Dan Michel.

Dan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D online

. (page 4 of 42)
Online LibraryDan MichelDan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D → online text (page 4 of 42)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


(Castd of Love, L 855.)



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



XXXVm GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

Urea formes faderes gult we abigget alle. — (Moral Ode, p. 28.)

fee worlde us wule fordrenche
Mest alle men he jive* drinke of one deofles scenche
He sceal him cunne sculde wel, jif he him nele screnche
Mid ealmihtlea godes luve ute J)e us biwerien
Wid (from) j>es mrccches worldes luue, fat he ne mawe us derien.

{lUd. p. 32.)

Elche rune he ihurd & he wot alle dede

He J)m*-sih* dchea mannes Jane Jat seal us to rede.

(Ibid. p. 25.)

He is dches godes ful. — {Ibid, p. 33.)

Ther com to ous a jung man suythe fair and hende,
He welcomede ous evei-echon mildeliche and suete
And nemnede evereches owe name and wel myldeliche ous gan grete.

(St Brandan, p. 3.)

The fox so godne ne can (knows) nanne
The (though) he kunne so vele wrenche.

Owl ^ N. p. 28.)

Ich wot hwo schal beon anhonge,

Other ellea/ulne deth afonge. — (Ibid. p. 41.)

And hit is grat wonder thet hi loketh zuich ane fiehlene castel as
hare fyeble bodye aye zuych ane strarujne vend ase is the dyeuel of
helle. — (Ayenbife, p. 227.)

Vor alsuo ase the angles of heuene habbeth grat glednesse of ane
zene3ere huanne he him repenteth and deth penonce vor his zennes,
alsuo the dyevelen ham gledieth huanne hi moje overcome and do
valle into zenne a7ie ffuodne man ; and the more thet he is of grat
stat and the parBter, the more heth he the gratter glednesse huanne
he him may gyly, ase the vissere heth more blisse vor to nimo ane
grains visse thane ane littlene, — (Ibid, p. 238.)

Non yzij ane yongne borycis and ane newene knijt. Mochel
habbeth thos of vele thojtes, newe, diverses, and wylvoUe. — (Ibid.
p. 161.)



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GttAMMATICAL PECULIABITIES. XXXIX

Of alle thise yefthes (of kende, of hap, and of grace) we ssel thonki
god and servi vor thet hi cometh alle of him. Thajles the proude
hise zelth to the dyevele vor thane vaUne peny of ydele blisse.

(Ayenbitey p. 24.)

tha3 me godne sckele hem telle,

Nau^t hyt ne ganth (avails).

{SliorehawHa Poeins, p. 135.)

I wylle me ssrive and ich wille zigge alle mine zennes aye me,
na^t of othrejiy ne ayens othren as doth the ypocrites. — {Ayenbite, p.
175.)

Efterward the ssrifte ssel by yhol najt to-deld ine vele ssriveres.
Vor me ssel zigge al to onen^ na^t o del to onen and thet other del to
anothrerif vor god ne taketh none hede of zuiche tales. — {Ibid. p. 175.)

Hit is more zenne in one stede thane ine anothren, — (Ibid.)

Thanne ssel he verst yzy the zeue dyadliche zennes, of huychen
we habbeth above yspeke, and yholliche of echen him ssrive be than
thet he him yvelth gelty, no-thing to hele, nothing wyth-zigge, na3t
him to defendi ne nenne othrenne wray. — (Ibid. p. 175.)

Hy ne thencheth ne studieth bote ham zelve to avonci and othren
to harmi Thet wyt is the develes wyt ase zayth Saint Jacob, thet
eche daye him vondeth othren to harmy. — (Ibid. p. 82.)

For hyre poer nys nou3t y-lessed
Ac toup aUe othren hys y-blessed.

(Shoreham, p. 127.)

To nonen. — (Ayenbite, p. 121.) To echen. — (Ibid. p. 122.)

To alien.— (Ibid. p. 145.) Be enne (by one).— (Ibid. p. 129.)

He wile deme evrinne be his dedes. — (Ibid. p. 134.)
In the herte of evrichen. — (Ibid. p. 146.)

