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error may discover that these two classes
arc at bottom very similar."

It will be obvious that this is not a
technical work, but one of wide popular in-
terest, in the principles and results of which
every one is concerned. The illusions of
perception of the senses and of dreams are
first considered, and then the author passes
to the illusions of introspection, errors of
insight, illusions of memory, and illusions of
belief. The work is a noteworthy contribu-
tion to the original progress of thought, and
may be relied upon as representing the
present state of knowledge on the important
subject to which it is devoted.



LlTERAKT StTLK AXD OTHER EsSATS. By

William Mathews, LL. D. Chicago:

S. C. Griggs & Co. Pp. 345. Price,

$1.50.

A MOST readable volume, full of common
sense and practical wisdom on a great num-
ber of important and interesting subjects.
The author is evidently an omnivorous and
careful reader, and has well cultivated the
art of turning his varied studies to good
literary account. His pages are loaded, we



might almost say overloaded, with refer-
ences to the best writers, and quotations
of their trenchant and suggestive sayings.
The first paper, on *' Literary Style," from
which the volume takes its name, is not a
scientific or philosophical analysis of the
subject, but is a formidable array of argu-
ments, illustrations, and authorities to prove
that literary form is the main thing in the
art of authorship. Dr. Mathews shows that,
in literature, ideas, facts, and the substance
of thought go for next to nothing, while the
style of verbal dress determines the place
and permanence of literary productions.
The following passage on Carlyle will ex-
emplify the fundamental idea of the essay,
and illustrate also the author's lively and
earnest style of discussion :

Perhaps no other writer of the day has
more powerfully influenced the Enirli^h-speak-
ing race than Carlyle. Beyond all other living
men he has, in certain important respects,
shaped and colored the thouf;ht of bia time. As
an historian, he may be almost said to have revo-
lutionized the French Revolnlion, so different is
the picture which otlier writers have given us
from that which blazes upon us under the lurid
torch-light of his genius. To those who have
read his great prose epic, it will be henceforth
impossible to remember the scenes he has de-
scribed through any other medium. As Hel-
vellyn and Skiddaw are seen now only through
the glamour of Wordsworth's genius— as Jura
and Wont Blanc are transfigured, even to the
tourist, by the magic of Byron and Coleridge
—80 to Carlyle's readers Danton and Robes-
pierre, Mirabcau and Tinville, will be for ever
what he has painted them. No other writer
equals the great Scotchman in the Rembrandt-
like lights and shadows of his style. Wliile, as
Mr. McCarthy says, he is endowed with a marvel-
ous power of depicting stormy scenes and rug-
ged, daring natures, yet. at limes, strange, wild,
piercing notes of the pathetic are heard through
his fierce bursts of eloquence like the wail of a
clarion thrilling beneath the blasts of a storm.
His pages abound in pictures of human misery
sadder than poet ever drew, more vivid and
startling than artist ever painted. In his con-
flict with shams and quackeries he has dealt
yeomen's blows, and made the bankrupt insti-
tutions of England ring with their own hollow-
ness. What is the secret of his power? Is it
the absolute nmelhj of his thoughts? In no
great writer of equal power shall we find such
an absolute dearth of new ideas. The gospel
of noble manhood, which he so passionately
preacher, is as old as Solomon. Its cardinal
ideas have been echoed and reechoed through
the ages till they have become the stalest of
truisms. That brains are the measure of worth ;
that duty, without reward, is the end of hfe ;



LITER A R Y N TICES.



