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Our Trees in Winter. By John Robin-
son. From the Bulletin of the Essex
Institute. Vol. XII. Pp. 16.
This is the substance of a paper which
was read at the first winter field meeting of
the Essex Institute, at Chebacco Pond, held
in January last. It discusses the facidty
which many trees possess of adapting them-
selves to different climates ; the manner in
which trees escape injury from freezing
through the withdrawal of water fi'om their
tissues in winter; and the opportunities
which winter affords for the study of trees,
which are better for many purposes than
those given by summer.



Report of the Cruise of the United States
Revenue Steamer Corwin in the Arc-
tic Ocean. By Captain C. L. Hooper,
U. S. R. M. Washington : Government
Printing-office. Pp. 73, with Five Charts.

The Corwin left Oonalaska June 8, 1880,
and proceeded by way of Xunivak Island,
St. Lawrence Island, Kotzebue Sound, the
" ice-deposits " of Elephant Point, and the
coal-veins of Cape Lisburn, to Point Bar-
row, and thence to Herald Island and within
twenty-five miles of Cape Wrangel, whence
It returned. During the cruise, observations
were taken on the lands and the people, the
illicit trade of the coast was looked after,
and the Jeannette was inquired for. The
report contains fresh and valuable anthro-
1 pological notes, observations on natural his-
I tory, and " the ice and its habits," and



views of prominent points.



420



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MOXTHLY.



IsDCSTRiAL Conciliation and Arbitration
IN Nkw York, Ohio, and Pennsvltania.
By Joseph D. Weeks, A. M. From the
Twelfth Aanual Report of the Massa-
chusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor.
With Comments by Carroll D. Wright,
Chief. Boston. Pp. 75.
Mr. Weeks has furnished in this paper
a large amount of information from the ex-
perience of business establishments in his
o^vn and other States. Conciliation is the
arrival at a mutual understanding, in case
of diflBculties between employers and em-
ployed, either through their own discus-
sions or the intervention of friendly par-
tics, and is voluntary. It was first brought
into effect in the iron-works at Pittsburg,
in 1866, and has been continued, with only
such interruptions as were provided for in
the agreements and were consistent with
their terms, till the present time. Thence
it has been extended to establishments in
West Virginia and Ohio. Arbitration is
reference of the dispute to an umpire, whose
decision is intended to be binding. It
has been tried in the anthracite, Pitts-
burg, and Shenango coal-regions in Penn-
sylvania, and in the coal-mines of Ohio, and
has always so far failed. One instance of
its successful operation in this country is in
a large cigar-manufactory in this city, where
the relations between the proprietors and
their workmen appear to be established on
the most agreeable basis. The full history
of all these efforts is given in the pamphlet.

Observations on Jupiter. Presented to
the American Acaderav of Arts and
Sciences, March 9, 1881. By L. Trou-
velot. Pp. 22.

M. Trocvelot began in 1676 a series of
observations on the planets, for the purpose
of studying them at every point of their or-
bits. Five hundred and ninety-one obser-
vations were made on Jupiter during five
years, and not quite as many drawings were
taken. The planet showed signs of lively
commotion in 1876, when a spot was recog-
nized on a second observation only once.
During the following years the planet was
more quiet, the spots were more durable,
and one, the " great red spot," was persist-
ent for several months. The periods of rota-
tion of the planet, as deduced from observa-
tions of the spots, exhibit variations which
appear to be dependent upon their proper



motion. The great spot gives a period of
between 9h. 55m. SS'Sls. and 9h. 55m.
43*96s. M. Trouvelot thinks this is as near
to the actual period as we are ever likely to
arrive.



Working Drawings, and how to tse
Them. By Lewis M. IIacpt, Professor
of Civil Engineering in the University
of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia : Joseph
M. Stoddard & Co. Pp. 55, with Nine
Charts of Figures.