II. Inflected Article (Definite).

In the Orrrmlum the definite article is uninflected, the only
remnant of the older inflexions being the phrase (still retained at the



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



xl



GILVMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.



present dgiy) * for than anea ' = for the nonce. So, too, in the North-
em dialect during the E. Eng. period the article remains the same
for all genders and cases — ^but not in the Southern dialect, in which
the masculine, feminine, and neuter forms, and some case endings, were
preserved as late as the middle of the fourteenth century, if not much
later.

In the Northern dialect that is the demonstrative adjective ; in
the Southern it is the neuter of the definite article.



SINGULAR.

Fern.



Masc,

Nom. fe, I feo,
Ifo,



Neut.

I pat.
I pet.



Gen.



' ( par, per,
Dat. pan, pare, pere.
pane,

Ace. < . > po,
pene, * '^

^pen.



|pes.»
pan.^

pan.



Nom. and Ace. po, peo, pa.



Gren.
Dat.



pare,
/pan.
( pane.



EXAMPLES :

Zueche tyeares drivep pane dyevel uram pe herte as pet weter
cachchep pane hond out of pe kechene. — (Ayenbite, p. 171.)

be pise virtue (pacience) pe guode overcomep alle

his vyendes, pane dyevel, pe wordle and pe^vless. — (Ibid. p. 167.)

Vor huanne man him berp hate to pe torment and pe zaule and
pet bodi, zuo pet pe man ne may slepe ne non rest habbe, oper huyl
him benimp pane mete and pane drinke and makep him valle ine ane
fevre oper ine zuiche zor3e pet he nimp pane dyap. — (Ibid. p. 31.)

pos he lyest al his time and pe nijt and pane day. — (Ibid, p. 62.)

Loke pet pou hal3i pane day of pe Sabat — (Ibid. p. 7.)

1 These forms are seldom used after 1300.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES. xli

serve fine sseppere f et him restede \taim zevende

day of workes pei he hedde ymad ine f e zix dayes bevore.

(Ibid. p. 4.)
Go we \tene narewe woi & pene wei grene.

(Moral Ode, p. 32.)

Eijt so hit farj) bi pan ungode

Jjat no3t ne suf to none gode,

And is so ful of uvele wrenche,

]}at him ne mai no man at-prenche,

And can wel pane fursstere wai

And pane hn^te wei lat awai — (Owl if N. p. 9.)

Tho hit was Eve thane Sonedai the deuelon come blaste.

(St Brandan, p. 27.)

The thrid dai than amorow grisful hit sal be to loke.

(Early Eng, PoeTua, p. 9.)

And so he lay al thulke tyme : and also thane friday.
He let clipie the Saterday tho fireres bifore him alle
And bed alle godne day. — (Lives of Saints, p. 39, 1. 198.)
. . . . Ofte heo gaf hem mede
For to faste thane fridai : to watere and to brede.

(Ihid. p. 71.)

And God zayj) ine his spelle fet huo fet zenejef aye pane holy
gost he ne ssel nevre habbe merci ine fise wordle ne ine fe ofre.

(Ayenbite, p. 28.)
To quendride his lif ere soster anon ho gan wende
And toldo here al pe lifere cas : fram bigynninge to pan ende.

(Uves of Saints, p. 63, L 198.)

He com of pan adel eye. — Owl if N. p. 5, L 133.)

Also hit is bi pan ungode

J)at is icumen of fule brode. — (Ibid, p. 6, L 129.)

Ine po manere and ine po vorbisne hef pe pn states of Godes
zone ine erj>e, htdche pe holy gost let and conduej), aze zayf Sainte
Tmel—(Ayenbite, p. 122.)



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Xlii GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

• •••••

Seynt Jame seythe that oreyson

Of iker holy byleve

Of hiis siknesse helthe wynthe,

• ••••«

That no fend schal reve the heljyo.

{ShorehanCs Poems, p. 41.)

Ich am that ly3t

Of alle ther wordle rounde aboute.

{lUd. p. 49.)

. . . ther mot atter spousynge
Be ryjt asent of bothe,
Of man and of ther wymman eke. — {Ibid, p. 57.)

bytemesse of mode

That hiis fhare saule galle. — {Ibid, p. 92.)