561



that •' work is worship " ; tiiat a quack is a False-
hood incarnate; that on a lie nothiug can be
built ; that the victim of wrong suffers less than
the wrong-doer; that man has a soul that cannot
be satisfied with meats or drinks, fine palaces
and millions of money, or stars and ribbons—
this is the one ginyle peal of bells upon which
the seer of Chelsea has rung a succession of
changes, with hardly a note of variation, for over
half a century. Anything more musty or som-
niferous than these utterances, so far as their
substance is concerned, can hardly be found
outside of Blair's sermons. Coming from a
common writer, they would induce a sleepiness
which neither " poppy, mandragora, nor all the
drowsy sirups of this world " could rival in pro-
ducing. But preached in the strong, rugged
words and with the tremendous emphasis of Car-
lyle : enforced by sensational contrasts and epic
interrogations ; made vivid by personification,
apostrophe, hyperbole, and enlivened by picto-
rial illustration— these old saws, which are really
the essence of all morality, instead of making
ns yawn, startle us like original and novel fan-
cies.

The volume comprises upward of twenty
essays, among which " The Duty of Praise,"
" A Plea for the Erring," " Hot-house Edu-
cation," " The Art of Listening," and '• Office-
Seeking," are especially noteworthy.



The Bolometer and Radiant Energy. By
Professor S. P. Langley. Reprinted
from the " Proceedings of the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences." Cam-
bridge : University Press. Pp. 16.

The Bolometer. By Professor S. P. Lang-
ley, Allegheny Observatory, Pennsylva-
nia. Read before the American Metro-
logical Society, December, 1880. New
York : Published by the Society. Pp. 7.

Recognizing that the prism does not
give the true values for the heat of the spec-
trum, and that it displaces the maxi'mum
ordinate of the heat curve, the author has
constructed and used a new apparatus — the
" Bolometer," or " Actinic Balance," for the
purpose of gaining a more actual value of
the heat, the description of which and its
operation is the chief purpose of these pa-
pers. With this instrument he has reached
the interesting and unexpected conclusion
that " the great proportion of all solar heat
received at the earth's surface does not ap-
parently lie in the non-luminous parts of
the spectrum. Not only is the heat-maxi-
mum in the luminous part, but the total
sum of non-luminous heat (so far at least as
our measures extend) is relatively small."
VOL. XIX. — 36



Second German Book after the Natural
OR Pestalozzian Method for Schools
AND Home Lnstrcction. By James H.
W0R.MAN, A. M., author of a Series for
Modern Languages, etc., and Professor in
the Adelphi Academy, Biooklj-n, New
York. New York and Chicago: A. S.
Barnes & Co. Pp. 84. Price, 40 cents.

The plan of the course of which this
volume is a part has been developed during
the practice of teaching German. Its gen-
eral features are exclusive use of the Ger-
man language without the help of the learn-
er's vernacular; attention to grammatical
and lexical details ; the deduction of the
rules from the examples ; teaching by con-
trast and association ; and graded lessons
made up of conversations on familiar topics,
so arranged as to supply a stock of words
for daily use in common affairs.

Report on Foreign Life-saving Appara-
tcs. By Lieutenant D. A. Lyle, Ord-
nance Department, U. S. A. Washing-
ton: Government Priuting-Office. Pp.48,
with Nineteen Plates.
Several lots of foreign life-saving rock-
ets were sent to Sandy Hook, New Jersey, in
the spring of 1879, for examination and
trial, under the inspection of the author.
They were stored for several months under
ordinary conditions of exposure, and then
inspected and experimented with. The re-
port describes the experiments and the re-
sults obtained with the Russian, German,
English, and Hooper apparatus.

Geological Scrvey of Alabama: Report
OF Progress for 1879 and 1880. By
Ecgene a. Smith, Ph. D., State Geolo-
gist. Montgomery, Alabama : Allretl &
Beers, State Printers. Pp. 158, with
Maps.

The principal feature of the operations
was the survey of the Black Warrior River
and Warrior Coal Field, from Tuscaloosa to
Sipscy Fork, conducted with a view partly
to estimate the resources of the country,
partly to ascertain the nature and extent of
the obstructions to navigation, and the cost
of removing or overcoming thcni. A report,
by Henry McCallcy, on the counties lying
north of the Tennessee River is also in-
cluded. Particular reports, with analysis,
are given of fifty mines or outcrops of coal
in the Warrior Field.



