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from Green Bay early in that year. When or-
ganized, it conwL-tk-d of twenty -five members ol
the Ganison. Tlio iiamus of the citi/^ns who
united with it were :



ate Bishop Quarter, and consecrated by Lia
rtvii.ber 6th, i54-i.

iSi. James is the oldest Episcopal chinch in tho
ity. li was organized in ib>4. I he following
ere CLe iLoi



. ,
"



JOHN WEIGHT,
PHILO CAKPKvr
Kufus Browa, Mi. Elizabeth Brown,

John 8. Wright, .Mary Taylor,

J. H. Poor, E. Clark,

Mrs. Cynthia Brown.

Ten churches have since been organized in
whole or in part from this church. It is new in
a very flourishing condition under the pastora
care of Rev. II. Curtis.

The first Catholic church in Chicago WB.R but!
by Rev. Mr. Schofter, in the yeaw 1883-'4. I
was located somewhere in State street It now
stands in the rear of St. Mary's Cathedra], ar.d i
used by the Sisters of Mercy as a school room
St. Mary's is the oldest Catholic church in th
city. It was opened for divine service on th
26th of December, 1843. Its pastors then wer
Rev'da Fischer and Saint Pailate, now Bishop o
Tincennea. The house was completed by th



Peter Johnson,
Mrs. P. Johimo'i,

Mia, Juliette A. Kiuzie (wife of J. II. Kinric,
:sq),

Airs. Francis W. llagill,
H:B. Nancy Hall am,
Mrs. Maigaret iielui.

The first Baptist church was organized by Rev.
A. B. Freeman, on the 19th of October, 1833-
'he following were its first meuabeis:



Rev. A. B. Freeman,
S. T. Jackson,
Martin D. Harmon,
Peter Moore,
Nath'l Carpenter,
John K. Sargrnta,
Peter Waiden,



Willard Jones,
Ebon Ci-ane,
Bamantha Harmon,
Lucinda Jackson,
Betsey Crar.e,
Hannah C. Fieeman,
Susannah liice.



The first church erected by this society wa
ilt on ^>orth Water street tho preciee limo
we cannot give. In 1843-'4 the society built a
arge brick house on the lot now owned by then)
on the south side of the public square. It was
burnt down in October, 185'2. A new church is
now in process of erection, whic:'u will codt at
least $25,000.

h- first Sunday School in Chicago was estab-
I'mhed by Philo Carpenter, Eeq , ar.d Capt John-
son, in August, 1832. Mr. Carpenter, in CO:E'
pany with G. W. Snow, Esq., arrived here on
tho 30th of July, 1832. The school was first
held in a frame, not then enclosed, which stood
on ground a short dibtance northeast of the pre-
ser.t residence of Mrs. John Wright, on Michigan
Avenue. It is now washed away. Ihe nchooi
consisted of thirteen children. It was held dar-
ing the fall of that year and the next season
above the store of P. F. W. Peck, Esq., at the
southeast corner of Lasalle and Water streets.
Rev. Mr. Porter also preached in the same place.
In the fall of 1832 Charles Butler, Esq., of New
York, presented the Sunday School with a
libiary, and it soon increased to forty or fifty
members.

The first Congregational cburcii was organized
on the 22d of May, 1851, on the weet side of the
river.

The following is the present



list of Churches and Ministc-rs In Chicago.

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL.

TRISITY CHURCH Madison, near Clark street; Rev
W. A. Small wood, D. D., rector.

ST. JAMES' CHURCH corner of Cass and Illinois streets
R. H. Clarkson, rector.

CHURCH OK THE ATONKMCNT corner of Washington an<
Green streets, west side ; Dudley Chase, rector.

ST. PAUL'S FRER CHAPEL Sherman, near Harrison st.
J. McNamara, rector.

GRACB CHURCH corner of Dearborn and Madison sts.
C. B. Swope, rector.

ST. ANSQARIUS CHURCH corner of Indiana and Frank
lin streets; Guatavus Unonius, rector.

PRESBYTERIAN.

FIRST PRBSBYTKRIAN CHURCH corner Clark and Wash
ington streets; Harvey Curtis, pastor.

