Dan Michel.

Dan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D online

. (page 6 of 42)
Online LibraryDan MichelDan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D → online text (page 6 of 42)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


on-slepe, asleep ; on-slante, aslant, Ac.

The preference for on explains the curious Northern forms,
obove (above) ; omang (among) ; olike (alike) ; onan (anon).

2. Fram, from (Northern /ra/ Midland /ro).

3. Midy mide (Northern tcith).

4. Toppe (Kentish), above.*

^ -gaU, as in tUgate (algates), thuagate^ swagaie, is unknown to the Southern
dialect.

' Sunty as ; warne, unless ; uiwith, without ; inwitk, with ; forwith, hefore, are
not used by Southern writers.

' An is used by Southern writers as a separate word, as well as a prefix. It is
■till known in Sussex, where the peasants say, " Put your hat an"

* The a is still preserved in awm = in one (minute), a-hunting, a-building^ &c.

A a/ =3 to ; til, to, are not found in the Southern dialect.



f 2



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



SUMMARY OF DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN

NOETHERN AND SOUTHEEN DIALECTS.
A.D. 1250—1340.



I. ORTHOGRAPHICAL DIFFERENCES.



SOUTHERN.


NORTHERN.


PAGE


Hw, Wh


Qfjo, Qti


Specimens of E
English, p. xvi.


Ch


K


i


V


F


ii


z


S


iii





A


iv


E


A


iv-v


U (or E)


I


vi


Eo (le, Ue)


E


viii


Ea (Ya, Ye)


Eor A


ix


Uo





X


II. OR


AMMATICAL DIFFERENCES.




SOUTHERN.


NORTHERN.


PAOF


Large number of plurals


Very few plurals in -en


X


in -en (-n)


(-en)




Unknown


Brether, childer, ky,
hend


XV


Plurals in -ren


Unknown


XV


Plurals in -e


Unknown


XV


Genitive singular of


Unknown


XXV


feminine nouns in -e






Genitive plural of nouns


Unknown


XXX


in -me and -e






Adjectives retain many


Adjectives drop aU the


xxxvi


of the older inflexions


older inflexions, ex-
cept alder and baiJier




)?a, ]>o (fem.), the


Unknown


xl


J?es (masc.), ^eos, \tie8


Unknown


xHii


(fem.), this






Beye, both, gen. pi. heire


Unknown


xl



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN DIALECTS.



box



SOUTHPRV.


NORTHERN.


PAGE


paty pet, neuter of the


pcU, a demonstrative


xl


article


pronoun




AtteTi^ Attan, Atte


Unknown


xl


(masc.)






Atter (fern.), at the


Unknown


xl


Unknown


per, fir, fere, their


xlvi


Unknown


pas (those)


xlvi


Unknown


Slik (sic), such


xlvi


Ich, Uch, I


Unknown. Ik and /
used instead


xlvi


Ay Ha, he


Unknown


xlviii, xlix


Hi, He, Heo, Hue, she


Unknown. Sco, scho,
sho, used instead


U


Hine (ace), him


Unknown


H


Hi, Hii, Heo, Hue,


Unknown. J?a, fay, used


li


they


instead




Heo, Here, Hire, Hor,


Unknown, pair, far,


li


Heore, Huere, their


used instead




Hem, Horn, Ham, Heom,


Unknown, pam, faim.


li


Huem


used instead




His, Hise, Is, them


Unknown


liii


His, Is (ace), her


Unknown


liu


Ure (Dure), eower


Unknown. Urs,yhoures,


liv-v


{youre), here {hire).


f aires (fairs), used




ours, yours, theirs


instead




Wan (which)


Unknown


Iviii


-c]) in all persons of the


-es in all persons of the


lix


pL pres. indie.


pL pres. indie.




-6, -e^, -c]) (-])), the in-


-es in all persons of the


See Early Eng.


flexion of the sing.


sing. pres. indie


AUit Poems,


pres. indie.




pp. XX, xxi


-ede, -edest, -ede, the in-


No inflexion in the


See Ibid.


flexion of the sing.


sing, past indie, of




past indie, of regular


strong verbs




or weak verhs






-e, the ending of the 2nd


No inflexion in the 2nd


Ix


pers. past of irregular


sing, past indie, of




or strong verbs


irregular verbs




Change of vowel in


Unknown


Ixi


pret pL of strong






verbs






Infinitives in -en, -e


Infinitive ending drop-
ped

99 99


Ixiii


Gerundial Infinitives


Ixiv


in -ene






Gerundial Infinitives


9> 99


Ixiv


in -ing







^



Digitized by CjOOQIC



Ixx



NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN DIALECTS.