562



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



American Nervousness, its Causes and
Consequences. A Supplement to Ner-
vous Exhaustion (Neurasthenia). By
George M. Beard, A. 51., M. D. New
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 352.
Price, $1.50,

The author believes that nervousness —
" strictly, deficiency or lack of nerve-force "
— is a modern affection, and that it is mani-
fested in the United States through a variety
of symptoms that are peculiar in many re-
.spccts to the countr)', and remarkable. He
ascribes its great development and rapid
increase chiefly and primarily to modem
civilization, which is different from the an-
cient civilization by a number of character-
istics which breed mental activity and anx-
iety about time-tables, and excitements about
matters of politics and business, for which
the ancients had only a limited concern. It
is aided by secondarj' and tertiary causes
which might be comparatively unimportant
in themselves alone, but which, combined
with each other and with the chief cause,
exert each its own kind and degree of effect.
The symptoms by which this nervousness is
manifested, numerous as they are, and un-
pleasantly as they often exhibit themselves,
do not all betoken ill to the country ; for
brain-workers have in all ages been long-
lived, longevity increases apace with ner-
vousness; good taste, the beauty of women,
the faculty of humor, the eloquence of ora-
tory, increase with it ; the evil of it tends,
within certain limits, to correct itself; " and
the physical future of the American people,"
says the author, " has a bright as well as a
dark side ; increasing wealth will bring in-
creasing calm and repose ; the friction of
nervousness shall be diminished by various
inventions; social customs shall be modi-
fied, and as a consequence strength and
vigor shall be developed at the same time
with, and by the side of, debility and ner-



The Library. By Andrew Lang. With a
Chapter on Modem English Illustrated
Books, by Austin Dobson. London:
Macmillan & Co. Pp.184. Price, $1.25.

The purpose of this work is explained
in its own pages thus : " There are, in every
period of taste, books which, apart from
their literary value, all collectors admit to
possess, if not for themselves, then for



others of the brotherhood, a peculiar pre-
ciousness. These books arc esteemed for
curiosity, for beauty of type, paper, binding,
and illustrations, for some connection they
may have with famous people of the past,
or for their rarity. It is about these books,
the method of preserving them, their ene-
mies, the places in which to hunt for them,
that the following pages are to treat."



The Microscope and its Relation to Med-
icine and Pharmacy. Edited and pub-
lished by Charles II. Stowell, M. D.,
Assistant Professor of Physiology dnd
Histology, University of Michigan, and
Louisa Keed Stowell, M. S., Assistant
in Microscopical Botany, University of
Michigan. An Illustrated Bimonthly
Journal, Vol. I, No. 1. Ann Arbor,
Jlichigan. Detroit: George S. Davis.
Pp. 32. Price, $1 per year.

While, in other medical journals that
give attention to microscopy, microscopic
topics are made secondary to medical ones,
the conductors of this journal intend to give
the most prominence to those subjects es-
pecially related to the microscope. The
present number contains four original arti-
cles in the special department of the maga-
zine, and presents matters of general interest
to physicians and pharmacists, under the
heading of " Editorial Abstracts."



Principal Characters of American Juras-
sic Dinosaurs. By Professor 0, C.
Marsh. Pp. 7, with Seven Plates.
The discovery of a pearly complete skel-
eton of Brontosaurus has added many new
points to our knowledge of the gioup of
Dbwsauria, some of which are given in the
present paper. A second species, equally
gigantic in size, has since been found, and
two new genera from the same formation,
all of which are noticed, and an outline of
classification of the group is proposed.

Information for Emigrants. The Climate,
Soils, Timbers, etc, of Kentucky, con-
trasted with those of the Northwest.
By John R. Procter. Frankfort, Kcn-
tncky : Kentucky Geological Survey and
Bureau of Immigration. Pp. 29.
The Bureau of Immigration has already
is.'^ued several publications setting forth the
resources of Kentucky. Persons interested
in the settlement of the Northwest have pub-



LITER A R Y NO TICES.