Therthe schok, the sonne dym by com
In thare tyde,— {Ibid, p. 86.)

Therfore nas belle nau^t yschet,

No dovelyn therinne nau3t ydut,

Ine thare crybbe. — {Ibid, p. 157.)

)X) stod on old stoc fax beside,

Jjar f o ule song hire tide,

And was mid ivi al bi growd ;

Hit was ^are hule earding-stowe, — {Owl ^ N, p. 2.)

]}e nijtingale hi isej,

And J)U3te wel wl of \are hale. — {Ibid, p. 231.)

Wostu to fan man was iboro ?

To \are blisse of hovene riche. — {Ibid, p. 25.)

Jje wranne, for heo cufe singe,
War com in fare more3eiing
To helpe \are iii3tegale. — {Tbid, p. 69.)
Of fisse riche (heaven) we fenchet oft
& of fere (helle) to selde. — {Moral Ode, p. 32.)



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL FEOULIABITIEti. xllu

To pere blisse us bringe god. fe rixlet abuten ende.

(Moral Ode, p. 34.)

In Shoreham's poems we have an example of the pL dative ^ane.

For ase wymman com of the ryb
Of the mannes ryjt syde,
So holyche spouse of God
Sprange of tJiane wonden wyde.

{Shorehaniy p. 80.)

III. Many of the older forms of thiSy wholly unknown in the
Northern dialect, are preserved in the Southern until a very late
period. It appears to have been declined as follows.



SINQXTLAB.

Mase. Fern. Neut,

/ feos, fos, )
Nom. J)es,> fis, | j^^g i j FS-

Gen. fises, fisse, fises.



fise,
])isen,



Dat ^T ' { bisse, bise.
" en, )



. bisne, besne, ) . .
Ace. '^ Vf 5 bisse, bis.

feme/ )



Nom. })eos, fes, f os, fis, f ise.

Gren. fise, fisse.
Dat. ])ise, Jiisen.

Ace. fes, fise.



1)68 bo3 hej) monie tuygges. — (Ayenhitey p. 41.)

& wi))}ame a lytel stounde \e8 man fat semede so colde <fc a fylo
mesel werf whyt &> fayr <fc sty^ up in to fe aer.

(CoUon MS, Vesp, D vii, foL 145 a.)
1)68 William regnede f ryttene jer a monf lasse.

(Ibid, fol. 145 a.)

}>e8 Odo wastede & destruyede pe kyng hys rentes and escheytcs.

(IMd,)
Jpes Edward was veyr of body. — (Ibid. fol. 291 b,)

})€3 (= this man, i.e. Lotharius) was a lettrede man.

{Ibid, fol. 280 b,)

> Betained as late as 1387. ' Betaiucd as late as 1340.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Xliv GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

In hys vnrdo jer fes (Honoriua) changedo
f e copes of freres carmes.

{Cottm MS. Vesp, D vii, foL 288 L)

pes seyde fat he was Ihesus Crist. — (Ibid, fol. 283 b,)

peo8 Corsa hadde a bole. — (Ibid, foL 28 b,)

pu€8 maydo was ywedded to Robert de Brui3. — (Ibid, foL 284.)

He lay by pties mayde. — (Ibid. foL 272 a.)

j3areuore fe kyng caste to wedde pttes wynche. — (Ibid,)

\>eo8 (these) fre lawes. — (Ibid. foL 45.)

J5t/^ (these) uorsede men .... chese f e uorsede Edward j>e
eldere to be here lord. — (Ibid, foL 289 b.)

plies voure breddes (birds) quaj) f e kyng bef my voure sones.

(Ibid. 270 b.)

On helle is imger & ferst^ vnele tuo ifere

pos pine foliede po f e were mete nithinges here.

(Moral Ode, p. 29.)

Sculde him elc man fe wile he mai of pos helle pine. — (Ibid, p. 31.)

p€08 hule abod fort (until) hit was eve. —(Owl ^ N. p. 2.)

Ac lete we awei \os cheste. — (Ibid. p. 7.)

Heo bigan to sike sore : and in tho3te stod

Alias heo seide that ich scholde thisne day evere abide.

