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have scarcely cared to give the results of , down till the Reformation, when such re-
recent inquiry to the general public. Lately I vivers of learning as Rcuchliu drew their
some valuable translations of German trea- ! knowledge from Jewish sources ; how thus
tiscs have begun to appear, but these have the traditional interpretations and notions
been too elaborate and bulky to attract or- | which were current among the Jews con-
dinary readers. The appetite has continued tinned to influence Protestant scholars in



to languish for want of the proper food.

It need now languish no longer. Pro-
fessor Robertson Smith's book is exactly
what was wanted at once to inform and to
stimulate. Written by one of the first Se-
mitic scholars of our lime, it is completely
abreast, of the most recent investigations,
and pervaded by a thoroughly scholar-like
spirit. His easy mastery of the subject and
his sense of which are the really difficult
points and which the settled ones are ap-
parent on every page. "What is more sur-
prising is the skill wherewith these re-
sources are used. Although scientific in



their translations, and have colored our own
authorized version. Then the author goes
on to show how the Jewish traditional in-
terpretation was itself formed. Old He-
brew became a dead language in or before
the fourth century b. c, so that the Jews of
our Lord's time, speaking Aramaic, needed
special school-training to understand the
Law, the Psalms, and the Prophets. As
there were no grammars nor dictionaries,
the knowledge of the old tongue was given
orally, and a traditional mass of learning
grew up, consisting of the interpretation of
the sacred writings, with explanations and



the sense of being thorough, exact, and commentaries, partly legal (the so-called
business-like, the book is also popular — that \ Halacha), partly moral or hortatory (the
is to say, it is perfectly intelligible to every , Haggada). The Law having now become
person of fair general education who has the center of the whole life of the nation.



read the Bible. For clearness of statement,
for cogency of argument, for breadth of
view, for impartiality of tone, for the judg-
ment with which details are subordinated
to the most interesting and instructive prin-
ciples and facts, it is a model of how a great



as well civil as religious, and the guide of
all iis habits and usages, the function of
those who interpreted and expounded and
applied it became an extremely important
one, and they rose, in the period between
the return from Babvlon and the birth of



and difficult subject should be presented to \ Christ, into a class of great power and influ-



the world. It is so condensed as to need
close attention. But those who have any j
taste for these studies will not find it hard ^
to give that close attention, for it carries
one on like a romance from beginning to i
end, and we can well believe, what was
stated in the newspapers some weeks ago.



ence. They arc those whom we find men-
tioned in the New Testament as the Scribes,
mostly belonging to and in fact heading the
party called Pharisees. Their interest in
the Law was primarily practical, and in
their work of extending, supplementing,
harmonizing, refining upon its rules they



that the lectures, of which it is a summa- \ created a large body of customary law side
rized reprint, were listened to by immense by side with it, and were thus led to origi-
audienccs in Scotland with the keenest in- nate many forced and unreasonable interpre-
terest. tations, which have come down to us' in the

The book opens with a sketch of the crit- Talmud, and long continued to pervert the
icism of the Old Testament in the Christian 1 true meaning of the old writings.



Church from the days of the earliest Fathers.
It is shown how their entire want of Hebrew



Though

philology or grammatical exegesis was not
in their wav nor indeed within their com-



LITERARY NOTICES.



415



petence, they were of course zealous for the
preservation of a correct and uniform test,
and it was apparently by them that the text
which wc now have was fixed. The date of
this fixing becomes important, and may be
proved by incidental evidence. Down to
the apostolic age there seem to have been
manuscripts of the various books of the Old
Testament in circulation which varied con-
sidei'ably from one another ; this appears
by the divergences from our received text
both of the Septuagint Greek translation
made in the third century b. c, and of the
Samaritan Pentateuch dating from the fifth
century b. c, as well as by other evidence.
But all our present MSS., none of which is
older than the ninth century a. d., present
what is practically one and the same text —
showing that they must have been made
from one archetypal MS. This text is the
same text as Jerome used in making his
Latin version in the fifth century a. d. ;
and it may be traced back with some cer-
tainty to the second century a. d. There is,
therefore, good reason to believe that in the
first Christian century one MS. — probably
one of the three which we are told were
then preserved in the Temple — was taken
as authoritative, and all official copies or-
dered to be thenceforth made from it, every
other MS., showing a different text, being
discredited or even suppressed. From that
time the text was guarded with the most
scrupulous care, copies being made by a
guild named the Massorets (possessors of
tradition), who did not venture to change
even an accidental peculiarity of writing.
But, as many centuries had elapsed between
the original writing of the books and the
determination of this received text in the
post-apostolic age, many variations had of
course grown up. By far the most ample
evidence of these variations is that supplied
by the Septuagint ; and one of the most in-
teresting parts of Professor Smith's book
consists in his account of the relation be-
tween the i>rcsent Hebrew text and this old
Greek translation, which carries us back to
forms of tiic text that afterward perished.
In common with the bulk of recent scholars,
he sets a high value on many of the Septua-
gint readings, conceiving that they often
give passages in a simpler and earlier form
than that of the established Ilebrew, which