563



lished statements of the great advantages
which that section offers to immigrants.
The present tract is designed to exhibit the
disadvantages of the Northwest, so as to
prevent attention being turned away too
much from Kentucky. The labor was not
necessary. The advantages of Kentucky are
too real and too well known to need exal-
tation through the depreciation of those of
other parts of the Union.

iNDircTiVE Metrology. By W. J. McGee.

Pp.8.

Following up the suggestions of Mr,
Petrie's English work on the " Recovery of
Ancient Measures from the Monuments,"
the author insists on the necessity of more
numerous and accurate measurements of the
work§ of our American prehistoric races.
The prevalent belief that the mound-build-
ers used no unit of linear measure is con-
tradicted by the measurements given by
Messrs. Squier and Davis, by Mr. Petrie's
deductions from them, and by the author's
investigations. Computations made on these
three bases nearly agree in giving a unit
corresponding to 2*140 feet or 25"68 inches,
with a possible error of •0384.

Nostrums in their Relations to the Pub-
lic Health. By Albert B. Prescott,
M. D., F. C. S., Professor of Applied
Chemistry in the University of Michigan.
Pp. 12.

Professor Prescott relates the results
of the analyses made by himself and others
of a considerable number of nostrums, which
show that none of them contain anything
new or rare, though many of them pretend
to ; that while many of them contain only j
what is at the best worthless, some contain
substances that arc actively injurious ; that
the composition of some is uncertain be-
cause it is often changed at the fancy of the
proprietor ; and that as a rule nostrums are
better not used.

Ox Philarelphite (Sr. Nov.). By IIenry

Carvill Lewis. Pp. 16.

This paper is a description of a new
mineral belonging to the vermicular group
of hydrous silicates, occurring disseminated
and in scales, and in seams in the homblen-
dic gneiss of parts of Philadelphia, which
cxliibitrf sonu' reniaikabU- iiropciiic.-'



On the Geographical Distribution of the
Indigenous Plants of Europe and the
Northeast United States. By Joseph
F. James. Cincinnati, Ohio. Pp. 17.
The author believes that the species of
plants common to Europe and America have
had a common origin in the land about the
north pole, and that they have migrated
southward as the cold has increased in the
Arctic regions; that on account of the
present arrangement of isothermals some
species reach in Europe a latitude higher by
twenty degrees than that in which they are
found in America; that the chain of the
Roeky Mountains and the Andes furnishes
or has furnished a highway for the dis-
persion of some Arctic forms over the
southern hemisphere ; and that the greater
similarity between the floras of Europe,
Northeast Asia, and Eastern America than
between those of Asia and the American
Pacific coast may be accounted for by ref-
erence to peculiarities of climatic conditions.

Annual Report of the Operations of
THE United States Life-saving Ser-
vice FOR THE Fiscal Year ending
June 30, 1880. Washington: Govern-
ment Printing-office. Pp. 391. With
Plates.

The record of the year covered by this
report surpasses any previously made by
the establishment. The service was distrib-
uted among 1*79 stations, of which 139
were on the Atlantic, 34 on the Lakes, and
6 on the Pacific. Three hundred disasters
occurred within the scope of its operations,
iir periling property to the value of 83,811,-
708, and the lives of 1,989 persons. Nine-
teen hundred and eighty of the men were
saved, only nine being lost, and $2,619,807
worth of property were secured. The re-
port gives the details of the operations and
of the disasters.

The School of Life. By William Rounse-
viLLE Alger. Boston: Roberts Broth-
ers. Pp. 205. Price, $1.
An essay, the scope of which is fairly
described by the general subject of the title.
It relates principally to the discipline and
culture which we receive from our presence
in the world and its action upon us, the use
we should make of the opportunities it af-
fords, and the methods by which we may
attiiiu tlu! hcst-rouuded manhood.



564



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



Rapid BREATniXG as a Pain-Obtcxder in-
Minor Surgery, Obstetrics, and the
General Practice of Medicine and of
Dentistry. Bv W. G. A. Bonwill,
D. D. S. Pp. 16.

