good film of lamp-
black is obtained, filling the interstices be-
tween the teeth of the silver combs. When
the lampblack cell is connected with a tele-
phone and galvanic battery, and exposed

to the influence of an intermittent beam of sunlight, a loud musical
tone is produced by the telephone. This result seems to be due rather
to the physical condition than to the nature of the conducting material
employed, as metals in a spongy condition produce similar effects. For




32(



THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MOXTHLY.




instance, Avhen an electrical current is passed through spongy platinum
while it is exposed to intermittent sunlight, a distinct musical tone is



Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 40 of 110)