BOUTREBy.

Infinitives in y or ei


NOUTUEKN.

Infinitive ending drop-
ped


PAOB

Ixiv


-inde or {-inge) the end-
ing of the present


-ande (-and), the ending


Ixiv


of the present parti-




participle


ciple




y- prefix of the past


y- omitted as the sign


Ixv


participle


of the past participle




-n dropped in past par-


-n never dropped in




ticiple


past participles




Schal (ssel), saolde^


8al{ahsi]l),mld{Bho\jld)


See Hampole's P.


scholde




ofConscp.xxiv.


par/ (need), ferfte,


\)ar, feVf \urt




ferste (needed)






pcmkeSf willing ; un-


Unknown


Ixvi


fonkesf unwilling






Henne, fenne, hwanne^


HepeUy fejjen, wliefen,


Ixvi


hence, thence, whence


(que^en), used instead




Unknown


3/ WW, mon (shall)




Unknown


Ha (have), ma (make),


See Hampole's P.




ta (take)


ofConscp.xxiv.


Adverbs in -e, as ewe,


Unknown


lx\d


twie, thrie, neode^ nede,






once, twice, thrice,






needs






Adverbs with prefix an-


Unknown


Ixvii


Unknown


Sum (aa)y fra (from), tU
(to), at (to, sign of


Ixvii








infinitive), at (that).






wame (unless)




Unknown


Affixes, -gate^ 4inges


Ixvii



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



III. LEXICOGEAPHICAL DIFFERENCES.

The differences in the vocabularies of the Northern and Southern
dialects may be discussed at a future period under the following heads :

I. Words peculiar to the Southern dialect, e.g.j derie, a dean,
valley ; more, a root ; zuol^y a plough,* &c.

II. Words peculiar to the Northern dialect, e.g., hrathe, wrath ;
fdy a hill ; wil, astray, &c.

III. Double forms, one of which is found in the Southern dialect
and the other in the Northern, c.^.,



BOUTHKEy.


NORTHERN.


SOUTHERN.


NORTHERN.


ey


egg


woe, woks


wayTce (weake)


mihbe


snaipe^ (snub)


&c.


&c.



^ Flough does not occur in A.S. writers ; and Southern authors of the thirteenth
and fourteenth centuries employ it only in compound terms, bs plow-land, &c.
2 Snaipe and toayke are evidently Norse forms.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OUTLINES OF KENTISH GRAMMAE.
(a.d. 1327—1340.)

NOUNS.

1. Gender. The genders of Nouns are the same as in the older
stages of the language.

2. Declension, Nouns may be divided into four declensions.

DIVISION I.

Nouns of the n declension, containing masculine, feminine, and
neuter substantives ending in. -en ot -e (originally in -a or -c) and
forming the phiral in -en (originally in -an).

DIVISION II.

Class i. Nouns (originally feminine) ending in a consonant and
forming the plural in -en (originally in -a).

Class ii. Nouns (originally feminine) ending in -e (originally in -u)
and forming the plural in -en (originally in -a).

DIVISION III.

Class i. Nouns (originally neuter) ending in a consonant and
having the singular and plural alike.

Class ii. Nouns (originally neuter) ending in a vowel (originally
in -w, -e, or -u), together with some few ending in a consonant and
fonning the plural in -en (originally in -u).

DIVISION IV.

Class i. Nouns (originally masculine) ending in a consonant and
forming the plural in -es (originally in -as).

Class ii. Nouns (originally masculine) ending in a vowel and
fonning the plural in -en (originally in -?/).



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OUTLINES OF KENTISH GRAMMAR.



Ixxiii



DIV
E.E.


ISION I.


SINGULA B.


Mase.


Fern.


Neut,


Nom. Sterre (star),


tonge (tongue)


, e^e (eye).


Gren. Sterre,


tonge.


e3e.


Dat. ) ^
Ace. ^^™'


tonge,


e3e.


E.E.




PLURAL.


Mate.


Fffn,


Xeut.