The author describes some experiments
by which he has been led to assert that he
can produce, from rapidly breathing common
air, a similar effect to that from ether, chlo-
roform, and nitrous oxide gas, in their pri-
mary stages, and can thus render patients
suflScicntly insensible to acute pain from
any operation where the time consumed is
not over twenty or thirty seconds. While
the special senses are in partial action, the
sense of pain is obtunded, and in many cases
completely annulled, consciousness and gen-
eral sensibility being preserved. lie has
used his method satisfactorily in his dental
practice for four years, and refers to Dr.
Hewson as having used it in obstetrics for
three years.

Gill-Xets in the Codfishery : A Descrip-
tion of the Norwegian Cod-Nets, with
Directions for their Use, and a History of
their Introduction into the United States.
By Captain J. W. Collins. Bulletin,
U. S. Fish Commission, I. 1881. Pp.
17, with Nine Plates.
The Fish Commission, believing the gill-
nets to be a valuable fishing apparatus, has
exerted itself to have them introduced and
generally used in the United States. The
present pamphlet is a part of its effort. The
title furnishes a sufficient index to its read-
ing contents. The plates exhibit the con-
struction and method of setting and using
the nets, to the minutest detail.

Annual Report of the Chief-Engineer
OF THE Water Depaktmext of the
City of Philadelphia for the Year

1880. Presented to Councils, May 5,

1881. Philadelphia: John D. Avil &
Co. Pp. 128.

A noteworthy feature of this report is
that it seems to show that the water-power
of the Schuylkill has been highly overrated,
and has not half the value at which it has
been estimated ; hence attention should be
diverted from water-power and turned to
steam-power as a means of propelling the
machinery by which a steady supply of
water is to be secured from such works as
those on which Philadelphia depends.



' Antiquities of New Mexico and Arizona.

! By W. J. Hoffman, M. D., U. S. A.
Davenport, Iowa : Academy of Natural
Sciences. Pp. 20, with Five Plates.

This monogram gives a tolerably full
and very satisfactory description of the sit-
uation, construction, and present condition
of the so-called ancient Pueblos, w ith notices
of the potteries and other relics found in
them, and some measurements of skulls.
The figures in the plates are representations
of numbered specimens in the National Mu-
seum.

Political Eloquence in Greece: Demos-
thenes. With Extracts from his Ora-
tions, and a Critical Discussion of the
"Trial of the Crown." By L. Bredif.
Translated bv M. J. :MacMahon, A. M.
Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co. Pp. 510.
Price, $3.

A series of essays on the life, surround-
ings, character, gifts, and public services
of Demosthenes, and the general subject of
"political eloquence in Greece." An analy-
sis is given of the principal elements and
characteristics of Demosthcnes's eloquence.



PUBLICATIONS RECERTiD.

Ether-Death. By John B. RobertB, M. D.
Philadelphia. 1S81. 12 pages.

Catalogue of Extiibits at the Third Annual
Reception of the Rochester Academy of Science.
Kocheeter. 1881. Pp. 84.

The Saratoga Mineral Waters. Directions
for their Use. By Dr. W. O. Sfillman. New
York: Taintor Bn th.rs, Merrill & Co. 1881.
Pp.57. Illustrated.

Papers read before the Pi Eta Scientific So-
ciety. Rensselaer Polytechnic Inslitute, Trov,
New York. 1881. Vo'l. II, No. 2. Pp. 101.

Studies from the Biological Laboratory of
Johns Hopkins Univor.-ity. EcliledbyH. Newell
Martin and W. K. Brooks. Vol. U, No. 1. 1881.
Pp. 134. Illustrated.

On the Pathology and Treatment of Chorea,
pp.4: and SomeCohsiderationg on Insariiy and
Its Tlierapeatics, pp. 7. By Edward C. Mann,
M. D. New York. ISSl.

The State and Higher Education. An Ad-
dress before the Minnesota Academy of Natural
Sciences. By Professor N. 11. Winchell. Min-
neapolis. 18S1. Pp. 18.