By the usual teaching of drawing, pupils
learn to observe and copy from models,
and to construct perspectives "by rule-of-
thumb," but not, the author believes, except
in the case of patterns for tapestry, carv-
ings, and similar applications, to invent
designs from which constructions can be
made. For this purpose the designer should
be able, in order that the object he con-
ceives may be constructed from the draw-
ing, to dissect it and so to project its several

[ parts on the plane of the paper, that the ar-

I tisan shall know just where to find them, and
what they represent. The present work is

j designed as an introduction to this branch

I of the studv.



Imaginary Quantities : Their Geometrical
Interpretation. Translated from the
French of M. R. Argand. By Professor
A. S. IIardy. New York : D. Van Nos-
trand. Pp. 135. Price, 50 cents.
M. Argand was the first who undertook
(in 1806) to suggest the true theory of the
so-called imaginary quantities of mathemat-
ics. He was followed, twenty-five years
afterward, by Gauss, and later by other au-
thors who have given the subject a fuller
development. The translation of his essay
is followed in the present volume by notes
on the geometrical interpretation of imagi-
nary quantities by Professor Hardy.

The Ent)0wment of SciENTinc Research.
From the Annual Address of the Presi-
dent of the California Academy of Sci-
ences, Professor George Davidson, A.
M., Ph. D. Pp. 8.

This is a strong presentation of the
proofs that science is economically profita-
ble, and of the arguments in favor of its
endowment with means to prosecute inves-
tigations.



LITERARY NOTICES.



421



AiiSTKACT OF Transactions of the Anthro-
pological Society of Washington, D.
C, with the Annual Address of the
President, for the First Year, ending Jan-
uary, 1880, and for the Second Year,
ending January 18, 1881. Prepared by
J. W. Powell, Washington. Pp. 150.

The President's address reviews the
work of the Society during two years, and
describes generally the papers that were
read, according to the particular department
of anthropological science to which they
severally relate. The papers for the most
part concern American subjects, and are
founded on original observations. The
summaries contain much that endows the
subject with interest and is adapted to stim-
ulate continued investigations.

Thoughts on Agricultcral Editcation.
By E. Lewis Sturtevant, M. D., South
Framingham, Massachusetts. Pp. 19.

Dr. Sturtevant explains in an address
the purpose and scheme of an agricultural
college. In the discussion following the
address, a minute of which is published
with it, the teaching of agriculture in the
common schools and the relative importance
to farmers of instruction in advanced arith-
metic and agricultural chemistry are con-
sidered.



The Xatcre of Vibration in Extended
Media and the Polarization of Sound.
By S. W. Robinson, Professor of Phys-
ics aiid Mathematics, Ohio State Univer-
sity.

This is mainly an argument, based upon
experiments made by the author in effecting
the polarization of sound, to show that the
phenomena of polarization of light, here-
tofore supposed to be due to transversal
vibrations, can be explained on the basis of
longitudinal vibrations alone. This done,
no reason is left for assuming that the
waves of light differ in character from other
waves which are the result of longitudinal
vibrations. The experiments and their re-
sults are described in detai 1.



illSTORT OF THE CHRISTIAN ReLIOION TO THE

Year 200. By Charles B. Waite, A.
M. Chicago : C. V. Waite & Co. Pp.
455. Pric^c, 82.50.

This work is the result of years of labo-
rious study, in which the author professes to



have consulted all the writings of the first
two centuries, and the works of the fathers of
the Church, " in the interest of no church,
creed, or dogma," but for his own satisfac-
tion. In it he discusses the origin and his-
tory of all the gospels, those which are
called apocryphal, forty in number, as well
as those which have become canonical, and
has compared three of the most famous of
the apocrj-phal gospels in parallel pas-
sages with the canonical records. He adds
sketches of nearly a hundred Christian writ-
ers of the first two centuries, with notices
of their works, and a history of Christian
doctrine for the same period, and declares
his conclusions as to what is genuine.

