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and construct. I think the man is to be found
in these pages delineated by himself. But he
was such an enormous personage, that another
writer, equally intent upon truth, could find in
the mass of his remains quite another Voltaire.

Now, it is obvious enough from these
statements that the work of siftinsr mate-



rials and discussing minutijE in regard to
Voltaire, his multitude of works, and the
interminable comment thereon, might have
no end. Its perfection, according to the
ideals of a pedantic scholarship, is impos-
sible. Numberless details must remain for
ever unsettled, and there would remain
room for charges of error, no matter how
far investigation was pushed. Mr. Parton
is the last man who will claim that his
treatment of the subject is infallible, but
he may justly claim that he has gene as far as
fair criticism can demand, toward making his
book accurate and trustworthy. Mr. George
Saintsbury, who has the reputation of being
" one of the highest English authorities on
French literature," reviewing Mr. Parton's
work in " The Academy," recognizes that Mr.
Parton is no " mere book-maker," but a
"perfectly honest writer, and appears to
have digested his enormous materials with
a great deal of diligent effort " ; but he
thinks he has failed in producing " a work
of art and an independent contribution to
literature." And what is the evidence of
this ? AVhy, that '' an innumerable multi-
tude of small errors disfigures his pages."
Mr. Saintsbury read the first 250 pages of
Mr. Parton's book in careful search of de-
fects, and says that he finds on the margins
no less than fifty-four black marks, indicat-
ing what he deems imperfections. Some
are awkwardnesses of expres-sion, some ex-
cusable slips, some inept observations, some
critical mistakes, and some actual errors.
The examples he gives show the triviality
of the blemishes he has marked, and they
are mainly of a sort which could never be
perfectly eliminated from a performance of
this kind. Mr. Saintsbury objects that Par-
ton's biography is not a " work of art," but
works of art appeal to the taste, and tastes
differ. Mr. Saintsbury comes to his work
of criticism as " one of the highest English
authorities on French literature." He is an
adept in Voltairean studies, and in the first
half of a large volume he finds fifty-four
petty flaws, some of which are differences
of opinion, and some, no doubt, real faults.
We want no better evidence of the general
ability and fidelity of the work than that a
master of the subject can find no more to
say against it than is stated in this criticism
of " The Academy."



LITERARY NOTICES.



Tog



Marink Alg^ of New England and Adja-
cent Coast. By Professor W. S. Far-
low. Reprinted from the Report of the
United States Fish Commission for 1879.
By Georgk a. Bates. Salem, Massachu-
setts. Price, $1.50.

Since the publication, by the Smithso-
nian Institution, nearly twenty-five years
ago, of Harvey's " Nereis Boreali-Ameri-
cana," there has been no work on United
States algse, except formal lists, to which the
student could refer. Dr. Farlow, who is
one of the most eminent algologists in the
country, has given us in this work a com-
pact hand-book which will be of great ser-
vice to the collector and student. In the
introduction much interesting information
is given regarding the distribution of spe-
cies along the coast. Cape Cod forms a
barrier to many species. Dr. Farlow says
the difference between the flora of Massa-
chusetts Bay and Buzzard's Bay, which are
only a few miles apart, is greater than the
difference between those of Massachusetts
Bay and the Bay of Fundy. This difference
is found to correspond precisely with what
is known of the fauna. He speaks of the oc-
currence of southern species of sea-weeds in
a small sheet of water near Gloucester, to
which the sea has access during a small por-
tion of each tide, and, in referring to the
presence of certain northern species south,
says, " It seems to be the rule that wherev-
er the water is cold enough we meet Arctic
species, and wherever it is warm enough we
have Long Island species, regardless of the
remoteness of localities where the species
naturally abound, and, as far as we know,
of the absence of currents to transport the
spores." The book closes with an excel-
lent bibliography, and fifteen plates contain-
ing fifty-seven figures.

IIand-book of Chemical Physiology and
Pathology, with Lectures upon Nor-
mal AND Abnormal Urine. By Victor
C. Valghan, M. D,, Ph. D., Lecturer on
Medical Chemistry in the University of
Michigan. Ann Arbor Printing and Pub-
lishing Co. Pp. 347.
The second edition of this work was
called for in 1879, the first having been
speedily exhausted. A third edition, revised
and enlarged, appeared last year. The nat-
ure of the work is expressed in its title. It
makes no claim to completeness, but is of-



fered as a guide to the student who desires
to pursue this branch of study. The latest
authorities have been followed, and free use
has been made of standard works and jour-
nals treating upon the various subjects dis-
cussed. In the present edition there is ap-
pended a second part, consisting of finely
executed plates for illustration of the text.
The book may be commended as giving with-
in reasonable limits an excellent account of
chemical physiology and pathology.