Nom. )

[ Sterren,
Ace. )


tongen,


ejen.


Gen. Sterrene,


tongene.


ejene.


Dat. Sterren,


sterren,


e^en.



In like manner are declined: — bee, pi. been; chircke, pi. chirchen;
earsy ere (ear), pL eareuy eren; flo (arrow), pL flon; fo (enemy), pL
fan; gomey gume (man), pL gomen; to (toe), pL ton; wi^e (manner),
pL wiaen; woke, touke (week), pi. woken.



DIVISION II. — CLASS I.



SINGULAR.

Nom. Zauel (soul).
Gen. Zaule,
Dai)



Ace. j



Zaule.



PLURAL.

Nom. Zaulen.
Gen. Zaulene.



DaL
Ace.



Zaulen.



Thus are declined : — hen (prayer), pL benen; edder (adder), pi.
eddren; zijn (sin), pL zynnen. Niyt (night), wi^t (wight).



CLASS II.



SINGULAR.

Nom. Dore (door).
Gen. Dore.
Dat.
Ace.



Dore.



PLURAL.

Nom. Doren.
Gen. Dorene.
Dat.
Ace.



I Doren.



To this declension belonged originally cu^ cou (cow), pL kun^ ken
(kine).



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ixxiv



OUTLINES OF KENTISH GRAMMAR.



DIVISION II. CLASS I.

HINGULAB.

Nom. and Ace. Hors (horse).
Gren. Horses.

Dat. Horse.



PLUBAL.

Nom. and Ace. Hors.
Gen. Horse.

Dat. Horsa



After the same manner are declined : — hm (house) ; der (deer) ; bern
(child) ; apel (story) ; asep (sheep) ; mif (woman, wife) ; yer (year).



CLASS IL
SINGULAR.



Nom. and Ace. Ssip (ship), j j (tree).

\ trow ;

Ssipes,
Ssipe,



Gen.



Dat

Ace.



Nom. and Ace. Ssipen,



C trowes,
( trauwes.
L trawe,
( trowe.



Gen.



( Ssipene, \
\ Ssipe, )



/ trauwen,
J trowen,
' tren.
/ trauwene,
J trowene,
' trene.



Dat.
Ace.



{trauwen,
trouwen,
tren.

In the same way are declined : — dyevel (devil) ; vet (vat) ; heved^
heaved (head) ; Urn (limb) ; riche (kingdom) ; token (sign) ; aorwe
(sorrow) ; wonder (marvel) ; werre (war). Calf^ child, ey (egg), lamby
form their plural in -ren (originally -rw), as — Galvren (A.S. cealfru) ;
children, childem (A.S. cildru) ; eyren (A.S. Obgru) ; lambren (A.S.
lanibru),

DIVISION III. — CLASS I.



E.E.
Nom. and Ace.
Gren,
Dat. ^
Ace. )



BINGULAB.

Del (part).
Deles.

Dele.



E.E.


PLUBAL.


Nom.


Deles.


Gen.


Delene.


Dat.
Ace.


Deles.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OUTLINES OP KENTISH GRAMMAR. IxXV

Thus also are declined : — day ; engel (angel) ; veld (field) ; mouth
(mouth) ; king ; ston (stone) ; wey (way). Viend (enemy), vriend
(friend), are used as plurals, the older forms being fynd or fe6nd^
frynd orfreond. Winter has the pL winter and winters; got, gayt
(goat), makes the pL geet. Voder drops the -es in the genitive case.



CLASS II.



E.E. SINGULAR.

Nom. and Ace. Sone, Sune (son).

Gen. Sone, Sune.

I>at. )

J Sone, Sune.

Ace. j



E.E. PLURAL.

Nom. Sonen, Sunen (Sune,
Sunes).

GeiL Sonene, Sunene.

Dat. Sonen, Sunen.

Ace. Sone, Sune (Sonen).
In the same manner are declined : — doi^ter (daughter), pL doytren;
moder (mother), pi. modren; rather {ox), pi. rotheren; zoster {b\s\^t\
pL zostren. Brother, moder, dorter, are indeclinable in the genitive
singular. Brother makes the plural brothren.

Case endings, — a. The dative singular of all the declensions is
denoted by a final e, "Words ending in / change it into v before
adding e. Nom. wijf; Dat. wgve. Nouns having a short vowel
before d, t, double these letters, as — Nom. bed; Dat. hedde.

h. The A.S. dative pL -um, in some few cases, is denoted by -e;
in the m^'ority of instances it is the same as the nominative.