A Practical Tteatise on Nervous Ex-
haustion (Neurosthenia); its Symp-
toms, Nature, Sequences, Treatment.
By George M. Beard, M. D. Second
and revised edition. New York: Wil-
liam Wood & Co. 1880. Pp.198. Price,
81.75.

Nervous exhaustion, according to Dr.
Beard, is more common in this country than
any other form of nervous disease, and, with
other forms toward which it tends, constitutes
a family of functional disorders that are of
comparatively recent development, and that
especially abound in the northern and east-
em part of the United States. The author
gives, in this volume, the result of the study
and experience of his entire professional
life on the subject. He describes the symp-
toms of the disease, showing their relations
and interdependence, distinguishing them
from the often closely resembling symptoms
of other diseases, and discusses the complex
developments and manifestations of the mal-
ady, its pathology, treatment, and hygiene.
The consideration of the causes of the dis-
order is left for another volume.



PUBLICATIOXS RECEIVED.

On Philidelphite. By Henry Carvill Lewis.
Reprinted Trom the '•Proceeding of the Acad-
eniv of Natural Sciences," of Philadelphia.
1879. Pp. 16.

Extinct Cafe of X 1. 1S80. Pp.

2.5. Some New Ba; :■ ■ 'lia from tlio

Permian Beds of '! ~1. pp. 45.

Thi' Systematic Arr;i:,_ •... .;. ;....■ Order Peris-

Bodactyla. 1^81. Pp. -H'l. .Sccoiul Contribution
to the ^isto^^' of the Vertebratn of the Permian
Formation of Texas. 1881. Figiuea. By Pro-
fessor E. D. Cope.

The Bolometer. By Professor S. P. Langley.



422



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



Read before and published by the American
Metrological Society. I^ew YorK. 1881. Pp. 7.
Illustrated.

GeoloL'ical Survev of Alabama. By Enarene
A.Smith, Ph. D. Montgomery, Alabama. 18S1.
Pp. 158, with Maps.

Politico-Social Functions. By Lester F.
Ward. lieprint from •* Penu MouthJy." 1881.
Pp. 16.

A Collector's Notes on the Breeding of a
Few Weeteru Birds. By J. HoUerhoff. 1S81.
Pp. 12.

The Climate, Soils, Timber, etc., of Kentucky
contrasted with those of the Northeast. By
Jolui R. Proctor. Frankfort, Kentucky. 1S81.
Pp. 29.

Notes on North American Microgasters. By
C V. Riley, Ph. L>. t rom the "'i raueactions
of the St. Louis Academy of Sciences.' 1881.
Pp. SO.

Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Direc-
tors of the Zoological Soci.ty of Puiladelphiu.
1861. Pp.32.

Mya Arenaria in San Francisco Bay. By
Robert E. C. Siearns. Reprint from "The
American Naturalist." 1881. Pp. 5.

The Laiida Alphabet. A Spanish Fabrication.
188(1. Pp. a3. Mexican Paper, an Article of
rribute. Irs Manufacture, Varieties, and Uses.
1^1. Pp. 26. By Philipp J. J. Valentini, Ph. D.
W orcester, Massachusetts.

Inductive Metrology. Bv W. J. McGee.
Reprint from " The ""American Antiquariau."
1881. Pp.8.

Nostrums in their Relation to the Public
Health. By Albert B. Prescott, M. D., F. C. 8.
Reprint from "The Physician and Surgeon,"
Ajin Arbor. Michigan. 1881. Pp.12.

Principal Characters of American Jurassic
Dinosaurs. By Pro(p«8or O. C. Marsh. Part V,
with Seven Plites. Reprint from the "Ameri-
can Journal of Science." 1881. Pp. 7.

Antiquities of New Mexico and Arizona. By
W. J. Hoffman, M. D. Davenport Academy of
Natural Sciences. 1S81. Pp. 18. Four Plates.

Gill Nets in the Cod-Fisherv, etc. By Cap-
tain J. W. Collins. Bulletin U. S. Fish Com-
missioner. 1881. Pp. 17. Twelve Plates.