" English Philosophers, David Hartley
and James Mill." By Mr. G. S. Bower,
M. A. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Pp. 250. Price, *1.25.

The reason why these authors are re-
viewed in company is probably because
James Mill's system forms a sort of se-
quencc to Hartley's, although this sequence
is manifestly due more to the incidents of
general intellectual growth in England than
to any relation of discipleship between the
authors.

The doctrine of association is shown to
have first received a definite form at the
hands of Hartley, although its inception as
a principle is traced as far back as Aristotle.
James Mill elaborated this doctrine, having
at his command richer stores of science, but
deprived it of some of those wider applica-
tions which later writers have adduced, and
which were foreshadowed by the superior
imagination of Hartley. To quote the au-
' thor : " Let us first find a statement of the
I doctrine of association, in its very simplest
: terms. So far Hartley and James Mill are
I perfectly at one. We will take the defini-
j tion given by the latter. ' Our ideas,' ho
I says, ' spring up, or exist, in the order in
! which the sensations existed of which they
are copies. This is the general law of the
association of ideas, by which tei-m, let it
be remembered, nothing is here meant to
be expressed but the order of occurrence.' "
On the whole. Hartley's conception of
the doctrine was more physical than Mill's.
He called it a theory of vibrations. The
counterpart and development of this theory
of vibrations, as explained by Hartley, is to
be found, the author tells us, in the " neu-
ral tremors " described by G. H. Lewes and
Dr. Maudsley.

A very simple and, perhaps, more ad-



710



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



vanccd view of it might be expressed as fol-
lows : If all the physical forces are but
affections of matter, quivering particles of
the medium affected, it is easy to see thai
the senses, which we find to be special ad-
justments of ourselves to these different
forces, are merely channels of different
kinds of motion leading to the brain. In a
word, therefore, the sensation of light is a
definite motion of a definite part of the
brain. If it were possible to study the lines
or areas of motion which a sensation of a
given intensity sets up in the brain, or the
structural changes which accompany the
repetition and combining of different sensa-
tions, there would be some hope that the
physical or subjective aspect of the law of
association could be explained. The differ-
ence between the apprehensions of this law
by Hartley and Jlill is that Hartley, being a
physiologist, and moved by the excitement
of discovery, endeavored to portray the sub-
jective aspect of this law, while Mill devoted
himself to its manifestations in the relations
and history of life.

The -author has made a great many se-
lections from these two writers, which has
the effect of bringing their systems into
view side by side. He precedes these selec-
tions with a biographical sketch of Hartley
and Mill, and accompanies them with com-
parisons and criticisms of his own, which
constitute the greater part of the book. The
value of such a book depends, of course,
upon the point of view from which the criti-
cisms are made, and the skill of the selec-
tions. With regard to the latter, but little
improvement could be suggested, and, al-
though some opportunities have been neg-
lected of bringing important points into
bold relief, the criticisms are remarkably
just and free from error.

Text-book OF Experimental Orgaxic Chem-
istry FOR Students. By H. Chapman
Jones. New York : D. Van Nostrand.
Pp. 145.

The author of this book has added an-
other to the already considerable list of use-
ful little manuals on practical chemistry.
He confines himself to. organic chemistry
and has endeavored to make the study of
that branch of science more interesting to
the quite elementary student than has been



done by previous authors. The work is not
a text-book, but merely a laboratory com-
panion for the student, and is, moreover,
especially arranged for those who have but
a limited time at their command. It is not
illustrated, though a good number of simple
experiments are described.

The Botanical Collector's Hand-book.
By Professor W. Whitman Bailey.
Naturalists' Handy Series, No. 3. Sa-
lem, Massachusetts : George A. Bates.
This is precisely what its name implies.
The contents are arranged under the gen-
eral headings of Herborizing, Field-Work,
Collecting and preserving Fungi, Closet-
Work, The Herbarium, Bibliography, Her-
baria, and Public Herbaria.

Under each of these headings much valu-
able information for the collector is given.



PUBLICATIONS RECER-ED.

The Epidermal Organe of Plaets : Their
Morphology and PhyBiology. By Charles F.
Cox, F. R. "SL. S. Pp. 15.