SSCOND PRSSBYTERIAN CHURCH corner of Wabash
Avenue and Washington streets; R. W. Patterson
pastor.

THIRD PRBSBYTBRIAK CHURCH Union street, between
Randolph and Washington streets. West Bide; E. W.
Moore, pastor.

NORTH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH corner of Illinois and
Wolcott streets. North side; R. H Richardson, pastor.

REFORMED PREsnYrRRUx CHURCH Fulton street, cor-
ner Clinton street. West side ; A. M. Stewart, pastor.

CONGREGATION' AL.

FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH -Washington street,
between Halsted and Union streets. West Bide.

PLYMOUTH COSGRKOATIONAL CHORCH corner Dearborn
and Madison streets ; N. H. Eisgleston, pastor.

NBW ENGLAND CUOKCH corner Wolcctt and Indiana
streets; J. C. Holbrook, pastor.

SOUTH CONGKKO.VTIOSAL CHURCH There is preaching
regularly by Key. E. P. Dickenson, at the church near
American Car Company's Works, at half past 10 o'clock,
A. M., every Sabbath. Alto at 3. P. M.. at the New Con-
gregational Meeting House, corner of Clark and Taylor
streets, sear the S 'Uthern Michigan Railroad Depot.

LUTHERAN.

NOTWKGHN CnuRcn-Superior. between Wells and La-
salle streets; Paul Andersen, pastor,

GBRMAN CHURCH-Lasalle, between Indiana an* Ohio
streets; J. A. Fisher, pastor.

GKRMAN CHURCH Indiana street, near Weils; Augus-
tus Selle, pastor.



FIRST CHURCH Rnrned down, now worshipping in the
old Presbyterian Churoh, on Clark, near Madison street ;
<F. 0. Burroughs, pastor.

TABERNACLR CHURCH Desplaincs, tetwoen Washing-
ton and Madison streets. West side; A. Kenyon. pastor.

METHODIST EPISCOPAL.

CLARK STRBKT CHURCH corner Clark and Washington
streets ; J. Clark, pastor.

INDIANA STREET bet ween Clark and Dearborn streets;
S, Bolles, pastor.

JBFFBRSON STRERT between Madison and Monroe sts.
West side ; F. H. Gammon, pastor.

OWN STRBKT corner Owen and Peoria streets. West
side ; S. Guyer, pastor.

CUSTOH STREET between IV.:: and Taylor sts . West
3:de.

HARRJSOX STRKBT near State street; F, A Resd,
MMMR



G.-RM AX Indiana street, between Wells and La?*; ;
its.; C. Winz, pastor.

GBRJIAN Van Buren street, corner of Griswold; A
Kellener, pastor.

METHODIST PROTESTANT.

MKTHODIST PROTkSTANT corner of Washington and
Jett'erson streets ; Lewis R. Ellis, pastor.

CATHOLIC.

CATUKDRAL or ST. MARY's-corner of Madison street
and Wabash ivenue; Piitrie Thomas MeElhearne and
Jumes Fitzgerald, pastors.

ST. PATRICK'S aorner Randolph and Dcsplainesstreei ;
Patrick J. McLaughlin, pastor.

HOLY NAMB of JKSUS corner Wolcott and Superior
streets. North side; Jeremiah Kinsella, pastor.

ST. PITER'S (German) Washington, between Frank
lin and Wells street; G. W-. Plathe, pastor.

ST. JOSEPH'S (German) corner Cass st. and Chicag>
avenue. North Hide ; Anthony Kopp, pastor.

ST. LoDii (French) -Clavk, between Adiims and Jack-
son streets; I. A. Lebsl, pastor.

ST. MICHAEL'S corner North arenue and New Church
street; E. Kaiser, pastor.

ST. FHAMCIS ASBISICM West side; J. B. Weicamp,
pastor.

NEW JERUSALEM SWKDENBOHGIAN.

PLACK OF WoRsruv corner of Dearborn and Randoipti
streets; J. E. Uibbard, pastor.

UNITARIAN.

UNITARIAN CHUECH - North side of Waslviagton gtrn*,
betweea Clark und Dearborn streets; K. 11. Shipp-iiv.
pastor.