(Lives of Saints, p. 51.)

Wend he seide whan thu horn comest to Edward joure kyng
And sai him that he for was love he 3af thisne ring
Him sende here his ring a3en and thonkede him also.

(Ibid, p. 106.)

Mid graate wille Ich habbe peme paske ywylned, fet is to zigge
feme dyaf, fise^ ssame, f/^e wendinge. — (Ayenbitey p. 133.)

peme = pesne, is peculiar to the Kentish dialect, and occurs in the
poems of Shoreham.'

■ ^tM shows that t$aim and wendinge are feminine nouns.
' For thou arcrcdst theme storm. — {Shorehamy p. 161.)



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES. xlv

Ofpisen we habbej) vayre vorbysne. — {Ayenbite, p. 218.)

In pise bene (fern.) pet we dof to gode we bezechej? ane yeff e of
fe holy gost — (Ibid, p. 89.)

Tliissere (gen. and dat. sing, fern.), A.S. pissere ; Thissere (gen.
and dat. pL), A.S. pissera occur in Shoreham's poems.

To thysaere joyen (joys) scholle be y-leyd (placed) alle the
joyen that ino3e (may) be yseyd (named). — {Shoreham^ p. 126.)

To thysaere joye longye (belong) scholle alle the joyen that
hyre (to her) foUe (may befall) of hyre chylde Gk)d. — (JUd, p. 123.')

6. The plural of Adjectives (mostly of Eomance origin) in -e«, as
waterea principaleay is unknown to the Northern dialect.

IV. Degreea of Compariaon.

Adjectives ending in -lich (sing.), -liche (pL), often form the com-
parative in 'luker or -loker (Kentish 4aker), This inflexion is
unknown in the Northern dialect, in which the affix •lich becomes -Ilk
(-like) -Zy, and the distinctions between the singular and plural forms,
as well as that between the adjective in -lich and the adverbial in
'liche, are lost sight ofl

The affix 4icli has not given us the more modem -ly. It is pro-
bable that this latter form has arisen from -lig (thus barley, originally
herlic, is corrupted into berlig and berley).

Traces of this corruption occur in the Ormulum, in which we meet
with the double endings of adjectives and adverbs in 4ike and -liy

V. Numerals

Some Southern numerals (ordinals) end in 4he, as aeofethe (sevethe),
seventh ; ei^tethe, eighth ; neo^ethe (nithe), ninth ; tethe (tethe),
tenth.'

The corresponding Northern numerals end in -nde, -nd, as aevend,
acMande, negJiendy tetuly and are doubtless of Danish origin.

The Kentish dialect, like the old Frisian, prefers -nde to -the,

> See pp. 53, 96, 121, 127 of Shoreham'a poems.
• The forms in -nth are Midland varieties.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



xlvi



OBAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.



1. Dropping of the final -n.

Seonen (seven), neo^en (nine), in the Southern dialect, frequently
drop the final -w> as aeove (sove) ; neo^e, nejo.

VI. Adjectives peculiar to the Southern dialect,

\ilk^ pilks, pulkf pidke (older fonns, fellicJi, peUichs) = this,
these, such-like, are not employed by Northern writers. They are
still retained in the modem provincial dialect under the fonn thick^
thuck, thicky.

BatJier, bathers (of both), samey tmn (two), thriti (three),
slik-e, silky sic (such), pir, per, \ere (these), are unknown to Southern
writers.

PRONOUNS.

Our pronouns are substantially Northern ones. The Southern
dialect had many pronominal fonns which never occur in any
Northern writer.

The following table exhibits most of the Southern forms, in use
during the xiiith and xivth centuries : —

I. The personal pronouns are : Ich (I), ]m, pou (thou), he (he),
heo (she), hit (it).





SINQULAB.




DUAL.


PLURAL.


Nom.


Ich, uch, Jju, J?ou.


Nom.


wit.


wa


Gen.


min, mi, fin,* J)L


Gren.


unker,


ure, ur.


Dat


"


Dat.


unc, \




Ace.


me, J?e.


Ace.


unk, 1
hunke, )


ous, us.