I has been injured by the amplifications of
I editors, or, in some few cases, altered by
' copyists who did not fully understand the
I old language. These variations are more
. numerous and important in the Prophets
than in the Law, because the latter held so
important a place in the services of public
worship, where it was read through once in
three years, that the copying of it was per-
formed more accurately and a uniform text
better preserved. The author then goes on
to show how little reliance can be placed on
some of the titles prefixed to the canonical
books, and how many traces we find of the
action of a succession of editors or redac-
teurs in getting the books into their present
shape. Explanations were added ; one doc-
ument was joined on to another; in some
cases it would seem that a book was written
by taking an old series of annals or official
records and filling into it anecdotes and
descriptions from some other source. Xext
the formation of the Old Testament canon
is discussed ; and it is shown how, as in the
case of the New Testament, different views
as to the canonicity of particular books were
from time to time prevalent among the Jews
down till the second century a. d. The tales
which ascribe the settlement of a canon to
Ezra or to N'ehemiah are shown to rest on
no foundation. The inclusion of some of
the Apocryphal books in the Septuagint
shows that among the Alexandrian Jews
these books enjoyed a certain authority, and
yet they arc not quoted— by Philo, for in-
stance—as if they stood on the same level
with the Prophets ; for there was a feeling,
a true feeling, that the prophetic voices had
come to an end a few generations after the
return from Babylon, or as Joscphus too
precisely puts it, in the time of Artaxerxes L
These books are all comparatively late, and
to modem criticism stand on quite a differ-
ent footing from the Prophets, whose au-
thority seems to have become early estab-
lished. But grave doubts were long enter-
tained as to some of what wc now consider
canonical books. Daniel and Esther were
disputed in the apostolic age, Ecclesiastes
and the Song of Solomon not finally admit-
ted till the time of Rabbi Akiba, who lived
under Hadrian.

The second half of Professor Robertson
Smith's book is devoted to an inquiry into



4i6



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



the relative date of the more important of
the Old Testament books, and particularly
of the Pentateuch. He examines the view,
which has been traditional among Jews and
Christians for two thousand years or so,
that the books containing the Law of Moses
are the oldest part of all the sacred writ-
ings, and belong to the time of Moses him-
self ; pointing out that on this hypothesis
we may reasonably expect to find many
references to it in the historical and pro-
phetic books, which would show that its
ordinances were well known and were
obeyed at least by the loyal worshipers
of Jehovah, even if neglected by a large
part of the nation during its frequent
lapses into idolatrous worship. And he
remarks with great truth that, considering
not only the importance of ritual in early
times, but the great prominence given to
ceremonial in the Levitical system, the way
in which "the feasts, the sacrificial ritual,
the ordinances of ceremonial purity are al-
ways in the foreground, as the necessary
forms in which alone the inner side of
religion, love to God and man, can find
acceptable expression," the observance of
these forms and rites must have been a
matter of the highest consequence, a mat-
ter in which the devotion of good kings
and priests would appear, and on which
the prophets would frequently insist in
their exhortations to the people. The Law
purporting to be, as we read it, a complete
revelation of God's will for Israel's life, a
rule of absolute validity, the keeping of
which is the whole of Israel's religion, " the
religious history of Israel can be nothing
else than the history of Israel's obedience
or disobedience to the law." Moreover,
the position " that the whole legal system
was revealed to Israel at the very beginning
of its national existence, strictly limits our
conception of the function and significance
of subsequent revelation. The prophets
had no power to abrogate any part of the
law, to dispense with Mosaic ordinances, or
institute new means of grace, other methods
of approach to God in lieu of the hierar-
chical sacraments." The theory, the usual
orthodox theory of modern times, that the
prophets were " exponents of the spiritual
elements of the law, who showed the people
that its precepts were not mere forms, but