UNIVER8ALIST.



Usm.MALi8T CBI.-RCH South side of
street, between Clark and Dearborn streets; I/. B. Mi
son, pastor.)

'JEWISH.

SYSAOOOPB Olark street, between Adams and Quiac
streets; G. Schneldacher, pastor.



SCHOOLS, etc.

The common Schools of Chicago are the pride 5 ,
and the glory of the city. The school fund is
ample, and every child in the city can obtain the
elements of a good English education free of
charge. We have now six large Public School
idifices, two in each division of the city. Froai
three to seven hundred children are daily ga-
hered in each.

Besides these, we have a large number of pri-
ratc schools and seminaries, where those who
ish can educate their children.

We have an excellent Commercial College, at
he head of which is Judge Bell. The Catholics
lave a College, and the Methodists are also about
o establish and endow a University. We have
also a most excellent Medical College.



The educational facilities of Chicago may there-
fore be regarded as of a very high order.



BASKS, BANKING, etc.

Had we space to write out the history of
Bulking in Illinois, and especially in Chicago, it
v-ould present some interesting topics for the
contemplation of the financier. We Lave had
t wo State Banks. The first was established early
in the history of the State, and though the most
extravagant expectations were entertained of its
influence for good, its bills soon depreciated very
rapidly, and for the want of silver change, they
were torn in several fragments and passed for
fractions of a dollar. It soon became entirely
worthless. The second State Bank was char-
tered by the session of the Legislature in the
winter of '34-'5. In July of '35, it was deter-
mined to establish a branch here ; but it was not
opened till December of that year. In the finan-
cial embarrassments of '37, the bank stopped
specie payment, but continued business till '41,
when it finally suspended. For the ten succeed-
ing years we had no banks of any kind in the
State. These were dark days for Illinoia She
annually paid banking institutions of other States
immense sums of money in the shape of interest
for all the currency she used.

Tired tf this system, a general banking law,
modeled after that of New York, was passed, and
on the 3d of January, '53, the Marine Bank in
this city commenced business. The law is re-
garded as rather too stringent by our bankers,
and hence they do not procure bills for a tithe of
the capital they employ. The following table
.''hows the number of banks in this city, and the
amount of bills they have in circulation :

BAKKS. .BILLS IN CIRC'H.

Exchange Bank of H. A. Tucker & Co $50,009

Marine Bank JW.OOO

Bank of America 50,000

Chicaxo Bank 150,000

Commercial Bank 56.00'J

Fanners' Bank 60.000

Union B nk ; 75.'00

Merchants' and Mechanics' Bank 54,700

Ci ty B ank 60,000

The capital of these banks is, in some instances,
half a dozen times the amount of their circula-
tion. The banking capital actually employed to
do the business of the city must amount to sev-
eral millions, and yet so rapid is the increase of
trade, that money within the last six years has
never borne less than ten per cent, interest.
This is the legal rate established by the laws of



Illinois. Most of the time money can be louieri
from one to two per cent, per month, by those
who are willing to take advantage of the oppor-
tunities which are constantly offering. We pre-
sume that hundreds of thousands of dollars could
be safely invested at any time within a week or
two, at the legal rate of interest. We have never
seen the money market of Chicago fully supplied
at the regular legal rate, viz ; ten per cent, per
annum.

The following is a list of the private bankers
and brokers doing business in Chicago :

R. K. SWIFT, J. M. ADSIT,

JONES & PATRICK, F. G. ADAMS & Co.,
SHELDON & Co. N. C. HOE & Co.,

DAVISSON, McCjU.LA <fe Co.

E, H Hl'XTINGTON & CO.

Several of these firms are doing a large busi-
ness. K. K. Swift is doing a very extensive bu-
siness in foreign exchange, and has arrangement?
to draw on every principal city in this country
and Europe.