Nom.


get, git,


je,ya






Gen.


( gunker,
I inker.


eower,
. jure, youre.






Dat


gunk,


eow, ow, ou,
30U, yow.






Ace.


ink,



1 min and >m are used before words beginning with a Yowel \'mi and ]^ before
a consonant. They follow the declension of the adjective, making in the obliqae
cases miney Y^nej mmm, ^inm, &c.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



SINGULAR.

Maac. Fern, Neut
rheo, ■

l^om. J ha, "< hy, >-
he, I he,
I hue, -



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

PLURAL.



xlvii



hit,
it.



Gen.
Dat

Ace.



his, hire, his.
him^ hire, him.
hine, J 1 hit.



Nom. hi, hii, heo, hue.

( hire, here, heore,
( huere, hor.
Dat. heom, huem, hem, hom«

Ace. hi, his, hise.



leh^ or Uch is still retained in the modem Southern dialects
under the forms Uch and utchy^ and occasionally contracted into ch
(as cham = I am, chelly chilly I will). Eobert of Gloucester fre-
quently writes Icholle = Icfi wolle, I will ; Ichot = Ich wot, I know,
/c,* Ihy /,' are corresponding Northern forms.

/ occasionally occurs in the Southern dialect: (1.) before verbs
commencing with a dental or nasals as / nam, I am not ; / not^ I
know not ; (2.) after verbs, as mostly I must ; wollyy I wilL

Thritti wynter and tliridde half yer
Havy woned in londe her.

(Harrowing of Helly p. 15.)

Thou miht wyten in thy lay

That mine woUy have away. — (Ibid,)

Thah men to me han onde,

To love ntUy noht wonde

Ne lete for non of tho. — (Lyric PoemSy p. 29.)

There thou me nou, hendest in helde

Navy the none harmes to hethe. — (Ibid, p. 37.)



^ In the earlier periods of the laognage, Ic is the ordinary form.

* Many editors hare incorrectly jHrinted ie instead of ieh for the contraction P.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Xlviii GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

Mosti ryden by EyLbesdale
Wilde wymmen forte wale.

{Lyric Poema, p. 33.)

Ne sixtu wel icham aliue, iclwlle scgge hou it is.

{R. of Gl. foL 51 a.)

Hii verde icJwt as gyd^e men mid wan no red nas. — (Ibid,)

Icholle sulle min (lif) dere ynou, — {Ibid, foL 67 h,)

Thulke Woden adde a wyf that ycluped was Dame Frye
A Latin Dame Venus as ichahhe ysed nou tuye.

{Ibid, foL 69 a.)

An hendy hap ichahhe y-hent
Ichot from heuene it is me sent.

{Lyric PoemSy p. 28.)
See Lyric Poems^ p. 94.

Vor icham mid min fon in eche half biset

&> jif ichom may ouercome. thorn jou the bet

Ich jou wolle mid me at-holde and in gret richesse 30U do.

{R. of Gl foL 39.)

For wolny, rndni, hi sul fle and that in-to the pine of helle.

{Early Eng, Poems^ p. 12.)

II. A or Ha = He.

This form is very common in all the Southern dialects, but never
occurs in any Northern writer. It is still preserved in the modem
provincial dialects of the South of England.

Moi belovad be loik a raw or a yoong hart : Zee ! a' stand'th
behind our wall a* look*th voath at th* winders, zhowing hiszel droo
th* lattice. — {Song of SolomoUy Somersetshire veraion.)

Tha voice uv ma beluvid ! behold ?ia com'th laipin apin tha
mowntins. — {Song of SolonuMy Devonshire version.)

Every body kneows owld Bamzo, as wears his yead 0' one zide.
One night a was coming whoame vrom market, and veil oifs hos into
the road, a was zo drunk. — {Akerman^s Wiltshire Tales)



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES. xlix

Trevisa uses a as an indefinite of the 3rd pers. pro. = he, she,
it, they.

Hy (they) habbej) no wodes J?erfore a makef ham fuyr of tomes.

{Cott. MS., Vesp. D vii, foL 28.)

