Dan Michel.

Dan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D online

. (page 5 of 42)
Online LibraryDan MichelDan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D → online text (page 5 of 42)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


probably preserved in the Southern form his ^ her.

Jjulke soide (/em.) nymej) his (= herself) in and bilevef iwis
In j>e childes brayn anhej fat is pe soule J?at hext is.

{Popular Science, p. 140.)

And jyf man halt ase hys wyf

After the gelt [as] hys spouse,
Tha^ he by hyre ne ligge nou3t,
Other halt hys ine hys house.
In tome,
Ne schal hy naujt departed be
Fram hym for hordome.

{ShorehawHs Poems, p. 77.)

Ho (who) halt ys (erthe) o^%—{Ihid, p. 136.)

Josephes Ihevdy, tho hy vand alone him, hi wold do him zeneji
mid hire, ac he him vledde ase wys and hise vorlet.

(Ayenbite, p. 206.)

The guode man mid the rede of his wyue yeaf his cou to the
preste thet wes riche. the prest hi nom blethliche and hise zente to
the othren thet he hedde. — {Ibid. p. 191.)

Mochel is defouled, mid the vet of volleres, the robe {/em,) of
scarlet, er-than thet the kuen his do an. — {Ibid. p. 167.)

Thervore the dyevel playth ofte mid the zenejere ase deth the cat
mid the mouse {fern.), thanne he his heth ynome, and huanne he heth
mid hire longe yplayed thanne he his eth (eateth). — {Ibid. p. 179.)

And of Alisondre me ret thet he yaf ane cite {fern.) to onen of his
sergons an huanne the ilke hise wolde forzake, vor thet grat thing him



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



liv GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

tho3te to nime zuych yefthe ; Alisondre answerede and zayde * Ich ne
loky najt thet belongeth the to nimene ac me to yeue.'

(Ayenbiief p, 195.)
See also p. 203.

He wende him worj? to chirche, & bivore the rod com,

& mid mek herte pitosliche is kinges croune (= fem.) nom

& sette u vpe pe rode (fem.) heved (head of the Cross).

(R of Gl. foL 93 a.)

Possessive Pronoinis.

The forms urs (ours), yhures (yours), Mrs (hers), thairs (theirs),
appear frequently in Northern works written during the earlier part
of the xivth century ; and from the fact that the Ormulum, whose
tendencies are Northern, uses pe^jrs (theirs),* we may reasonably
suppose that these forms were in use much earlier. The Southern
corresponding forms were ure, eowere, yure, hire, here. The Northern
dialect has also such forms as allirs and bathers = Southern aire (or
alder), of all, and heire, of both.

In the Lord's Prayer in the Northern version of the Cursor
Mundi we have the phrase * fader ures,^ In a Southern work of about
the same date we have the corresponding phrase * fader owre.*

The following examples will illustrate the use of the possessive
pronouns in the two dialects.

On of hem wile fi3te

Ajen [other] thre kni3te«

3ef other thre slen ure

Al this lond beo ^oure ;

3ef we ure on ouercometh 3awre^ three

Al this lond schal ure beo. — (King HorUy p. 3, E. E. T. S.)

A man of thair gains an of ur
If urs mai him win in stTir,
That thai be urs & thair airs (heirs) ;
If thai win urs that we be thairs.
{Northern version of Cursor Mundi, Cott, MS, foL 42.)

' In some Midland writers we find heret and hiores s theirs.
' A Northumbrian could say yow$ three.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GR.VMMAT1CAL PECULIARITIES. Iv

Some few Midland dialects employ the forms ouren, youren^
heren. This seems to have arisen from the adjectival use of these
forms. (In the Ayenbite we find thinen and hlren in the dative case.)

Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns.

The nominative fe is seldom used in the Southern dialect after
1250, }^et or fo^ being the ordinary relative in all dialects. Shoreham
uses J)e occasionally,' and many other Southern writers preserve the
dative and accusative forms, thane, thun (that), whan, wan (which,
what), never employed by Northern writers.