The Total Solar Eclipse of July 29, 1878. Ob-
servations at Pike's Peak, Colorado. Report of
Professor S. P. Langley. Pp. 14. with Plate.

Anthropolcry: an Introduction to the Study
of Man and Civilization. Bv E:iward B. Tvlor,
D. C. L., F. R. 8. With 'lllu<trations. New
York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 448.

English Philosophers. David Harllev and
James Mill. By (.i. 8. Bower, M. A. New
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 250. |1.25.

Osteology of Speotvto Cunicularia, Yar. Hv-
poiTffia. and of Eremophila Alpestris. By E. W.
Shufeldt, First-Lieutenant and Assistant Sur-
geon, .U. S. Navy. Washington, D. C. Pp. 60,
with Four Plates.

Literary Styl*',and other Essays. By William
T^fathews.'LL. D.. author of -Getting on in the
World." etc. Chicago : S. C. Griggs & Co. Pp.
345. $1.50.

Text-Book of ExDcrimental Organic Chem-
istrv for Students. BvH. Chapman Jones. New
York : D. Van Nostrand. Pp. 145.

The Wilderness-Cure. By Marc Cook, author
of "Camp Lou." New York: William Wood &
Co. Pp. 153.

The FisTire of the Earth. An Introduction
to Geodesy. By Mansfield Merriman. Professor
of Civil Etigineerin^ in Lehigh Cniversitv. New
York : John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 88. $1.50.

Induction Coils : how made and how nsed.
New York: D. Van Nostrand. Pp. 12-3. .50
cents.



I How a Person threatened or afflicted with
' Bright's Disease ouslit to live. By Joseph F.
Edwards, M. D. Philadelphia : Presley Blakis-
ton. Pp. 87. 75 cents.

The Library. By Andrew Lang. With a
Chapter on Modern English Books, by Austin
Dobson. Loudon: Macmillan & Co. I'p. 184.
$1.25.

Anniversary Memoirs of the Boston Society
of Natural History, 1830-1680. Boston: Pub-
lished by the Society 1880.

Kant and his English Critics. By John Wat-
son, M. A., LL. D. New York : Macmillan &
Co. 1881. Pp.402. $4.00.

A Memorial of Joseph Henry. Published by
Order of Congress. M ashington : Governmeiit
Printing-Office. 1880. Pp. 5&.

Life of Voltaire. By James Part on. Boston:
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1881. 2 vols. Pp.
639 and 653. Per vol.. |3.

Demosthenes: with Extracts from his Ora-
tions, and a Critical DiscussioK of the Trial on
the Crown. By L. Bredif. Translated by M. J.
Macmahon, A. M. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co.
1881. Pp.510. %X

Illustrations of the Earth's Surface-Glaciers.
By Nathaniel Southgate Shaler ana M'illium
Morris Davis. Boston : James R. Osgood & Co.
1881. Folio, pp. 196. Twenty-live Mates, with
descriptions. $10.



POPULAR MISCELLANY.

Meetin? of the Imeriean Association. —

The thirtieth meeting of the American As-
sociation for the Advancement of Science
will be held in Cincinnati, Ohio, beginning
August 17th. A large and efficient local
committee is making all possible arrange-
ments for the success of the meeting, in
order that it may be the largest and most
important scientific meeting ever held in
the West. Professor G. J. Brush, of New
Haven, Connecticut, is President for the
year, with Professor A. M. Mayer, of Ilo-
boken. New Jersey, as Yice-President of
Section A. The vice-presidencj of Section
B is vacant, in consequence of the resigna-
tion of Dr. Engelmann, who is in Europe.
The chairmen of the sub-sections are: of
Chemistry, W. R. Nichols, of Boston ; of
Microscopy, A. B. Hcrvey, of Taunton, Mas-
sachusetts ; of Anthropology, Garrick Mal-
lory, of Washington, D. C. ; of Entomology,
John G. Morris, of Baltimore, Maryland.
The changes in the constitution of the Asso-
ciation which were proposed at the Boston
meeting will be considered at this meeting.
They arc intended to enlarge the scope of the
Association, and cfPect a reorganization of
the sections, as follows : Section A, Physics ;
B, Astronomy and Pure Mathematics ; C,
Chemistry and its applications ; D, Mcchani-