ADJECTIVES.
For declension of Adjectives see p. xxxvi.

PRONOUNS.



I. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.




The personal pronouns are


: Ich (I), }ou


(thou), he (he), hi (she),


hit (it).

SINGULAR.




PLURAL.


Nom. Ich.*


J>u, J>ou.




we. ye.


Gen. min, mi.


J)in, J>L




oure. youre.


Dat)

me.
Ace. )


fe.




ous, us. you.



^ This pronoun is still presenred in the South- Western dialects under the forma
Ueh and UUhy.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ixxvi'



OUTLINES OF KENTISH GRAMMA.K.



Kom.

Gen.
Dat.

Ace.



E.E.
Mate,

a,
ha,
he,
his,

him,

^hine,
( him,



SINGULAR.



Fetn,
|lii,

Uiy,

hire,
I hire,
\ hare,

hire,

hi,

his.



Neut.

I hit.

his.
I him.

hit.
it.



PLURAL.



Nom. hi.



Gen.



rhire,
( hare.



Dat. ham.



Ace. hi, his, hise, ham.



The personal pronouns are frequently used reflectively ; as, Ich
me rede, I rest myself.

Self is declined like an adjective (in the oblique cases, selve sing,
and pL) ; so that we easily understand such forms as Ich dlf = I
myself; yu silf •=. thou thyself; (Icli) me sylf z=, I myself where
self is placed after the dative of the personal pronoun. Cp. Fr. vioi-
mime, lui-menie, &c.

II. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

The possessive pronouns are identical in form with the genitive
case, e.g. oure := our, ours, of us ; youre = your, yours, of you ;
Tiare = their, theirs, of them.

III. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

Mase. and Fein. Neut

Nom. hua. huet.

Gen. huas. huas.

Dat. huam. huam.

Ace. huan, wan. huet.

VERBS.

Moods. — ^There are four moods : Indicative, Subjunctive, Impera-
tive, and Infinitive. Besides the ordinary infinitive there is a genmd
(used after to) ; infin. comen, to come ; ger. to comene. This dis-
tinction between the two forms is not always preserved.

Tenses. — Only two tenses are formed by inflection — the present
and the past.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OUTLINES OF KENTISH GRAMMAR.



I Ixxvii



Participles, — ^The present participle ends in -inde; the past
participle has the prefix i- or y- (unless the verb commences with
one of the following prefixes : a-, a^, hi-^ he-, for-, vor-, of-, to-, un-,
tn».

There are two conjugations of verbs, the Strong (or irregular),
a»d the Weak (or regular).

I. WEAK VERBS.

CLASS L

INFINITIVE MOOD — Lovieii^ loveriy to love.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
PRESENT.
Singular. Flurai.

1. Lovie, love Lovieth, loveth

2. Lovest Lovieth, loveth

3. Loveth Lovieth, loveth

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
PRESENT.

Singular, Flurai,

Lovie, love Lovien, loven

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Sing. Love. Flurai, (a.) Lovie}), love}) ; (b.) Lovie, love

(followed by the pronoun).

Gerund. To lovienne, lovene.

Pres. Part Lovinde.

Past Part. I-loved, Y-loved.

Like laviey to love, are conjugated depie, to call; herie, to praise;
hopie, to hope ; inakie^ to make ; schunie, to shun ; tholie, to suffer.



Singular.


Flurai,


1. Lovede


Loveden


2. Lovedest


Loveden


3. Lovede


Loveden


iOOD.

PRE!




Singular,


Flurai,


Lovede


Loveden







CLASS II.






INFINITIVE


MOOD — Hyere^ to hear.






PRESENT.




PRET.




Singular,


Flurai.




Singular,


Flurai.


\. Hyere


Hyere})




I, Hyerde


Hyerden


2. Hyerst


Hyere))




2. Hyerdest


Hyerden


3. HyerJ)


Hyerejj




3. Hyerde


Hyerden



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ixxviii



OUTLINES OF KENTISH GRAMMAR.



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


PRESENT.


PRET.


lingular. Flural.


Singular, Plural.


Hyere Hyeren


Hyerde Hyerden


IMPERATIVE MOOD.