We have tried to obtain the figures showing
the actual amount of exchange drawn on New
York and other American cities, and the cities
of Europe ; but some of our Lackers, like a por-
tion of our buainess men, are unwilling to furnirti
such facts, lest, as we infer, other capitalists
should scud their money here for investment.
Their narrow policy, we trust, will be of no avail
in that regard, for they will always have as much
business as they can possibly do ; and the fact
that the legal rate of interest is ten per cent.,
and that the money market has never yet been
fully supplied, together with the certainty that
Chicago will not be "finished" for the next cen-
tury at least, will induce a still larger numbef of
Eastern capitalists to invest their money in Chi-
cago. There is not in the wide world a city
that furnishes opportunities for safer investments
than Chicago whether the money is employed
in banking operations, or is loaned on real estate
securitv.



PRICE OF LABOR.

In a city growing as rapidly as Chicago, labor
is always in demand. Especially is this true
where every department of business is equally
active and increasing. In dull times, and in
cities which have passed the culminating point
of their prosperity, master mechanics can select
their journeyme", and do somewhat as they
wish. For the last year or two, so great has
been the demand for labor, that those who



worked by the day or week were the real mas-
ters, tor good mechanics could command almost
any price the} 1 chose to ask.

The following table, carefully prepared, ahows
the price now usual y paid to journeyman in this
city. The range is large, but it id not wider than
the difference in the Kiil and capacity of differ-
ent men in every occupation.



O CO PATIOS.


UM.VUS HKH
WAD'S P.'-S W hX A.NDKiK
BiY. jPlrt K AND JOB
WOKK.


Biauksmiihtj ami Iron work'i>


l.JNi2.>

iO'.tl "H
1.1) ::>.0
1.2 ai. i
1 ; e.d.O

UhfatiMp


&U 8
9a 8
H.i *

ISsi.O
















Dt.y Laborers


1 W.%1.50




l.-'5,il.75


Manias M ikergantl 6aUaierd
ftlAstmduml l'i*-lerer


1 Suai OD
1.7 .- 0.)
l. ;. o


tidila

vilis

lidis

fi'al 1 ?
81 5
7a 1
lOalti

!U13

M.ili




Primerd..cmp. .11 c % uu luV


167

1.0

1 60*2 35
. 5ii:.s'-

Liteui


Ship Oarpkiucvra ainl Jcrflter*.
Snip Caulkers
fitoue inters














Tanners


1.0u* .2)


Wire Work 1-3 ami WV*v rs..
WiiKon and Oarriaue M ker<.
I'Hiaun


l.O dl.oii

'.2<H2 II

t.2-H'2()





OH 1C AGO WATJBK WORKS.

A supply of pure water is essential to the
health, and therefore to the prosperity of any
city. The citizens of Chicago have great reason
to congratulate themselves upon the near com-
pletion of one of the finest specimens of engi-
neering that can be found in any city. The
Chicago Water Works will very soon be the
pride of all our citizens. No better water can
be found than Lake Michigan affords ; and
increased health and blessings without num-
ber will attend its introduction throughout the
city.

We are indebted to K. Willard Smith. Esq.,
resident engineer, for the following description
of the works :

The water is taken from Lake Michigan at
the foot of Chicago Avenue. A timber crib
twenty by forty feet is sunk six hundred feet
from shore. From this crib a wooden inlet pipe
thirty inches interior diameter, laid in a trench
in the bottom of the lake, conveys the water to
the pump-well. This well is placed under the
Engine House. The end of the inlet pipe is of
iron, and bends down to the bottom of the well,
which is twenty-five feet deep, and at ordinary



stages of the water in the Like contains fotu-
teen feet of w^ter. Tue pipe acts as a sypho;i
The water flows by ite own gravity iuu> the
well, whence it is drawn by thu pumping en-
gine and forced into the mams, aatl tiience into
Uie iiuiwrvoir intiie aouth Division, from which
it is distributed into the distribution pipes i:i
the various parts of uie city.

ENGINE.