veiled declarations of the spiritual truths of
a future dispensation which was the true
substance of the shadows of the old ritual,
implies that the prophets were constantly
intent on enforcing the obsenanee of the
ceremonial as well as the moral precepts of
the Pentateuch. Neglect of the ritual law
was all the more culpable when the spir-
itual meaning of its precepts was made
plain."

To give this brief summary of Pro-
fessor Robertson Smith's conclusions con-
veys a very imperfect idea of the admir-
able skill with which he applies his critical
method. It sets familiar facts and expres-
sioiiS in a perfectly new light, illumining
for us the whole religious and political
history of Israel, and making that history
more intelligible, more self-consistent, more
instructive, than it had ever appeared upon
the traditional view. — Abndgcd from the
Fall Mall Gazette.

Trance and Trancoidal States in the Low-
er Animals. By George M. Beard, A.
M., M. D. New York. Pp. 17.

Trance is defined by Dr. Beard as "a
concentration of nervous activity in some
one direction, with corresponding suspen-
sion of nervous activity in other directions."
It can be induced in all animals that have
the rudiments of a nervous system, and is
essentially the same in all, the differences
that may be observed being in degree rather
than in kind. The methods of inducing it
are infinite, and no one of those that are
best known can be said to have any special
or preeminent virtue over any other, except
of convenience and degree. Induced trance,
by whatever way it is brought about, trance
resulting from functional derangements, and
spontaneous trance, are all parts of and
obedient to the same law, and should be
studied under that view. Hence special
terms, like hypnotism, Braidism, somnam-
bulism, catalepsy, etc., are misleading, and
ought not to be used. Among the examples
of trance in animals, Dr. Beard cites the
various methods of subduing them by fear,
lion-taming, the horse-taming operations of
Rarey and Home, affecting them with mu-
sic, all the phenomena that pass under the
name of fascination, and stupefaction in
the presence of fire.



LIT ERA R Y N TICES.



417



JOCRNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL

Sciences of Philadelphia. Vol. VIII.
Second Scries. Part IV. Philadolpliia :
I'rinted for the Academy. Pp. 120, with
Nino Plates.

This part of the Academy's " Journal "
contains four papers, of which the first two,
embodying descriptions of the Miocene and
Pieiocene fossils of the Caribbean area
and Costa Rica, were written by the late
William M. Gabb while in San Domingo,
during the winter of IS^'T-'TS, and have
been published since his death. The third
paper is on " The Terrestrial MoUusca in-
habiting the Cook's or Harvey Islands," by
Andrew Garrett. The next paper, on " The
Placenta and Generative Apparatus of the
Elephant," by Henry C. Chapman, M. D., is
based on observations of a female elephant
attached to a menagerie, that gave birth to
a young one in Philadelphia in 1880, and
establishes the interesting fact that the pe-
riod of gestation of the elephant is from six
hundred and thirty to six hundred and fifty-
six days. The other papers are by Joseph
Leidy, M. D., and are on " The Parasites of
the Termites," and on the Bathygnatus bo-
rcalLi, a fossil saurian from Prince Edward
Island.

Secoxd Repost of the United States Ento-
mological Commission for the Years
1878 AND 1879, relating to the Rocky
Mountain Locust and the Western
Cricket. With Maps and Illustrations.
Washington : Government Printing-Of-
fice. Pp. 322 ; and Appendices, pp. 80.

