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1 88 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

rational associations, it is perfectly legitimate to invent some artificial
scheme for learning and recalling it.

36. In committing to memory a poem, declamation or oration, do not
break it up into parts but learn it as a whole.

37. In committing to memory, it is better to read aloud than to read
silently and better to read rapidly than slowly.

38. If your work includes attendance at lectures, take a moderate
amount of notes during the lectures, using a system of abbreviations, and
rewrite these notes daily, amplified into a reasonably compendious out-
line, organized as suggested in Rule 32.

Supervised Study. Teachers have come to recognize in recent
years the waste of time and the blind direction of energy, or pos-
sibly lack of energy, in so much of the studying done by pupils
that a widespread movement has gotten under way for the super-
vision of studying. The plans for supervising studying are carried
out in so many different ways that hardly any one plan can be
designated as typical. The results accruing from the general ef-
forts in this direction have been in most cases beneficial. Con-
tinued experimentation during the next few years with various
plans of supervised study will lead to a more general agreement
as to the most effective manner of administering it.

In a recent inquiry of supervised study in schools on the Pacific
coast, Proctor ('17) found that forty- two high schools employed
it in one form or another. Of these forty- two schools, thirty-one
reported the use of a lengthened period distributed as follows:

(a) 60' period, divided 30-30, No. of cases 3

60' period, divided 35-25, No. of cases i

60' period, divided 40-20, No. of cases 15

60' period, divided 45-15, No. of cases i

63' period, divided 33-30, No. of cases i

— 21

(b) 70' period, divided 40-30, No. of cases 4

70' period, divided 35-35, No. of cases 2

— 6

(c) 80' period, divided 40-40, No. of cases i i

(d) 85' period, divided 45-40, No. of cases 2 2

(e) 90' period, divided 45-45, No. of cases i 1

Total 31

Regarding the effects of supervised study, Proctor reports that:

"Twenty-six of the 31 principals employing the lengthened period
said that study habits had been improved ; one could discover no apparent



HOW TO STUDY



189



effect; two said that only the slow students had been helped, the brighter
ones were not; and two had no data on which to base their opinions.

"Wherever the plan had been in use long enough to make possible the
compiling of statistics as to the effect of supervised study on scholarship,
there was practically unanimous agreement that the number of failures
had been reduced and the standards of scholarship had been raised. The
high school at Snokomish, Washington, reports that the average per-
centage of failures in elementary algebra for the two years prior to the
adoption of supervised study was 28%. But for the two-year period
following the adoption of supervised study the failures in the same
subject were reduced to 17%. Hoquiam, Washington, reports that the
average marks of the students range 10% higher and that the number of
honor pupils has been doubled since supervised study was introduced.
The principal of the Areata high school, California, reports that the
-average mark of the freshman class has been raised from 78% to 82^%
during the first year of supervised study. Santa Cruz, California, com-
paring the year 19 14-15, the last under the old plan, with the year
1916-17, the second year under supervised study, finds that the increase
in the total number of high marks has been 157%; the decrease in low
failures, 188%. Reno, Nevada, reports a decrease of 45% in the number
of f9.ilures, and an increase of 24% in the number of students making
excellent marks."

J. Stanley Brown, principal of the high school at Joliet, Illinois,
reports, as quoted by Hall-Quest ('17), a decided reduction in the
percentage of failures after the introduction in the high school of
supervised study, as indicated in the following table:

TABLE 46. After Brown and Hall-Quest ('17, p. 386). Supervision of study
apparently was begun in igi2 although I have not been able to find a
definite statement by Hall-Quest to that effect.

Table of percentage of failures



Subject


IQII


igi2 1913


1914


Algebra

Arithmetic

Geometry

German

Latin

French


24
26

29

21 •
22
10
12


22
20

19
20

19

9

10


15
12

17

13

16

8

8


12

13
16

14

13

9

9


Physiography



Breslich ('12) made an experiment to determine the effect of
directed study by dividing an algebra class into two sections, one



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192 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

types of memory and associative processes; it will also supply the
individual with certain symbols for recording ideas. The former
would be the pure training value of the mental functions, the latter
would be the informational or instrumental value of shorthand.
If one should never expect to use the symbols of shorthand for
recording ideas, to what extent would the practice in memory
and associative functions modify memory and associative processes
in other reactions in life? How much value, accordingly, may we
attach to the practice of these mental processes? In thinking
about these problems, we must distinguish sharply between the con-
tent or informational aspect of a given type of learning and the
pure improvement value in mental functions to be derived from
the learning. Viewed from the standpoint of the school, the situa-
tion presents two problems: (i) To what extent does training of the
mental capacities involved in a given school subject carry over and
produce efficiency in other subjects or in other activities in life,
and (2) are certain school subjects more capable of improving the
mental functions generally and of carrying the improvement over
to other responses of behavior?

The Effect of Improvement in Specific Mental Functions upon
other Mental Functions. The influence of improvement in one
function upon others may be one of help, hindrance, or indifference.
Which it is and how much, can be determined only by recourse to
facts. Until twenty-five years ago the problem was discussed
wholly as a matter of opinion. During the last twenty-five years,
a considerable number of researches have been made on many
aspects of the problem so that the controversy may be dealt with
in a more definite and factual manner than was formerly the case.