EXAMPLES.

Therefore thys tale rymeth
Hou men in senne beth,
And hou senne ly-lymeth
Tlian that to senne hym deth.

{Shoreham! s Poenis, p. 104.)

To wyte (know) thunne wat God hi^t (= hot = bids)
Is echo man wel y-halde (bound). — (Ibid, p. 91.)

And jet for al pan bi is daie, thoru hor lujjer mode
Hii brojte oure louerd Ihesu Crist to dejje on the rode.

(R of Gly Cotton MS foL 23 b.)

An hwanne heo habbeth me of-slahe,

Heo hongeth me on heore hahe

Thar ich a-schewele pie an crewe

From than, the thar is i-soma — {Oiol ^ N, p. 55.)

The thridde condicion thet ssel by in elmesse is, thet me (one)
ssel yeue largeliche be than (according to that) thet me heth huerof

* The sixte heste scheweth wel
The sothe to al mankenne,
The dede y-do in lechery
Hys ryjt a dedleche senne.
And ellea nere hyjt naujt
Forbode amange the hestes tenne ;
27ie that seggeth hys nys nanjt,
So hare wyt is al to thenne. .

{SJioreham* 8 Poema, p. 99.)



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ivi grammaticaI peculiarities.

tho wyse zayth * Yef to God be t?ian thet lie heth the y-yeue.'

(AyenbUe, p. 195.)

The ilke thet is zuo he3e arise ine prosperite thength in his herte
verst to the dignete, efterward to his prosperity, efter tlian to his
richesse efterward to his lostes thet his body heth, efter than to the
greate velajrede thet him vol3eth. — {Ibid, p. 24.)

The thridde werre thet the wrethvoUe heth is to than thet byeth
onder him, thet is, to his wyve and to his mayne. — {Ibid. p. 30.)

BLit is a perilous ziknesse thet no may najt tholye thet me him
take, and to than thet alle medicines went in to venim. — {Ibid. p. 22.)

Nou ich the habbe ssortliche yssewed hnyche byeth the lyttle
guodes and the midel guodes ; nou ich the wylle ssewy huet ys the
zothe guod arijt, thet maketh than thet hise heth guod ; and wyth-
oute ham non ne wes nevre ari3t guod. — {Ibid. p. 79.)

Saynt Ion ase we habbeth yzed toparteth zeue overcomeingges
and zeue crounes, thet is to zigge, zeue maneres of medes thet God
behat to than thet ouercometh. — {Ibid. p. 170.)

Two kuynden he (Crist) hajj, we witen bi fon

J3at he is so J? God and sof mon. — {Castel of Love^ p. 60.)

Tho hide one wile hi bi-thojte
And after than this word up-brojte.

ipfol 4r N. p. 8.)
Telstu bi me the wurs for than
That ich bute anne craft ne kan. — {Ibid. p. 28.)

Ich not hu mai eni freo man

For hire sechen after than
3ef he biweneth bi hwan he lai

Al mai the luve gan awai. — {Ibid. p. 52.)

Ac after than the he haved idon . he seal ther beon idemed.
Blithe mai he thanne buen . the god haved iquemed.

{Moral Ode, p. 27.)

Efterward thench hou velezithe thou hest yby onbojsam to thine



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES. Ivii

vader and to thine moder and to than to huam thou ssoldest bou3e
and here honoure. — {Ayenhite, p. 21.)

This zenne [of prede] is ybonnde ine than thet be his 05ene
mouthe him yelpth other of his wytte, other of his kenne, other of his
workes, other of his prouesse, &c. — {IHd, p. 22.)

An sum sot mon hit tihth thar-to

Mid alle than that he mai do. — {Owl ^ N, p. 49.)

Wostu to than man was ibore

To thare blisse of hovene-riche. — {Ibid. p. 25.)