Sin^. Hyer. Plural, (a.) Hyere J) ; (h,) Hyere (followed by

the pronoun).
Grerund. Hyerene.

Pres. Part. Hyerinde.
Past Part. Yhyerd.

1. In the 3rd pers. sing, indie, of verbs having t ot d for the last
syllable, t is often used for -teth or -deth, as gret, cries ; let, hinders ;
let, leads ; zent, sends ; went, turns, &c.

2. H the root of the verb ends in <f or ^ doubled, or preceded by
another consonant, the de or te of the past tense, and -d or 4 oi the
past participle, are omitted : e. g., wende, to turn ; pret. tcende, pp.
wend ; lette, to hinder ; pret. lette, pp. ylet

The following verbs, among many others, belong to this class : —



Calle, to call calde

Deme, to judge dcmde

Deppen, to dip depte

Hede, to hide hedde

KeJ)e, to show kedde

Lende, to lend lende

Ssrede, to clothe ssredde



PAST PART.

ycald

ydemd

ydept

yhed

yked

ylend

yssred



Some verbs of this class have double forms for the preterite and
past participle.

PAST PART.

iyclad
ycled
( ydelt
( ydalt
/ygred
( ygrad



INF.


PRET.


^;^JN to clothe
Clo})e, )


\ cledde
' cladde


Dele, to deal


delte
dalte


Grede, to cry


gredde
graddo



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OUTLINES OF KENTISH GRAMMAR. Ixxix

INF. PBKT. PAST PART.

Rede, to advise 1 , , ^^

. (radde yrad

Sprede, to spread I , ,

( spradde sprad

Sweten, to sweat {^"^^^^ y^^"*

( swalte yswat

CaccJie (catch) and techen (teach) make the preterites ca^te
and ta^te.

Habhe^ to have, is thus conjugated :

Indie. Pres. Sing. 1. hahhe ; 2. liest ; 3. Aejj.

» „ PI. 1. hahhe\ ; 2. habbe]> ; 3. ?iabbe]>.

Indie. Pret. Sing. 1. hedde ; 2. heddest ; 3. hedde.

„ „ PI. 1. 2. 3. hedde Qiedden).

CLASS III.

INDICATIVE MOOD — Tellen (A.S. tellan), to tell.

PRESENT. PRET.



Singular,


Plural.


Singular,


FluraL


1. teUe


teUo})


1. tealde


tealden


2. telst


teUe})


2. tealdest


tealden


3. tel))


teUeJ)


3. tealde


tealden



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
PRESENT.

Sing, telle Plur. tellen

PRET.

Sing, tealde Plur. tealden

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Sing, telle. Plur. (a.) telle)) ; (ft.) telle.

Gerund. to tellene.

Pres. Part. tellinde.
Past Part. y-teald, ytald.

To this class belong the following verbs :

Begge, buy bo^te ybojt

Brenge, bring bro^te ybro3t



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



licxx



OUTLINES OP KENTISH GRAMMAR.



Seche, seek sojte ysojt

( zealde yzeald

* ' zalde yzald

"Werchen, work wro3te ywro3t

Jjenchen, seem Jjo^te y}>03t

Zlgge (zegge)^ to say, makes 2nd per. sing, pres. indie, zayst
(zeayst) ; 3rd, zagde (zeayde),
Wille, will, makes pres. indio.

1. wUle 2. wUt 3. wile (sing.)

1. 2. 3. mlle}p (plural).

Preterite 1. wwZcfe 2. woldest 3. w^oWe (sing.)

1. 2. 3. wolden or tw^ (plural).

II. STRONG VERBS.

(No change of vowel in the preterite plural.)

Infinitive, Healde^ (to hold).

INDICATIVE MOOD.



PRESENT.



Singular,
1. Healde



Plural.
Healde])



2. Healdest (Halst) Healde])

3. Halt Healde])



PRKT.



Singular.

1. Hield|
Hild 1

2. Hielde

3. Hield



Flural.

Hielden

Hielden
Hielden



PRET.

Flural,
Hielden (Hielde)



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
PRESENT.
Singular, Plural Singular.

Healde Healden (Healde) Hielde

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Sing. Heald. Plural, (a.) Healde]) ; (6.) Healde,

Gerund. Healdene.

Prest Part. Healdinde.