The present report embodies the conclu-
sions that have been reached after careful
examinations of the breeding-ground of the
insects, of the regions in which they are
permanently pro|)agatcd, and of the " tem-
porary region " where they may breed for a
few years and then die out, with other knowl-
edge that has been gained concerning their
habits, and the best means of contending
against them. The Commission claims that
its prediction, that the series of invasions by
the locust of the cultivated regions that be-
gan in 1874 would close in 1877, has been
completely confirmed, and that its theory
that the pest cculd not remain permanently
in this region has been conclusively proved ;
consequently, the insect no longer excites the
terror which its first appearances evokrrl
VOL. XIX.— 27



The locust is bred in the prairie tracts of
the rainless district, in the loose, warm,
gravelly soil, in the comparatively open
spots, rather than in the thick grass, in dif-
ferent parts of a "permanent region," the
area of which is not less than five hundred
thousand square miles. The best single
means of exterminating the broods would
be to burn the grass while they are in the
larva state ; but this can not be relied on
alone, because of the great extent of unin-
habited country to which it would have to
be applied, and because it can not be made
thorough, since the burning would be light-
est in the spots where the insects are thick-
est. The object must be promoted by other
means, of which the first is to induce the
settlement of the breeding district by farm-
ers, who will fight the locusts in their homes ;
next, by the encouragement of i»rigation, to
bring unfriendly water to bear upon them,
and of the planting of forests, in which they
do not flourish ; and by instituting a system
of Signal-Service warnings of the progress
of their migrations. The discussion of these
points forms one of the most important chap-
ters of the report ; and this chapter, with the
eight maps showing the vegetation of the
regions the insects infest, has been also pub-
lished separately. In addition to these top-
ics, information is given concerning the mi-
grations and ravages of locusts in other coun-
tries, their natural history and structure, and
their natural enemies.

Cooperation as a Business. By Charles
Barnard. New York: G. P. Putnam's
Sons. Pp. 234. Price, $1.

Mr. Barnard devotes a chapter to the
description of each of the principal forms
in which cooperation has been practiced
with success. In the first chapter the work-
ings of the Philadelphia building associa-
tions are explained in full ; accounts are
given of the English systems nearest like
theirs; the English and American systems
arc compared ; and cooperative banks are
explained. The second chapter is devoted
to the cooperative stores that have been es-
tablished in Great Britain for the benefit of
consumers; the third to those which arc
conducted in the interest of producers, of
which the establishment of the Paisley shawl-
,vo«<...-: ;^ i;ho-n as the type. In the sue-



411



TII^ POPULAR SCIEXCE MONTHLY.



ceeding chapters are described the civil-ser-
vice and similar stores, the cooperative in-
sui-ance societies, the provident dispensaries,
and the people's banks. The scope of the
work is not, however, limited to the consid-
eration of schemes of cooperation that have
succeeded. Attention is also given to those
that have failed, particularly in the United
States, and the attempt has been made to
examine and analyze the causes that have
conduced to failure.

CoxTRinrTioNs to the Anatomy op the
IIilk-Wked Butterfly, Danais Archip-
pus ( Fa6>-.). By Edward Burgess, Sec-
retary of the Boston Society of Natural
History. Boston : I'ublished by the So-
ciety. Pp. 16, with Two Plates.

This monograph is intended to serve as
a guide to the general study of the struct-
ure of the Lcpidoplera. The particular
species is chosen as a type of the order well
adapted to the purpose, on account of its
large size, common occurrence, and wide
distribution, and partly because the anat-
omy of no species of Danaidw has yet been
studied.

Locke's Coxpuct of the Understasdisg.
Edited, with Introduction, Notes, etc.,
by Thomas Fowler, M. A. Oxford : The
Clarendon Press, Pp. 136. Price, 50
cents.

Although this fragment is not finished,
but was written and left only as a rough
draught of a chapter which the author in-
tended to complete and add to its essay, it
has been regarded, even in its crude shape,
as one of the most valuable aids to self-
culture. Professor Fowler has endeavored
to make it more generally useful by means
of added notes and suggestions, without



MiDDLETOWN SfriEXTIFIC ASSOCIATION'. OC-
CASIONAL Papers. No. 1. Annual Ad-
press OF THE President, Rev. Frederick
Gardner, D. D., January 18, 1881. Mid-
dletown, Connecticut. Pp. 19.

The address marks the completion of
the tenth year of the Association, the meet-
ings of which have been kept up all the
time with reasonable regularity. The Presi-
dent discusses the special subject of " The
Universality of the Laws of Heredity and
Variability."



Railroads and Telegraphs : Who shall
control Them ? By F. H. Giddings.
Springfield, Massachusetts: "The Manu-
facturer and Industrial Gazette." Pp. 12..
The author recognizes the wickedness of
monopolies and the abuses they engender,
but holds that the remedy is not to be
found in State possession or control of
railroads and telegraphs. Any close regu-
lation or supervision by the State would ag-
gravate the evils and increase the number
and power of rings. The people who use
the Unes should take the control into their
own hands by becoming stockholders and
attending to the management of them.