Evre-ilc man mid than the he haved mai biggen heuene-riche.

{Moral Ode, p. 24.)

. . bi than je wite than ende.

{Lives of Saints, p. 72.)

Anon so hi se3e the monekes come, hi gonne to singe ymone,
A3en hem with gret melodie, as hit were for than one.

(St Brandon, p. 17.)

This holi man makede loudere song as hit for than one were.

{lUd. p. 21.)

Thyse byeth the tuelf articles of the Cristene Byleve thet ech man
Cristen ssel yleve stedevestliche (vor otherlaker he ne may by yborje)
huanne he heth wyt and scele ; and ther-of byeth tuelf by the tale
of the tuelf Apostles thet hise zette to hyealde and to loky to aUe
thon * thet wyleth by ybore. — {Ayenbite, p. 11.)

The vifte article zuo is, thet ha wente into helle efter his dyathe
vor to dra^e thannes and to delivri the zaules of the holi vaderes and
of alle thon thet vram the gininnge wordle storve in zoth and guode
byleave, and ine hope thet hi ssolden by ybor^e. — {Ibid, p. 12.)

And thet he is ase the ymaymed ate porche of the cherche thet
ne heth none ssame vor to sseawy alle his maimes to alle th^on thet
ther guoth vor thet me ssolde habbe of him pite. — {Ibid. p. 135.)

He naveth bute one woning
That his bischopen muchel schome,
' )>on is pluraL



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Iviii GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

An alle titan that of his nome

Habbeth i-hert and of his dede.— (OerZ ^ K p. 61.)

The stone upe whan ich sitte that maketh me sitte above
In a wei ich him fond ligge, ther no neod nas to ston.

{St Brandan, p. 27.)

Icholle the make of this lond kyng thou ssalt yse
& this lond al be thin : & the othre bruteine be
Vor honour of bruteyne to wan thou addest kundo.

(7?. of Gl fol. 34.)

Ac ajen somer the emperour tho he adde al an honde
Wende horn towarde Rome and mid gret love
Nom with him the erl of Kent thoru wane he was above.

{Ibid. fol. 23.)

He let at Eome an stronge dich make al abouto

& deop ajen Constantin & ajen is route

Vor to holde hom ther, thoru icanne hii come with oute.

{lUd, fol. 31 K)

Tho adde he al is wille vor ioanne it was al ido.

{Ihid, fol. 38.)

This were lo ure faderes of wan we beth Bnththe ycome
That with such treyson abbeth this lond thus ynome.

{Ihid, foL 42 K)
Hwat senile we beren biforen us.
mid wan senile we him iquemen.

{Moral Ode, p. 25, L 48.)
To wan were hi i-borene
The senile ben to dethe idemd & evre mo forlorene.

{lUd. p. 25, L 53.)

Ac heo nas no^t ahwar : to whan hire hurte drouj.

{Seinte Margarete, p. 25.)

By ryjte toknynge thou ert the hel

Of ioan spellede DanyeL
Thou ert Emaus, the ryche castel,



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PBCULIARITIES. lix

Thar resteth alle werye ;
Ine the restede Emanuel,

Oiwany^ speketh Ysaye. — {ShoreJiamy p. 133.)

Seint Dunstan com horn a3en ; & faire was iinderfonge
Ladde his abbey al in pees, fram whan he was so longe.

(Lives of Saints, p. 37.)
We scolden alle us bi-thenche oft and wel ilome
hwet we beth and to than we senile & of wan we come.

(Moral Ode, p. 32.)

VEEBS.

Present Tense, Indicative Mood,

For the various dialectical forms in the present tense of the

Indicative Mood, the reader is referred to Early Eng, Allit. Poems,

Introduction, pp. xx.-xxi. ; Genesis and Exodus, Introduction, pp.

xvii, xxvii.

Third Person Singular in -th.