The .Engine is located in the main building.
It was built at the Alorgan iron Works, in
^ew YorK, ana us u tinst ciass engine, low pres-
sure, of two hundred horse power, its cylinder
s forty-four inches in diameter, and has a pib-
tou with a n,ue feet stroke. The Uy wheel is
an immense casting of iron, twenty-lour feet in
diameter, and weighing twenty-four thousand
pounds. The working beam is of cast iron,
tiurty feet long and four feet duep. It is sup-
ported by a hollow iron column instead of tht-
usual gallows fiaiiie, four feet iu diameter, and
forming also au air vessel for the condenser.
Tiiere are two wattr pumps, one on each isitk
of this centre column, of thirty-four inches bore,
six lest stroke. Tiiese pumps are furnisLe-d
\vith composition valves. The boiler, which ie
located in the north wing of the building, is a
marine bo.ler of the largest sise, being thirty
feet long aud nine feet in diameter, furnished
with an admirable arrangement of rlues, and
possessing an extraordinary strength of draught
I he consumption of coal by the boiler iis very
small, and it proves very economical. Th,e
engine was put up under the care and direc-
tion of Mr. JJeWitt U. Cregicr, the steam en-
gineer of the company. The cost of the engine
was only twenty-five thousand dollars. Thit;
engine is capable of furnishing over thaee mil-
lion gallons daily, which is a upply for one
hundred thousand persons.

DUPLICATE ENGINE.

At the opposite end of the main building is
a duplicate engine, of about one half nf the
power of the other, which is kept in reserve in
case of any breakage or accident happening to
the other. This engine was manufactured bt
H. P. Moses, of this city ; it is a non-condens-
ing or high-pressure engine. The engine pump
works horiEcntally, on a heavy cast-iron bed
plate, supported by masonry. The steam cy-
linder is eighteen inches internal diameter, with
a piston of she feet stroke. The pump is dou-
ble acting, and of the same diameter and stroke
as the steam cylinder and piston ; it is placed
behind the stcanr cylinder. The steam piston



through both beads of the steam cylin-
der, one end connecting with the pump, and
the other with the crank or fly wheel. The
fly wheel is an iron casting, 12 feet in diameter.

ENGINE HOUSE.

The Engine House is built of brick mason-
ry, in the modern Italian style. The main
building is fifty-four feet front and thirty-four
: deep, with a wing on each side, each forty -
I'our feet front and thirty -four feet deep.

The main building is carried up two stories
high, making an elevation of thirty feet above
'he principal floor. The wings are one story
high.

The roof is composed of wiought iron trusses
-covered with zinc plates.

In the centre of the froat of the main build-
ing a Tower is constructed, fourteen feet square
at the base, and one hundred and forty feet in
height, surrounded by an ornamental cornice of
metal. This tower forms a striking feature of
the building. It also serves as a chimney for
both boilers, and also has a -chamber in the cen-
tre, separated from the smoke flues, in which
is placed the standing column.

RESERVOIR BUILDING.

This building is two stories high. The prin-
pi'incipal floor is placed three feet above the
surface of the street. The exterior for the first
story, (fifteen feet above the principal floor,) is
made of cut stone, with rustic joints, surmount-
ed by a cut stone string course. The second
story is faced with pressed brick aud rustic
quoins of cut stone. The architraves of the
doors and windows are of cut stone. The main
cornice is of cast iron, projecting four feet from
the face of the wall, and supported by orna-
mental cast iron console*.

This cornice forms a balcony, which is sur-
Tounded by an ornamental iron railing.

The tank is supported by a brick column and
brick arches, and is capable of holding five
hundred thousand gallons of water.

The building when completed-, with the tank,
will be about ninety feet in height. This tank
is designed to hold only a night supply for fifty
thousand inhabitants. As the population of the
;;ity increases, it is proposed to erect similar
-eservoir buildings, with tanks, &c., in each
division. The surface of water in the tank
will be eighty-three feet above the Lake. The
'reservoir is situated immediately south of Ad-
- street and west of Clark.

KIVER PIPES.

The river pipes conveying the water across
the river are made of boiler iron plates, riveted



together, awd are twelve inches in interior diam-
eter. About thirty miles of distribution and
main pipes are laid in the streets, extending
over a large portion of the city connecting
with one hundred and sixteen fire hydrants at
at the corners of the streets.

STANDING COLUMN,

The standing column is a cast iron pipe,
twenty-four inches in diameter, placed vertical-
ly in the engine house tower. It is connected
with the pumps and main pipes, and serves as
a regulator in keeping up a uniform head of
water in the reservoirs.