) Yhyealde.
Verbs of this division fall under three classes :



' Also written Hyeald$,



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OUTLINES OP KENTISH GRAMMAR.



Ixxxi





CLASS I.




PRESENT.


PBET.


PAST PART.


(a.) Bere, bear


ber


ybore


Bidden, bid, ask


bed


yboden


Bihote, promise


bihet


bihote


Breke, break


brec


ybroken


Ete, eat


et


yyete (= y-yeate)


Fonge, take


veng


yvonge


Voryete, forget


voryet


voryete


Zitte (sit)


zet J
.zat)


izete


Speke (speak)


spek


yspeke


Wreke (thrust out)


wrek


/ ywreke
ywroke


(b.) Come


com


ycome


Neme, take


nom

CLASS n.


ynome


Bete, beat


byet


ybyeten


Cnowe, know


kneu


yknowe


VaUe, faU


vil


yvalle


Lhepe, leap


hliep
hUp

CLASS III.


yhlope *


Dn^e, draw


dro^


idra3e


Vare, go


vor


ivare


Hle3e, laugh


hlo}


ihlo3e


Vorzake, forsake


vorzoc


vorzake


Slea, sle, slay


SI03


iRla3e


Ssape, create


ssop


issape


Stonde, stand


stod

DIVISION IL


ystonde



(Change of vowel in pret. plural)
Infinitive. Binde, to bind ; Drive, to drive.



Does not occur.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ixxxii



OUTLINES OF KENTISH ORAMMAR.
INDICATIVE MOOD.



PBE8BNT.
Singular. Plurai,

1. Binde, Drive \

2. Binst, Drifst | Binde}),Drive})

3. Bint, DriiJ) )



JNural.

iBounden*
Driven



PRBT.
Sitiffular,

1. Bond, Drof

2. Bounde,^ Drive

3. Bond, Drof

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
PBESKNT. PBET.

Singviar, Plural. Singular. Plural.

Binde, Drive. Bounden, Driven | Bonnde, Drive. Bounden, Driven

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Sing. Bind, Drif. Plural (a.) BindeJ, DriveJ) ; (h.) Binde, Drive.

Gerund. Bindene, Drivene,

Present Part Bindinde, Drivinde.
Past Part. Ybounde, Ydrive.

The following verbs belong to this division :





CLASS I.




FBESBHT.


;PRET.


PAST PABT.


(a.) Binde, bind


bond


ybounde


Biginne, begin


bigon


bigonne


Delve, dig


dalf


ydolve


Drinke, drink


dronk


ydronke


Teme, (= eome)


om
yam


y yeme (= iume)


Vinde, find


fvond
'vand ,


yvounde


Vijte, fight


V03t


yvo3te


Helpe, help


halp


yholpe


Zinge, sing


zang
zong,


izonge


(h.) Ber3e, protect


borj


yboi^e


Kerve, cut


carf


ycorve


Sterve, starve, die


staif


ystorve


Yelpe, boast


yalp


yyolpe



> The older forxnfl are: 2nd sing, bunde; 1. 2. 3. pi. bunden ; zinged to sing,
makei 2nd pers. pret. ztmge ; 1. 2. 3. pL zungen.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OUTLINES OF KENTISH GRAMMAR.



Ixxxiii





CLASS 11.




PRESENT.


PRET.


PAST PART.


Abide


abod


abide


Eise


ros


yrise


Ssrive, shriue


ssrof


yssrive


Smite


smot


ysmite


Strive


strof


ystrive


Write


wrot

CLASS III.


y write


Bede, offer


byead (= bead)


ybode


Chyese, choose


cheas


ychose


Cyepe, creep


creap


ycrope


Vly, flee, fly


vleaj


yvlo3e


Lyese, lose


lyeas
leas


ylore


Schete, shoot


/ ssat '
( sseat


yssote


Lute,)
Lote, j


leat


ylote


Lejen, lie


lej


ilo3en
ilowen


Ssete, shut


sset


issete


Zi, see

Sethen, seethe, boil


zej

seath


isoje
izeje
isode


Buwen, ;


beaj


ibo3en
ibowen


Lute, \
Lote,


leat


ilote


Loken, lock


leac


iloke


Stijen, ;


stea^


istije



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Ixxxiv OUTLINES OP KENTISH GRAMMAR.

General Remarks on the Strong (or Irregular) Conjtigation.