Jennings, in his Observations on the Dialects of the West of
England, notices the fondness for the inflexion -th (not -eth), instead
of -es, in the 3rd per. sing, indie. This may be illustrated in the
following passage from the Song of Solomon in the Devonshire
version :

A cowHth jumpin upon the moimtains. He stanHh behaine our
wolL He leukHh voath vrem the kezment an' slwwHh his zel ta th*
lattice.— (Ch. ii. 8, 9.)

In the Southern dialect of the Early Eng. period we find the
same fondness for the inflexion -th. In many cases it distinguishes
the singular from the plural, as ^ink^ = appears, \>inkef = appear.

Ac thanne he (the dronke) heth yslepe, and comth to him zelue
thanne he yvdth his kuead and knatdh his folye and him playneth*
of his harm,

Aten ende the zene3ere, ase zayth Salamon is ase the ilke thet
slepth amide the ze and thet ssip stpUth and he ne najt hit ne vdth
ne none drede ne heth. — (Ayenlite, p. 128.)

1 For wane ? ^ Playfuth has playny for the infinitive, and therefore does

not suffer contradiction ; its ploral would be playnUth,



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ix GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

Preterite TensCj Singvlar Number, Indicative Mood.

The preterite tense* (first and third persons singular) of regular
verbs terminates in -de, as lovede, hopede, &c There is no final -e in
the singular of irreg^dar verbs, e. g. slow (= slew), mnot (= smote).
In Northern writers we often meet with such forms as aloghe (slew),
smote (smote), which in the Southern dialect would be considered as
plurals.

Second Person Singular, Preterite Indicative of Irregular Verbs.

In the oldest English or A.S. period the second person of irregular
verbs ended in -e, as heolde = heldest, droge = drewest. Those that
change the vowel of the preterite plural, admit of vowel change in
the 2nd pers. sing., as bunde (boundest)^ drife (drovest), dufe
(cleavedst or clovest).

The Southern dialect of the Early English period haa numerous
examples of this final -e in the 2nd pers. sing., but it is exceedingly
rare in Northern writers. Dr Guest has already pointed out that the
author of the Ormulum exhibits a tendency to omit this -6, as badd
= baddest.

Enes thu sunge, ic wod wel ware

Bi one boure, and woldest lere

The lefti to an uvel luve

An sunge bothe 1030 and buve

An lerdest hi to don shome. — (jOwl ^ N. p. 36.)

Thar-to fou stde in a day

And leidest thor-on thy fole ey. — {Ibid, p. 104.)

Slowe thu the holi prophete : to wrothere hele dudestu so.

{Pilate, p. 116.)

Ihesu for loue thou stelie on rode,
For loue thou se^e thin heorte blod.

{Lyric Poems, p. 69.)

Thu ^eue us weole and wunne
Thu brohtest dai, and Eve nijt.

{Edig. Songs, p. 65.)
^ It is thus distinguished from the past participle which ends in -m^



^



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



ORAMMATlCx\L PECULIARITIES. Ixi

Icli wille speke toward the

Also thu ^teke toward me. — {Owl ^ N. p. 20.)

And levedy, the was wel wore,
Tho (when) that thou ae^e in dede
Thy leue childe reulyche y-nome
And ase a thef forthe lede.

{ShoreharrCs PoemSy p. 83.)

Preterite Tense, Plural Nmnber, Indicative Mood of Regular Verba,

The plural of the preterite in the Southern and Midland dialects
terminates in -en}

The -n is, however, frequently dropped, as in the following
examples : —

& alle the men that hii fmnde hii slowe as hii come,

{R, of Gl. foL 34.)

And the peces flowe ahoute

And smt/te on this lithere men . wel harde to the grounde.

{St KatheriTie, p. 96.)

Hi nonie ken hokes of ire : and hire flesche to-gnowe. — {Ibid,)

In norjjhumberiand hi higonne & thor hi slo^e to grounde.