OFFICERS,

The present Board of Water Commissioners
consis of John B, Turner, and Alson S. Sher-
man, Esqrs. Horatio G, Loomis, Esq. has late-
ly tendered his resignation of the office of Wa-
ter Commissioner, and his successor is John
0. Haines, Esq. William J. McAlpine, Esq.
is the Ciiief Engineer of the Water Works,
and Mr. E. Willard Smith, Resident Engineer ;
Mr. Benjamin F. Walker, Superintendent ; Mr.
Henry Tucker, Treasurer, and Mr. De Witt C.
Cregier, Steam Engineer.

It is proper to say in this connection that the
plans for the Water Works were furnished by
Mr. McAlpine, and the architectural designs for
the several buildings above described, by Mr.
S tnith.

The cost of the work will be three hundred and
sixty thousand dollars. The same work would
now cost four hundred and twenty thousand
dollars.

The works are now calculated to supply a
population of fifty thousand persons with thirty
gallons of water each every twenty -four hours,
which is equal 'to one million five hundred
thousand gallows daily. The work is so plan-
ned as to be easily extended to meet the wants
of one hundred thousand population by laying
more pipe, and building more Reservoirs.



Break-Water and Depot Build-
ings o tbe III. Central R. R.

This great work commences at the South
Pier, four hundred feet inside of its extreme
east end and extends south one thousand two
hundred and fifty-seven feet into the Lake,
thence west six hundred and seventy-five feet
on the North line of Randolph street, thence
south-west one hundred and fifty feet, thence to
a point opposite the American Car Factory,
making fourteen thousand three hundred and
seventy-seven in all sixteen thousand four



hundred and fifty -nine feet. Fram the Pier to
the Engine house the break-water is twelve
feet wide ; thence down to the Car Company's
works half that width. The upper portion of
the crib work is built of square timber twelve
by twelve,, locked together every ten feet, and
the intermediate space filled by stone, piles
being driven on the outside to keep it in place.
The first piece of crib work sunk,, in building
the break-water, has a very stout plank bottom..
The water line of the crib work south of Ran-
dolph street is six hundred feet east of the east
side of Michigan Avenue, and the outer line of
the crib work, between Randolph street and
the river, is one thousand three hundred and
seventy five feet, The area thus enclosed and
rescued from the dominion of the Lake, is about
thirty-three acres. Upon this area the Illinois
Central Railroad proposes to erect, first, one
passenger .station house, four hundred and fifty
feet long, by one hundred and sixty -five wide,
including a car shed. The N, W. corner of
this building will be occupied exclusively for
offices and passenger rooms, and will be forty
by one hundred and twenty feet, and three sto-
ries high. A freight building six hundred by
one hundred feet ; grain house one hundred by
by two hundred, and one hundred feet high,
to the top of the elevators; calculated to
hold five hundred thousand bushels. Three
tracks will run into the freight house ; eight
tracks into the passenger house, and two tracks
into the grain house. The basin lying be-
tween the freight and grain houses will be
five hundred by one hundred and seventy-eight
feet and will open into the river. All these
buildings are to be constructed of stone, obtain-
ed from Joliet The cost of the breakwater
will be not far from five hundred thousaiid dol-
lars, and of the buildings not far from two hun-
dred and fifty thousand dollars. The work was
commenced in December 1852, and will be fin-
ished during the year 1854 Mr. Mason having
been detained.-as much by legal difficulties ;ia
natural obstacles.

The extreme length of the pile bridging for
the railroad track ia two and a half miles. Of
this, one and a half miles, parallel with Michi-
gan Avenue, is double track, and the remainder
is single. For the single track, two rows of
piles are driven inside the breakwater, and four
for the double track. These piles are well
braced and bolted together, and form a very
substantial structure for the railroad track.

It will be impossible to give any thing like
an accurate description of the Company's works
until they are completed ; for as day by day



the great commercial promise of Chicago bright-
ens, the extent and breadth of the Company's
works will be increased in proportion, or at
least so fur as their depot accommodations will
allow them. What was estimated to be suffi-


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Online LibraryDaily Democratic PressThe Rail-roads, history and commerce of Chicago → online text (page 9 of 15)