J>ar buj) also cicade bryddes fat synggef atte beste & habbej) a
pipe opon onder f e frote & syngge}» betre whane fe heued is oflfe fan
whyle hyt ys on & betre whanne a bej) deed fan whyle Ipny buf
2ljYQ,^IUd, fol. 29 h.)

He ran home to uore & prayede hys wyf fat hv£ wolde helpe for to
saue hym fat as moche as hue myjte hue scholde make here self uoul,
bote a dude fe contrary, <fec. — {lUd. foL 222.)

Yn f is ylond growef a ston fat hatte gagates ; . . . . a ys ablak

as gemmes buf a brennef yn water, Ac. — {Trevisa, quoted in

Mort-is* Specijtiens of Early Evglish, p. 334.)

Also fer ys yn f e cop of an hul a burycl ; everych man fat comef
& metef fat buriel a schal fynde hyt evene ry3t of hys onne meete &
^ef a pylgrym of er eny wery man kneolef f erto, anon a schal be al
fersch & of werynes schal he feele non nuy. — {Tbid, p, 337.)

This pronoun is used by Robert of Gloucester and Shoreham.
King Arthure ajen fe brest is felawe verst ahitte,
A3en fe brust fat a vul <fc ne mi3te no leng sitte.

{R, of Gl, Cott. MS., Calig. A xi, fol. 57 h)

Ac a deythe (dies) and he not (knows not) wanne (when).

(Sh/rreham*8 Poems, p. 3.)

In the foreheved the crouche a set (setteth). — (Ibid. p. 15.)
Ha (Crist) grade *hely' to hys fader.— (/frw/. p. 86.)
Dan Michael uses only the older form Ha^ = he.
Ha beat (beats) and smit and (both) wyf and children ase ha
were out of his wytte. — (Ayenbite, p. 30.)

1. Hine (ace). Him.
In the Southern dialect hine is found as late as 1340. It still

■ In the older stage of the language, called Semi-Saxon, ha = she and they.

e



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



1 GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

exists in the modem provincial dialects of the South of England
under the forms -en or -un, No trace of this accusative is to be found
in any Northern writers ; nor is it used in the Ormulum, one of the
earliest of Midland productions, where its place is supplied by the
dative him.

EXAMPLES.

A kni3t wyih. one scharpe spere

Stang hi;ne i the ry3t syde. — {Shoreham's PoemSy p. 86.)

j)e dyevel f erto proprelich uondej) fane man : fet he hine my3to
wyfdnge uram fe loue of God. — {Aymhite, p. 116.)

Jpe wrechche ne J)engJ) of him f et hine halt. — {Ihid, p. 128.)

Third Personal Pronoun, Fendiiine,

The Southern personal pronoun of the 3rd person is Heo, which
occasionally takes other forms, as Hi (Kentish), as hiie (South
Western). Ueo, lie, Hue, is used as late as 1 387. See extracts, p. xlix.

The corresponding Northern form is Sco or Sho (Midland Sche),
which seems to have arisen out of the older (or A.S.) Seo or Sio,^
and gradually to have crept into the Southern dialect towards the
end of the xivth century, for we find it once or twice in Tre visa's
translation of Higden's Polychronicon (1387), where liAio or hue is the
ordinary form.*

" Siborea made gret mone to-fore Judas of here wrechehede lyf &
sorouful ; how heo hadde yput here yonge sone in to J)o stremes, how
heo lost hero hosbond sodeynliche & how shee was ymaryed ajenes
here v^yM^r— {Cotton MS., Ve»j>. D mi, fol. 137 a.)

Hi or hy, her, ace, is used as late as 1327-77.

The nijtingale hi isej (the owl)
And hi bihold and over-se3.
An thu3te wel wl of thare hule
For me hi halt lodlich and fule. — {del 4' N'- p. 2.)

1 Ze = she, occurs once in the Ayenbito, p. 1 02. In the story of Genesis and
Exodus (£. Midland dialect) 9ye {sge) occurs several times.

' 1 do not find ao earlier instance of tlie use of site in any pure Southern writer.
It should bo noticed, perhaps, that such a form as seo or sio would not become bhe
but 96 (zc) or 81 (zi) ; but she arises out of a form like iceo or 8c<b.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES. U

And [thu] lerdest hi to don shome

An unrijt of hire licome. — {Owl ^ N. p. 36.)