{Ibid, p. 87.)

& hi 86)6 hire (the cou) sitte a dai in the valeye ther-doune.

{St Kenelm,p, 54.)

Votoel change in the Plural Pretente of Irregular Verbs.
The Southern dialect, as in the older stages of the language,
changes the vowel of the preterite pL of that class of verhs repre-
sented by Unden (to bind), driven (to drive), eleven (to cleave), in
which the vowel of the pret. pL is the same as the past participle.
The Northern dialect does not furnish us with any examples of this

vowel change.

And (hi) yeueth ham to sterus vor the loue of him (Crist) thet

I The Northern dialect has no inaexion in the sing, or pi. pret



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ixii



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.



gtarf vor ham, other ine the londe beyende the ze other ine anothre
stede. — {Ayenhitey p. 165.)

Ha wente into helle .... to delivri the zaules of the holi vaderes
and of alle thon thet vram the giningge of the wordle starve in zoth
and guode byleaue, &c. — (Jbid, p. 12.)

Alle hi storum in zorje ine the desert. — (Jhid, p. 67.)

And hor either ajen other gaderede hor ost vaste
So that hii come and smite an bataile atte laste.

(7?. of Glcmcestery Cott. MS,, Calig, A xl, fcL 29.)

For meni men ^ijve oure louerd god : that were of gode tho3t
To susteynie his apostles. — {Judas Iscariot, p. 110.)

Preterite forms of Regular Verbs peculiar to the Southern dialect,

1. Some few verbs in the Southern (and in some of the Midland
dialects) ending in -che or -ge often make their preterites and past
participles in -nte {-nde) and -nt {-nd),

Prei.

icleinte
clente
dreynte
C meinde
( meynde
queynte
seinde
seinte



Inf.

clenche (fasten)

drenche (drown)

menge (mix)

quenche (quench)
senge (singe, toast)
sinke (sink)

springe (sprinkle)



Past Pare,
icleint
iclent
idreynt
imoind
imeynd
iqueynt
iseind
iseint
ispreynt
ispreynd



/ spreynte
( spreynde

2. The preterites of such verbs as drede, lede, sprede, Ac, were in
the Northern dialect dredde, ledde, spredde, forms which are also
found in the Southern idioms, but in the latter dialects we often
find a change of vowel, as

Inf. Pret.

m

drede (dread) dradde idrad

grede (cry) gradde igrad



Past Part,
iclad



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.



Ixiii



Inf.


Pret.


Past Part.


lede (lead)


ladde


Had


leve (leave)


lafte


ilaft


reve (bereave)


rafte


iraft


schede (shed)


schadde


ischad


sprede (spread)


spradde


isprad


swelte (die)


swalte


iswalt


threte (threaten)


thratte


ithrat



Infinitive Mood in -en ; Gerund in -enne or -ene.

The Northern dialect drops the -en^ of the infinitive, which is
retained by the Southern and Midland dialects. The -n is mostly
dropped, and the final e strongly sounded represents the older
inflexion -aw, as kreope, to creep, yeue, to give.^

The gerundial infinitive in -enne or -ene (originally in -anne or
enne) survived as late as 1340. It more often takes the inflexion -6
of the infinitive.'

Ich ne loky na3t fet belonge]) pe to nimene ac me to yeue.

(Ayenbite, p. 195.)

He ous yef ]) his blod to drinke and his vless to etetis,

(Ibid, p. U6.)

The inflexion -enne of the gerundial infinitive being pronounced
very much like the present participle in -inde or -endey is very often
confounded with it, and before the date at which Lajamon's Brut
was written we find the participle in -inde or -ende doing duty as
the gerund ; thus, to helpinde = to hetpennsy to help.

"When the -inde or -ende became -inge or -ing the mistake still held
its ground, as we find late in the xivth century such forms as to
kepynge z=.to kepene =to keep, &c.