A Report on the Teaching: of Chemistry and
Phypics in the United States^. By Frank Wig-
glcbworth Clarke, S. B., United States Bureau
of Education. Pp.210.

" The ToKic Sol-Fa Advocate." Edited by
Theodore F. Seward. Vol. I, No. 1. New York:
Biglow & Main. Monthly. Pp. 16. 50 cts. a
year.

Annual Report of the Board of Directors of
the Chicago Astronomical Society, together
with the Report of the Director of Dearborn
Observatory. 1881. Pp. 16.

Descriptions of some New Tortricidae (Leaf-
rollers). By C. V. Riley, M. A., Ph. h. Wash-
ington. Pp. 9.

Some Double and Triple Oxalates containing
Chromium. By F. W. Clarke. The Titration
of Tartaric, Malic, and Citric Acids, with Potas-
sium Permanganate. Preliminary Note. By F.
W. Clarke. Pp. 7.

Pliocene Man in America. By James C.
Sonthall, A. M., LL. D., of Richmond, Virginia.
New York : A. D. F. Randolph & Co. Pp. 80.

Braithwaite's Retrospect of Practical Medi-
cine and Surgery. Part Ixxxiil. New York:
W. A. Townsend. Pp. 276.

What shall We do with the Inebriate? By
T. D. Crothers, M. D. Hartford, Connecticui.
Pp.24.

Hip-Injnries, including Hip-Joint Disease,"
and Fractures of the Femoral Neck: Splint for.
By De F. Willard, M. D. Philadelphia. Pp. 4.

Hip-Joint Disease ; Death in Early Stase from
Tubercular Meningitis. By De Forest Willard.
M. D. Microscopic Appearances, with Cuts. By
E. O Shakespeare, M. D. Cambridge: River-
side Press. Pp. 20.

Fifth Annual Report of the State Board of
Health of Wisconsin. 1881. Madison, Wiscou-
sin. Pp. 136.

Catalogue of the Phsenogamous and Vascu-
lar Cryptogamous Plants of Michigan, Indige-
nous, Naturalised, and Adventive. By Charles



«f



POPULAR MISCELLANY.



F. Wheeler and Erwin F. Smith. Uubbards-
town, Michigau. Pp.105. 50 ceut?.

The Mineral Resources of the Hocking Val-
ley: Beiui; an Account of its Coala, Irou-Ore!>,
Blast-Furnaces, and Kailroads. Jly T. Sterry
Hunt. LL. D. Boston : S. E. Oassino. Pp. 152,
with Map. 75 cents.

Educational Journalism. By C. W. Bardeen.
Syracuse, New York. Pp. 30.

The Physiology of Climate. Season, and Or-
dinary Weather Changes. By Alexander Rat-
tray, Si. D. San Francisco, California. Pp. 20.

"The Odontoisraphic Journal: A Quar'.erly
devoted to Dentistry." Conducted by J. Edward
Line. D. D. S. Rochester, New York : Davis &
Leyden. Pp. 64. $1 a year.

Proceedings of the United States National
Museum, June 2 and 22, 18S1. Pp. 80.

.\ Manual of Accidents and Emergencies.
Bv George G. GratT, M. D. Lewisburg, Pennsyl-
vania : Printed for t*e Author. 1881. Pp. 92.
60 cents.

Revised Odd-Fellowship illustrated. By Pres-
ident J. Blanchard. of Wheaton College. Chica-
go : Ezra Cook & Co. 1881. Pp. 272. $1.

The French Revolution. By Hippolyte
Adolphe Taine. Translated by John Durand.
Vol. II. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 1881.
Pp. 358. $-2.50.

Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer to
the Secretary of War. for the Year 1879. Wash-
ington : Government Printing-office. 1880. Pp.

Algebra for Schools and Colleges. By Simon
Newcomb. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 18S1.
Pp. 4:a.

The Young Folks' Astronomv. By John D.
Champliu, Jr New York: Henry Holt & Co.
1881. Pp.236. 60 cents.

Sea-Mosses. An Introduction to the Study
of Marine Algse. By A. B. Harvev, A. M. Bos-
ton : S. E. Cassino. 1681. Pp. 281. $2.

Book of the Black Bass. By James A. Hen-
shall, M. D. Cincinnati ; Robert Clarke & Co.
1881. Pp.470. $3.



POPULAR MISCELLANY.