P OP ULAR MISCELLAXY



423



cal Science ; E, Geology and Geography ;
F, Diology ; G, Anthropology ; II, Economic
Science and Statistics ; I, a permanent sub-
section of Microscopy. The contemplated
excursions include one by the Anthropologi-
cal Section to " Fort Ancient." A loan ex-
hibition of scientific apparatus, appliances,
and collections, will be held, in connection
with the meeting, by the department of
Science and Arts of the Ohio Mechanics' In-
stitute.

Tho Froneh li^sociation at Algiers. —

The French Association for the Advancement
of Science met at Algiers, April 14th, and was
attended by about fifteen hundred persons,
among whom a large proportion of medical
men was observed. The opening address
was by the President, M. Chauveau, Pro-
fessor of Physiology in the Lyons Veteri-
nary College, and related principally to the
germ theory and Pasteur's theory of fer-
mentation. Several papers on local subjects,
chiefly relatmg to the geology, geography,
and demography of Algeria, were read in the
general Association, among the results of the
presentation of which were the diffusion of
much information concerning the colony, and
the acquisition of matter which will tend to
help its development. One of the most in-
teresting of these papers was by Colonel
I'layfair, the British consul-general, one of
the only two Europeans who have visited
their country, on the Kroumirs. Among
the papers read in the sections, tho.se in
the medical and agronomical sections pre-
dominated over all the others. Most of the
papers in the mathematical section related
to subjects of pure geometry, and several
of them were by foreign mathematicians.
M. Trepied brought forward a project for
the construction of an observatory at Al-
giers. The most important papers in the
-cction of civil enppneering were by Colonel
i'ourchault, on defensive villages, and by
M. Tremaux, on irrigation. Accounts of the
icad and iron mines of Tunis, and the cop-
lier-mines of the Petit Kabylie, were given
ill the geological section. Meteorology was
well cared for with papers on the meteo-
rology of Asia and of the Sahara, on meteor-
ological instruments, and other related sub-
jects. Among the anthropological papers,
which were numerous, were those on the



Kabyles, the Tziganes, the Romans in .Vf-
rica, the Berber migration, the civil, politi-
cal, and rehgious institutions of the Jews,
and some craniological studies; a prehis-
toric map of the north of Africa was dis-
cussed in this section. The most interest-
ing medical papers were on the epidemics
of Algiers, acclimatization, and on the cli-
mate of Algiers as regards its influence on
consumptive patients. A considerable pro-
portion of the agronomical papei-s also bore
on Algerian interests. Botany, zoology, and
zootechny were inadequately represented.
The new section of pedagogy was estab-
lished under the presidency of M. Godard, of
the Ecole Monge, in Paris. The working
sessions of the Association were shortened
in order to give time for the entertain-
ments, some of which were peculiar to the
country, and the excursions — to the borders
of Tunis, to the country of the Kabyles, to
the Sahara, to the boundaries of Morocco,
and to interesting spots in the province.
Each member of the meeting was presented
with a work of scientific, historical, and
economical notices of Algiers and ^Vfrica ;
and, whatever else the conference may have
done, it has helped to add immensely to the
world's knowledge of Northern Africa.

The association has now had a success-
ful career of ten years, and has done some
good work. The topics of which it takes
cognizance are divided into the four groups
of mathematical, physical and chemical,
natural and economic sciences, and are con-
sidered in sixteen sections.

Eereditary Color-Blindness. — A corre-
spondent has furnished us an account of
some remarkable instances of hereditary
color-blindness. "I recently heard," she
writes, " a very intelligent boy of fourteen
speak in this manner: 'Father, you know
that green or brown mare of Abe's? ' The
same lad, speaking of a colored person —
'What color?' interrupted a captious lis-
tener. 'About that color,' answered the
boy, pointing to a jar of pickled cucumbers.