1 In the Northern dialect we meet with many verbs ending in -en, but they are
not to be regarded as infinitives, but rather the earliest examples of such forms aa
lighUfiy darken (= to make light, to make dark), &c.

• This full form -en is frequently used by poetical writers as a convenient rhym-
ing syllable.

' What some writers have called the long forms of the infinitive used by
Chaucer, ud to <ione, to slane, are in reality gerundial infinitives. .



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ixiv GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

Damascus ys to menyng schedyng blod.

{Tremsa, 1387 Cotton MS,, Tib, D vii, foL 9 a.)

Hy (they) ^taujte ham to hontyng and to schetijng.

(Ibid, £61 15 a.)

Also he hadde sum tyme yuonge to kepijnge his dou3ter of
Frauns, vor a scholde marye here to his sone. — {Ibid, foL 272 a.)

Jjues men wonede under fe hulles of Jude .... and wente
(turned) to robbynge & reuynge, — {Ibid, foL 281 b,)

Infinitives in -ie or -y.

Infinitives in -/e, -ye, or -y^ (from older forms in i-an\ are exceed-
ingly common in the Southern dialect as late as 1387. No trace
whatever of this inflexion is to be found in any Northern work, and
though met with in the West Midland are of rare occurrence in the
East Midland dialect of the xivth century. They are still retained in
some of the modem dialects of the South of England.*

" Chell whistley and zing and capery vor oU yow cheesen."

{Exmoor dialed.)
Present Participlejt,

The present participle in the Southern dialect terminates in -inde.
in the Northern in -ande {'<ind) : as Southern lovinde, Northern
lovande {lovand).

As early as the beginning of the xivth century we find a tendency
in some of the Southern and Midland dialects to use the form in
•inge (-ing) instead of -inds or ende,*

In Trevisa's translation of Higden's Polychronicon, written 1387
{Cotton MS,, Tib, D vit), there are no examples of participles in
-ende ; all end in -inge or ing.

In the Northern dialect the -and was employed as late as the
xviith century.

1 Many verbs adopted from the Romance dialects took this inflexion, as ehatiy
= chastise ; erouny, to crown ; aovy, to save, &c.

> Dr Barnes has shown that they still exist in Dorsctdhire, as mowy^ to mow ;
Eaipy^ to sow.

* 'end is a Midland form, and is frequently used by Gower ; »ande (-and) was
ailopted in some of the Midland dialects, and is most frequently employed by East
and West Midland writers. The participial form in -iny is no doubt a corruption



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES. IxV

Past Participles,

1, In the Southern dialect up to a very late period the /- or y-
(A.S. ge) was retained as the prefix of the past participle : as idemd^
judged ; ihotCy called.

No instances of this prefixal element is to he found in any
Northern writers. In Midland works with Northern tendencies, like
the Ormulum, the t-* is frequently dropped.

The modern Southern dialects have corrupted this prefix into
a, as ayete = eaten ; abroke, broken.

2. Past Participles of Strong or Irregular Verbs originally ended
in -en: as ibrokeUy broke ; icorveriy cut; ifaren, gone. Southern writers
frequently omit the -», as in the following passages,^

J)e tyding to fe contasse sone was yeomen
J)at hire louerd was aslawe & fe castel ynome,

(R. of G., Cotton MS., Calig., A xl, fol. 61 a.)

ycome =* ycoinen (come) ; ynome = ynomen (taken).

But when the participle is used a^Jjectivally in the plural, the
full form is often retained, as yhoundene (bound), ybrokene (broken) .

Northern writers never omit the -w, and instead of ycome,
ynome, &c., write comen, nomen, &c.

Negative Verbal Forms,

The Northern dialect makes but little use of negative forms,
which are very common in Southern writers.

nam, am not ; nis, is "not.
neSfWaa not ; nere, were not.

of 'ind^ and hot of -enele or -ande. As before observed, there is good evidence for
supposing that the sounds of -ifuU and -t'tiffe (and -en ; see O.nesia and Exodus,
p. xxxyiii.) were closely related ; in fact, we find kervynge (= kervinde = cutting)
rhyming ytith fynde.