Stienoe In Polities. — " Science and Civil
Liberty " was the subject of an address by
Dr. W. R. Condell at a recent meeting of the
Scientific Academy of Springfield, Illinois.
Its object was to show the important bearing
of the physical sciences on political science,
and their claim to be regarded in suggesting
and instituting reforms. Accepting Mr.
Spencer's principle that the social aggregate
must be determined by the units composing
it, he derived the corollary that any social or
political system, arbitrary in its nature, and
not determined by the nature of the units,
must be disastrous to the units or individual
citizens. The scientific study of the mind
from the physical side must have an impor-
tant bearing upon the subject of crime as
well as on other social questions which have
never been solved bv existing methids.



The metaphysical school, whose deductions
rested on a less solid basis than the hard
facts of nature, had had too much influence
in our legislation. Science, Dr. Condell be-
lieved, should be acknowledged as the su-
preme political standard ; and not till this
result had been consummated would per-
fect civil liberty be realized.

Somaambulism. — The phenomena of
somnambulism arise from the fact that the
faculties are unequally suspended during
sleep, so that one set of organs may be ac-
tive while the others are dormant. It is
frequently accompanied by dreams, which
arise out of a similar condition of the ner-
vous functions. Several incidents, illustrat-
ing the manner in which the partial suspen-
sion, partial activity of the faculties affect
the somnambulist, are related in an English
magazine. A boy, on his way to the sea-
side, had traveled by steamer, railway, and
coach, from six o'clock in the evening till
four o'clock on the next afternoon, without
cessation and with hardly any sleep. Short-
ly after going to bed, his companion was
awakened by a crash of glass, followed by
hysterical cries, and, on looking for the boy,
found that he had got up, broken the vnn-
dow, and gone. lie was found in the road,
wounded in the feet. It appeared from his
story that, when half asleep, he thought he
saw a mad bull rushing at him. Catching
hold of the curtain, which he thought was a
tree, he swung himself over the hedge by
which the tree grew — the window, open from
the top — then jumped and ran away, break-
ing the window with his heel, and cutting
his feet on the sharp stones. In this case
the impression left on the mind of the sleep-
walker was so strong as to enable him to
tell all that he thought and imagined dur-
ing the dream. In the next incident no trace
of remembrance survived. A servant-girl
came down at four o'clock in the morning,
and asked her mistress for some cotton to
mend her dress, which she had torn. While
she was looking in her work-box some one
offered her an empty spool, but she refused
it, and taking up her gown pointed to two
holes which she said she wanted to mend.
A needle was threaded for her with black
cotton, but she rejected it, saying she want-
ed brown cotton. Some one spoke, a:id she



712



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.



said that it was her mistress ; but it was
not. Her vision was thus shown to be keen,
but her hearing dull. She was wakened
with considerable difficulty, and, seeing the
cotton-box disturbed, asked why it had been
meddled with. Several questions were asked
her during the following day, to test her
recollection; but she could not recall her
sleep-walking, or anything that had taken
place during the night. A miner near Red-
ruth arose one night, walked to the engine-
shaft of the mine, and safely descended to
the depth of twenty fathoms, where he was
found soon afterward sound asleep. He
could not be wakened by calling to him, and
had to be shaken. When awake, he could
not account for the situation in which he
found himself. Morrison, in his " Medicine
no Mystery," tells of a clergyman who used
to get up in the night, light his candle, write
sermons, correct them with interlineations,
and go to bed again, while he was all the
time fast asleep. A similar story is told of
an English dissenting preacher, who had
been perplexed during the week about the
treatment of the subject of his Sunday's
sermon, and mentioned his perplexity to his
wife on Saturday night. During the night
he got up and preached a good sermon on
the subject in the hearing of his wife. In
the morning his wife suggested a method of
treating the subject, based upon his sleep-
work of the night before, with which he
was much pleased; and he preached the
sermon with no knowledge of its real origin.
The " Lancet " has a story of a butcher's
boy who went to the stable in his sleep to
saddle his horse and go his rounds. Not
finding the saddle in its usual place, he went
to the house and asked for it, and, failing
to get it, he started off without it. He was
taken from the horse and carried into the
house. A doctor came, and while he was
present the boy, considering himself stopped
at the turnpike-gate, offered sixpence for
the toll, and this being given back to him
he refused it, and demanded his change. A
part of the change was given him, and he
demanded the proper amount. When awake
afterward, he had no recollection of what
had passed. To prevent sleep-walking it is
necessary to remove whatever is the occa-
sion of it, if it arises from any definable
disorder. Often, however, it can not be re-



• ferred to any complaint; then the best that
i can be done will be to take precautions
against the somnambulist running into any
I danger.

Parasites in Food and Drink. — M.