Objects of Sex and of Odor in Flowers. By
Thomas Meehan. Philadelphia: "Gardener's
Monthly" print. 1881. Pp.3.

Anticipation of Llssajon's Carves. By Jo-
seph Lovering. Pp.7. With Plate. Large Tele-
scopes. By Edward C. Pickering. Pp. 6. From
" Proceeding's of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences." 1881.

The New York Water-Snpply. Report of
Isaac Newton, Chief-En jrineer, and Opinion of
E.S. Cheshrough, Consulting Engineer. New
York. 1881. Pp.14.



P OP ULA li MIS CELL ANY.



565



The Solar Parallax as derived from Ihe Amer-
ican Photosraphs of the Tian!>it of Vecius, De-
cember 8-9, 1874. By D. P. Todd, M. A. From
'• American Journal of Science," June, 1S81.
Pp.3.

Brief Review of the Most Important Changes
in the Industrial Applications of Chemistry |
within the Last Few Yearc . By J. W. Mallet, I
K. R. S. From " American Chemical Journal." 1
Pp. 98. I

Color-BIinclness. Remarks by Dr. B. Joy
Jeffries at the Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting [
of the Board ot Supervising Inspectors of Steam- :
Vessels. Januiry 23. 18S1. Pp.31. ■

Report of the .Analytical and other Work '
done on Sori;hum and Cornstalks by the Chemi- 1
ral Division of the Department of Agriculture, |
Peter Collier, Chemist. Washinicton : Govern-
ment Printing-office. 1881. Pp 101. Twenty-
seven Plates. '

American College Directorv and Universal
Catalogue. Vol. III. 1881. St. Louis, Missouri :
C. H. Evans & Co. Pp. 105. I

Seedless Fruits. By E. Lewis Sturtevant, ]
M. D. South Framinghum, Massachusetts. Pp. 1
29. I

Photometric Measurements of the Variable I
Stars Persei and D. M. 81°-23. By Edward C. I
Pickering, Arthur Searie, and O. C. Wendell. |
From •• Proceediuiis of the .\merican Academy
of.\rts and Sciences." Cambridge. 1851. Pp.27.

On the .\ction of Hyponitric .\nhydride on '
OrL'anic B<idie.''j)p. 13;"aud On the Production j
of 'Ozone by Heating SubsUtnces containing ,
Oxygen. Pp. 5. By Albert K. Leeds. From j
"Journal of the American Chemical Society." 1

Fatal Form of Septicaemia in the Rabbit pro-
duced by the Subcutaneous Injection of Human 1
Saliva. An Experimental Research. By Dr. j
b'eorge M. St embers, Sur<reon United States 1
Army. Baltimore. 1881. Pp.22. Illustrated. |

Transactions of the Seismological Society of '
Japan. Vol.1. Parts land II, .\pril-June. ISSO.
Printed at the Office of the " Japan Gazette." j
Pp. 116. j

Discovery of Palaeolithic Flint Instruments in
Upper E.rypt. By Professor Henry W. Haynes.
From '• Meiudirs of American Academy of Arts
and Sciences." 1881 Pp.5. Seven Plates. ,

*' The Magazine of Art," June, 1881. Cassell. '
Petter, Galpi'n & Co. London and Kew York. 1

Papers of the Archaeological Institute of
Amenca. By A. F. Bandelier. Boston : A. Wil- '
liams & Co. 1881. Pp. 13.3. |

Rnnthorpe. By G. H. Lewes. New York: '
Williams. Gottsberger. 1881. Pp.326. 75cent8. ;

The Emperor. A Romance. By Georg Ebers. j
From the German. By Clara Bell. 2 vols. New !
York : William S. Gottsberger. 1881. Per vol- ^
ume, 40 cents. !

Ru2bv, Tennessee. Bv Thomas Hughes. Lon-
don : Macmlllan & Co. 1881. Pp.168. $1.

A Theory of Gravitation, Heat, and Electric-



Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 70 of 110)