The Diet - Cure ; the Relations of "Food
AND Drink to Health, Disease, and
Cure. By T. L. Nichols, M. D. New
York : M. L. Holbrook k Co. Pp. 83.
Price, 50 cents.

This book teaches that pure food makes
pure blood, and pure blood builds up a
healthy body. The author believes that it
is needed, notwithstanding all that has been
written on the subject, because " there are
still people who eat and drink more than is
good for them, as well as what is bad for
them."

Modern Architectural Details : For
Dwellings and Cottages in Modern
Styles. New York: Bicknell & Com-
stock. To be completed in Ten Parts,
each containing Eight Plates. Price, ^\
for each part.

The purpose of this work is to present
new and original designs of dwellings at
moderate cost, in the Queen Anne, Eastlake,
Elizabethan, and other modernized styles,
exterior and interior details of houses,
stores, offices, etc., and designs of low-
priced-cottages. The drawings are furnished
by a considerable number of contributors,
so that variety is assured. The sixth num-
ber contains perspectives of two dwellings,
with the details carefully wrought out.

The Magazin-e of Art, April, 1881. Lon-
don, Paris, and New York : Cassell, Pet-
ter, Galpin & Co. Pp. 48. Price, 35
cents.

This number contains, besides special
papers, articles on '' Symbolism in Art,"
" Architectural Sculpture," and the " Ideal
in Ancient Painting."



LITERARY NOTICES.



419



How TO TELL THE PaRTS OF SpEECH ; AN
IXTRODUCTION TO EsGLISH GRAMMAR.

By the Rev. Edwin A. Abbott, D. D.
American edition, revised and enlarged,
by John G .L. McElroy, A. M. Boston :
Roberts Brother's. Pp. 14o. Price, 75
cents.

Dr. Abbott is also the author of other
works on the construction of the English
language, which, with this, have the com-
mon characteristics that, in them, the artifi-
cial rubbish that overloads nearly all Eng-
lish grammars is rejected, and the endeavor
is made to place the study of the language
on a basis of common - sense. They are
prepared under the conviction that it is the
business of a teacher to teach the boy not
how, to speak, but how to understand,- Eng-
lish, and how to see the reasons for the
anomalies in the language ; that the pupil
should first learn to perceive the function of
the word, and thence deduce its grammatical
quality, rather than to give first the gram-
matical definition, and afterward seek the
reason for it.

A Focrth St.\te of Matter. By Alexan-
der E. Olterbkidge, Jr. Philadelphia,
Pp. 11.

This is the substance of a lecture which
was delivered before the Franklin Institute,
February 17th last, when some of the experi-
ments of Professor Crookes were repeated
and his theory was explained with familiar
illustrations and a reference to the " vertex
itora theory" of Sir William Thomson.

RkPORT of the DiRECTOn OF THE DETROIT

Observatory of the University of
Michigan to the Board of Regents.
For the Period beginning October 1,
1879, and ending January 1, 1881. Ann
Arbor, Michigan : Published by the Re-
gents. Pp. 20.

In the astronomical department of the
t 'bservatory two comets were discovered, one
: which was new ; the other had been seen
I he evening before at Strasburg. The me-
t •orological observations were directed to
the study of the c'.imate of Ann Arbor, the
daily fluctuations of the meteorological ele-
ments, and the character of local storms.
As collated and summarized in the report,
lud compared with the general observations
of the Sijnal Service, they furnish facts of
much value.



Report of the Superintendent of the
United State.s Coast and Geodetic
Survey. Appendix No. 10, Meteoro-
logical Researches. By William Fer-
REL. Part II. On Cyclones, Torna-
does, and Water-Spouts. Washington:
Government Printing - Office. Pp. 95,
with Six Plates.

The theory of cyclones is wrought out in
the first chapter with great care and elabo-
ration. In the second chapter, the practi-
cal applications of the theory, as its opera-
tion is modified by the encounter with act-
ualities, are discussed, and the theoretic
results are compared with those of observa-
tion. The third chapter is devoted to the
phenomena of tornadoes, hail-storms, and
water-spouts.



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