Milne-Edwards has recently expressed some
interesting views suggested by the discus-
sions concerning trichina, respecting the
hygienic questions which are connected
with the establishment of colonies of intes-
tinal worms, or microbes, within human
bodies. He believes that certain religious
precepts and certain established usages,
among people whose civilization is very
ancient, are based upon acquaintance with
the inconveniences that may result from the
alimentary use of particular meats or waters.
He thus deduces, from the aptitude of the
hog to transmit his parasites to man, the
reason for the prohibition of pork among
the Israelites and Mohammedans, and for
the Biblical distinction between pure and im-
pure animals. He also attributes to the very
ancient recognition of analogous facts the
general use of hot drinks, like tea in China
and other counlries of the extreme East,
where the natural waters arc often charged
with noxious animalcules or polluted by un-
clean animals. As bearing on this point, he
cites the ravages caused in Cochin-China by a
microscopic eel, which produces a persistent
endemic diarrhoea. These animals have a
faculty of multiplication in the human in-
testine, that is illustrated by the fact that
a single patient is said to have evacuated
more than a hundred thousand of them with-
in twenty-four hours ! The simplest pru-
dence should suggest the expediency of
boiling the drinking-water wherever they
abound.

The Great Yienna Telescope. — The

equatorial telescope which has just been
constructed by Mr. Grubb, of Dublin, for
the observatory at Vienna, Austria, is the
largest refracting telescope that has yet
been made. It has an aperture of twenty-
seven inches, or one inch more than that of
the instrument in the Naval Observatory
at Washington, and is thirty-three feet six
inches long, with a tube of steel three and
a half feet in diameter in the middle, and
tapering to each end. The moving parts.



POP UL A R MIS CELL A iVY



713



including the tube, polar and declination
axes, counterpoise, and various adjustments,
weigh altogether between six and seven
tons, yet the whole apparatus is under
such control that one person can move
it about and manipulate it with ease. The
motion on the axes has been facilitated by
the application of antifriction apparatus to
them, so that it has not been necessary
to make them disproportionately small, as
has been the case with the axes of previous
large instruments. The circles are carefully
and accurately divided on a band of gold,
and so adjusted and illuminated that the
observer can, without stirring from his
chair, read all of the circles of the instru-
ment through a single reader-telescope at-
tached to the side of the main tube. The
builder of the instrument had great diffi-
culty in obtaining perfect glass for the ob-
jectives, and more than a year, from Oc-
tober, 1879, to December, 1880, was spent
in trying to produce a good lens ; neverthe-
less the instrument was completed in less
than half the time stipulated for by the
Austro-Hungarian Government. The observ-
atory in which the telescope is to be placed
is an imposing edifice of three hundred and
forty by two hundred and forty feet, and
stands at an elevation of two hundred feet
above the city, upon grounds of between
fifteen and sixteen acres in extent.

The Cave-Temples of India.— -Dr. James
Fergusson's recent work on the " Cave-
Temples of India " abounds in illustrations
of the manner in which the art of building
in stone has been developed from wooden
construction. The beginning of the use of
stone in India is fixed, in Dr. Fergusson's
opinion, at the period of the reign of Asoka,
B. c. 250, for no stone buildings of an archi-
tectural character have been found the date
of which can be proved to be earlier than
that of this monarch. Moreover, all the
older examples are, in all their details, so
clearly copies of original types in wood, that
it is improbable that they could have been
executed by a people who had any pre-
vious knowledge of the principles of stone
architecture. All caves, down to the sev-
enth century, show the gradual transfor-
mation from wooden forms into those of
stone. The modifications mav be traced on-



ward through nine centuries — all that was
of stone being copied literally from carpen-
try forms, till the process was nearly com-
plete, and forms, originally distinctly wood-
en, had become appropriated to stone archi-
tecture. All this seems to have been effect-
ed without any direct foreign influence.
The earlier caves are adorned with sculpt-
ures in preference to painted figures, but
the later ones are covered with paintings of
a high order of art and great historical
interest, with colors perfectly fresh, while
sculpture, where it occurs at all, occupies a
subordinate position. No figure of Buddha
occurs before the end of the first century.
The liturgical forms, in all the older caves,
express a simple but exclusive type of
relic-worship. About one thousand dis-
tinct caves in India are mentioned as having
architectural importance, of which three
fourths belong to the Buddhists, one fifth



Online LibraryD. S. (David Samuel) MargoliouthThe Popular science monthly (Volume 19) → online text (page 89 of 110)