1. If the base of a verb ends in -e or -ie the -e or -ie is the -e of
the inflexions in the present indicative and imperative, as vZef =
flees ; ze^ = sees.

2. Verbs having -e? or -f as the final letter of the root-syllable,
take 4 instead of -d^ or -^e*, as the personal inflexion, as hint =
bindeth, binds ; gHnt = grindeth, grinds ; halt =: holdeth, holds ;
rit = rideth, rides ; stont^ stent = standeth, stands.

3. The 2nd and 3rd pers. are frequently contracted thus : est =
eatest ; hinst •=. bindest ; drlnkp =: drinks ; drlfp =: drives.

4. Verbs whose base originally terminated in g often retain it
under the form 3 in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, indie. : as dra^en, to
draw ; dra^st, drawest ; dra^p, draws ; vli^ to fly ; vilest, fliest ; vli^p,
flies ; wrif to cover ; wri^p, covers.

5. In some verbs the vowel is changed in the 3rd sing. pres.
indie, as healden, to hold ; halt^ holds ; hoten, to command ; hat,
commands ; stonden, to stand ; stant, stands.

ANOMALOUS VERBS.

1. O^en^ owen^ to own; 1st and 3rd sing. pres. indie. 03; ojen ;
pret. oj^e.

2. Am is the 1st pers. sing, of the old infinitive wesan^ to be.
The other persons are as follows : — 2nd pers. pres. indie, art ; 3rd,
is ; pret. 1st, wes ; 2nd, were ; pi. weren^ were,

3. Bi, to be ; ger. hyenne, 1st pers. pres. indie, hi; 2nd, best ;
3rd, heth ; Ist, 2nd, and 3rd pers. pi. heth ; imper. pL heth,

4. Cunne^ to be able, to know; 1st sing. pres. indie, con; 2nd,
const ; 3rd, con ; pL connen ; pret. cuihsy couthe,

5. Daren, to dare. 1st sing. pres. indie, dar, der ; 2nd, darst ;
3rd, dar ; pi. dorren, dorre; pret. sing, dorste,

6. Do, to do ; ger. doenne, 1st sing. pres. indie, do ; 2nd, dest ;
3rd, deth ; pL doth ; pret. dede ; imp. doth.

7. Ouo, to go ; ger. guonne, 1st sing. pres. indie, go ; 2nd, gest ;
3rd, geth (pi. guoth) ; pret yede ; imp. guoth ; pp. iguo.

8. Mowen, to be able, may; 1st sing. pres. indie, nuiyjirnai) ; 2nd,
mi^t ; 3ri may (mat) ; pi. mo^en ; pret. mi^te.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OUTLINES OP KENTISH GRAMMAR. IxXXV

9. 1st sing. pres. indie, mot, may, must ; 2nd, most ; 3rd, mot,
mid ; pL mot en ; pret. moste.

10. Ist sing. pres. indie, aad^ shall ; 2nd, aaelt ; 3rd, asel ;
pL ssoUeUf 88olle ; pret. ssolde,

11. Witen, to know. 1st sing. pres. indie, wot; 2nd,f£;o^/ 3rd,
wot ; pL wlteth ; pret. wiste ; imp. sing. wUe ; pL witeth.

Negative Forms. — Am, havey wUle, witen (know), take negative
forms, as nam^ am not ; nuy is not ; nesy was not ; nedde, had not ;
ndey will not ; not, knows not ; neste, knew not.

ADVERBS.
Many adverbs with the prefix y are preserved, as yvere^ together f
Home, iholliche, entirely ; ymxme, together ; ymene, together.

PREPOSITIONS.
Atte, Atten (dat. mase.), at the = at fan, at pene ; Atter (dat. fem.),
at the = at fere ; Mytter (dat. fem.), with the = myd \>ere, — ^are used
by Shoreham (see pp. 34, 57, 64).



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



CONTENTS.



Author's Preface
Table of Contents
Prologue (Vore-speche) . .

The Ten CommandmerUs.

The first Commandment. .

,y second ,,

„ third „ (Mosaic 4th).

„ fourth „ „ 5th

„ fifth „ ff 6th

„ sixth „ „ 7th

„ seventh „ „ 8 th



Online LibraryDan MichelDan Michel's Ayenbite of inwyt; or, Remorse of conscience. In the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D → online text (page 6 of 42)