Senne (= fern.) hys swete and lyketh,
Wanno a man hi deth
And also soure hy bryketh (=: brooketh)
Wane he venjaunce y-seth.

(Sh^reham'8 Poems, p. 102.)
To healde hy (erthe) op hyt nys no ned. — (Il^ifl p. 136.)

Personal Pronoun, 3rd Person Plural,

Hii, Hi, Heo^ = they ; heore, hure, hnere, hor, hare = their, lieom
(huem, hem, horn, ham) =thein, are Southern forms (retained as late
as 1387), the corresponding Northern ones being Thai (tha), thair
(thar), thaim (tham).*

Hi^ them, is retained as late as 1327-77 by Shoreham.

EXAMPLES.

Ac he that ine saule is Strang,

That he with-stent hi aJle,
And hardeliche hert othre men,

Adoun that hi no falle.

ac stonde. — {Shoreham's Poems, p. 14.)

Anon })e foend fondeth hy so,

And he ne spareth nanne. — {Ibid. p. 16.)

See also pp. 92, 94, 97, 112.

The forms hor and horn are, perhaps, Western and South-western
forms. The Kentish dialect employs hare (hire) and ham,

Hise {His, is), (ace.) = them.

Until I saw the Midland version of Grenesis and Exodus, I was
under the impression that hise {is) = them, was peculiar to the South-
em dialect. But though it makes its appearance in some of the Mid-

^ Ee » they (East Midland) seems to have arisen out of Hia or Hie.

* Their, Theim (them), are Midland varieties. )>«^, )>^r, occur in the Ormulura.
Yei occurs in an East Midland MS., Trin. Col., Camb. (xiiith cent.), and in the
Story of Genesis and Exodus. )>0y is used occasionally by Trevisa.

e2



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



lii GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

land dialects, having Southern tendencies, it is never employed by
any Northern writer.

Dr Guest has shown that this pronoun answers to the Gothic iW,
ace. of eis. The oldest form of the pronoun in English appears to
have been Ties,

EXAMPLES.

Jjou zayst J?et J?ou hest zixti year, fe dyaj? hise hef and neuremo
his nele J?e yelde. — (Aijenbite, p. 71.)

God ne hef hede of kueade yefj^es ac he his louef trewe and guode.

(Ibid. p. 192.)

Alast thanne thet he [God] is vader be kende and be ri3te, he
loveth thet he heth ymad, ase zayth the hoc of Wysdome, and is
zuete and milde and zuo loveth and drajth vorth his children, and
ham deth hare prou, and botere thanne hi conne devisi ; and he ^?^
byat and his chasteth huanne hi misdoth, vor hare prou ase guod
vader and bletheliche he his ondervangth huanne hi cometh to hym.

(Ibid, p. 100.)

Of France & of oJ?re londes fat we wonne mid ure mijte.
We mowe segge fat we nabbeth to ansuerye nojt mid ri3te.
Whan hii vorsoko is & vor slewfe & to none defense ne come
J)o we foru chiualerie out of hor poer is nome.

(/?. of 01 foL 60 6.)

Tho caste this gode molde hire mantel of anon
& gurde aboute hire middel a vair linne scete
& wess the meseles vet . echone ar heo lete
& wipede is nessce afterward . &> custe is wel suete.

{Ibid. foL 123 h.)

3ef he hye (Godes hestes) breketh and so byloefth,

Hys saule schal he spylle.

3ef thou hys halst man, God the seith,

Ha wole be the so kende,

He wole be f o to thyne fon,

And frend to thyne frende. — {ShorehanCs PoemSy p. 90.)

Ten hestes haueth yhote God,



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES. liu

He hys wrot (and) Moyses by-toke.



In ston ich wot that he hya wrot,
In tokne of sykemesse.

(Shoreham's PoemSy;ip. 92.)

Hise (hys, is), (ace.) = her.

The Gothic Si = she, makes gen. izos, dat. izai; a cognate root is



Online LibraryDan MichelDan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D → online text (page 4 of 42)