** He hath in his front strong,
An horn foure feet long,
So as Y in bokcs/y/wfe

No rasour is so kervynge.*'— {K. Alya., 11. 6551-2.)
» This y or t is frequently found : 1. in other parts of the verb, as yleve, to believe ;
yknau^^ knows (Ayenbite), 2. In nouns, a^ yjlon^ arrows ; yvon, foes ; ibede
(prayers). 3. In adjectives, as yredy^ realy ; ywer^ wary {Ayenbite). 4. In ad-
verbs, as yhme, frequently ; ytnene (in common).

^ All Trevisa's past participles of strong verbs end in -e.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ixvi GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES.

nahbcj have not ; neth, hath not
nadcy had not ; not^ knows not.
nostf knowest not ; nuste, knew not
nUhy nilej will not

Verbal prefixes peculiar to the Southern dialect

1, An (a), as anginne {anginne)^ to begin. Angrise (agrise), to
terrify. Anhete, to inflame, kindle. Anhitte, to strike. Anhonge
to hang. Anlikny^ to compare.*

2. Of : (a.) for (negative), o/yinche == for think, repent ; of-guo =
forgo ; of-holde^ withhold.^ (&.) for, as in ofseche^ seek for ; of sendee
send for.

^. At (A.S. (Bt)y as at'berate, burst from ; at-wite, English at-itit,
reproach; 3 at-rmde^ to advance.

Adt'erhs,

The Southern dialect retains numerous adverbial forms un-
known to the Xorthem speech.

1. Adverbs in -e ; as (a.) hmge (for a long time) ; nnri^te, wickedly
(b.) ene, twiCy thrie^ (Northern a7ies, fwica, thries^) = Semi-Saxon
eneUy tweien, thrien, A.S. cen^, tiaiwa, thrgwa. [c.) hennCy hence ;
thenney thence ; whennCy whence ; = hennene {heoneney heonnen) ;
whanene {whanneny wannen) ; thanene (ihennen) = A.S. heon-any
thanoUy hwanon,^

2. Adverbs in -es, as alleSy altogether ; willeSy willingly ; thonkeSy
willingly (as his thonlces = he being willing) ; unthonkeSy un-
willingly.

3. Adverbs in -en, ferren, seldeuy whilen (== also ferrey seJdSy
while). The Northern forms end in -um or -oniy as ferrumy eddunty
whilom,

^^ In the Southern dialect, such Terbs as ago, awake, aritey are exceedingly
copimon, but scarcely ever occur in any Northern works.

> of'Urvt occurs in Southern writers for deserve.

» Chaucer uses at-renne and at-rede (to run from, out-run ; get rid of, out- wit).

^ neode, nede, occurs for nedee = needs, of necessity.

' These forms are not unknown to the Southern dialect.

« Towards the middle of the 14th century these forms became hennee, thermee,
whennee {whannee). The corresponding Northern forms are hethetty thethcn^
u'heihen {quethen).



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES. Ixvii

4. Adverbs in -wat^ as cdwat, alhuet, until, neiwat, nearly.*

5. Ac (but) ; ek (also) ; so — so (as — as) ; forte (for to)y untiL^

6. Dropping of e, as a^e^ aye, again ; siththe^ sdhthe, sjince,
afterwards.

Prepositions,

The following forms are peculiar to the Southern dialect.

1. An^^ on, in (before a vowel) ; a (before a consonant) : e. g. An
erfe, in earth ; an-ende, lastly ; arirhe^, on high ; a-lj/ve, alive •
Orslepe, asleep.*

The Northern dialect prefixes on : as on-live, alive ; on4oft, aloft ;



Online LibraryDan MichelDan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D → online text (page 5 of 42)