The lad, whom I call D , belongs to a

family who have for several generations been
troubled with color-blindness. Ilis grand-
father was unable to distinguish red, green,
and brown, and confounded blue and pink,
but always named yellow aright." The



424



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTH LY.



same ancestor was once surprised by hear-
ing some one speak of his father's sleigh as
being green on the outside and red on the
inside, for it had always appeared to him
to be of the same color on both sides. Lie
was also heard to remark that he could see
no change in the color of the maple-leaves,
which, as we all know, turn from their sum-
mer gieen to red, and then to brown. This
form of color-blindness is particularly in-
convenient to persons who wish to pick
cherries or strawberries, for they have only
the forms to guide them, without any help
from the color. One of the brothers of the
grandfather and two of his first-cousins had
the same defect, and a nephew in the next
generation. The youth spoken of in the
beginning of this notice is the first in the
present generation who has manifested it.
Generally the affection appears to have been
transmitted through the female line of the
family, but to sons, and not to daughters.
Exceptions to this rule are noticed in the
case of a great-uncle of the youth's mother,
who inlierited it from his father and trans-
mitted it to his four sons ; and of a fe-
male relative, through whom it was trans-
mitted to two daughters. By means of
the instances related, the course of the af-
fection is traced through five generations.

Why Prairies are Treeless. — Mr. Thomas
Meehan believes that we have nearly reached
the solution of the question of the cause of
the absence of trees from the prairies. It
is not climatic, for timber-belts flourish in
all the prairie regions. It is not in condi-
tions of soil, for the prairie soil is the most
favorable to the germination of seeds, of
trees as well as of other plants, and arti-
ficial plantations are remarkably successful
wherever they are made. The real cause is
probably to be found in the annual fires
which have swept over the prairies from
time immemorial, killing the young trees
before they can grow large enough to resist
the heat. The seeds of the annual plants
of the prairie vegetation, maturing every
year, are shed and find protection before
the fires come ; the young trees, on the
other hand, bear no seed, and can leave
no resource for a succession after they arc
burned. This theory is supported by the
fact that an abundant growth of trees has



set in wherever the fires have been stopped.
The fires were made by the aborigines for
centuries before the white men came, pos-
sibly for the express purpose, Mr. Meehan
suggests, of preventing the growth of trees
and preserving the bufl"alo-pastures. The
question remains how the prairies first came
to be naked. They probably formed the
bottoms of the lakes and marshes that were
left after the retreat of the glaciers, and
continued wet after the highlands were cov-
ered with trees. Man followed the glaciers
so closely that he anticipated the trees on
these spots, and, having learned already in
southern latitudes the value of burnings,
began them before the trees gained a foot-
hold.

Darwin's Views on Vivisection.— The

following is Mr. Darwin's reply to a letter
from Professor Holmgren, of Upsala, re-
questing his views on the right to make
experiments on living animals in the interest
of science:

DowK, Beckenham, April 14, 1881.
Deab Sib : In answer to your courteous let-
ter of April 7th, I have no objection to express
my opinion with respect to the right of experi-
nicnlins on living animals. I use this latter
expression as more correct and comprehensive

! than that of vivisection. You are at lil)erty to
make any use of this letter which you may think
fit, but if published I should wish the whole to
appear. I have all my life been a strong advo-
cate for humanity to animals, and have doue
what I could in my writings to enforce this
duty. Several years ago, when the agitation
against physiologists commenced in England, it

I was assorted that iuhumanily was here prac-

j ticed, and useless 8uflFi.-ring caused to animals;

I and I was led to think that it might be advisable
to have an act of Parliament on the subject. I
then took an active part in trying to get a hill
passed, such as would have removed all just
cause Of complaint, and at the same time have



Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 52 of 110)