The experimental technique of research in the field of transference
of training has been practically the same in all investigations, and
has consisted (i) of testing the strength of a variety of mental
capacities, (2) of training one or more capacities for a specified
period of time, and (3) by finally testing again the same capacities
tested before the training in order to determine what changes may
have been produced in them as a result of the intervening training.
The tests referred to under (i) and (3) are conveniently called ''end
tests" or the "test series" and the work under (2) is usually called
the "training series." This plan has been followed in the large
majority of transfer experiments. A different plan, however, is
possible and has been employed in a few studies. This consists
of giving training to a group of persons in some particular function



i



TRANSFERENCE OF TRAINING



193



and then giving them practice in another function. Their progress
in this second function is then compared with that of other individ-
uals who have not had training in the first function.

a. James' Experiment on Memory. The first experimental in-
vestigation was made by James and published in 1890 in his Prin-
ciples of Psychology. This experiment is of interest and impor-
tance chiefly because of its historical significance in opening the
problem by an experimental approach. James attempted to de-
termine the effect of training in learning one kind of poetry upon
memorizing other kinds of poetry. He first made the experiment
upon himself by memorizing in the course of eight days 158 lines
of Victor Hugo's Satyr. This required a total of 131 Ye minutes.
He then spent some twenty minutes a day for 38 days in learning
the first book of Milton's Paradise Lost. At the end of this time he
again memorized 15S lines from Victor Hugo and found that it
took i$i}4 minutes. This loss in time was surprising and James
explained it by saying that he was fagged out by other work at the
time of the second test on Victor Hugo and that he was not really
in fit condition for such an experiment. He then repeated the ex-
periment with four students in a similar manner by using different
poetry. The results of these early experiments are given in the
following table:

TABLE 47. After James ('90, T, p. 667)



Individual


Test Before Training


Training


Test After Training


I


158 lines of Victor


ist Book Para-


158 lines of Victor




Hugo during 8 days,


dise Lost 38 days


Hugo during 8 days,




1 3 1. 8 minutes




151.5 minutes


2


1 28 lines of In


416 lines Schiller's


1 28 lines of In




Memoriam during


translation of the


Memoriam during




8 days, 14.8 min.


/Eneid during


8 days, 14.6 daily




daily average


26 days


average


3


? of Virgil during


? of Scott


? of Virgil during




16 days, 13.4 min.




16 days, 12.3 min.




daily average




daily average


4


150 lines of ? dur-


450 lines of ?


150 lines of ? dur-




ing IS days, 3.7




ing 15 days, 3.0




min. daily average




min. daily average


5


? lines of Idylls of


? of Paradise Lost


? lines of Idylls of




the King during




the King during 6




6 days, 14.6 min.




days, 14.9 min.




daily average




daily average



194



EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



This experiment in its essential details, was repeated by Peterson
('12) with two subjects, one of whom showed gain and the other loss.

h. Reaction Time. The next series of experiments was under-
taken by Gilbert and Fracker, .who attempted to determine the
amount of transference of training from one type of reaction to
other types of reaction. Three subjects were tested first in simple
reaction to sound, to electric stimuli, to touch, to visual stimuli,
and likewise in complex reaction to stimuli involving discrimination
and choice. The training series consisted of simple and complex
reaction to sound only and continued for twelve days. The results
obtained in this experiment are given in the following table which
shows the percentages of gain made in each of the end tests:



TABLE 48

The spread of improvement in reacting to various sensory stimuli.
Gilbert and P'racker ('97)



After





The Percentages of Time Gained by Practice


Individual




Simple Reaction


Reaction with Discrimination
AND Choice


To
Sound


To

Electric

Shock


To
Touch


To
color


Sounds


Electric
Shocks


Touch


Blue

AND

Red


J. A. C

G. C. F

J. C. P

Averages


12

13
16


— 2
21

17


17

ID

6
II


3

45
II

20


53
47
14

50 1


35
60

24
40


9

4

17


14
34
19

22



^ Average of J. A. C. and G. C. 1''. only.

J. C. P. was practiced only in reaction time, w^hile the other two were
practiced in both reaction and reaction with discrimination and choice. All
figures of the above table represent per cent of gain by practice.

Each of the forms of reaction shows on the whole a distinct gain
in the second end tests. How much of this gain is actually due to
the training scries cannot be definitely determined. Many of the
earlier investigators did not make control tests, that is, they did not
repeat the end tests on another group of subjects who did not take
the practice series but who took only the end tests separated by an
interval equal to that consumed by the practice series. It is obvious
that a certain portion of the gain in the end tests is due to the fact
that when the second end tests are made, some advantage is derived
from the famiUarity or practice in having done the end tests once



TRANSFERENCE OF TRAINING 195

before; consequently, the actual amount of improvement in a prac-
tice experiment can be determined only by subtracting the amount
of gain made by a control group which has not done the practice
series in order to obtain the residual amount of improvement ac-
tually transferred from the training series.

Another important item frequently omitted in the early investi-
gations is a statement of the actual amount of progress made in
the practice series itself. This element is significant because it is
possible thereby only to determine the amount of gain made in the
end tests as compared with the improvement in the training series
itself in order that some definite conception may be formed of the
amount of gain made in the practice series which is transferred to
the end tests. Thus in the reaction experiments of Gilbert and
Fracker, the gain in the practice series is shown in the first and
fifth columns. It will be noticed that the average gains in the end
tests in simple reaction to electric shocks, to touch, and to color
was about as great as in the training series itself, that is, in simple
reaction to sound. It was 17%, 11%, and 20%, or on the average
16% in the former, as compared with 16% in the latter. In case
of the complex reactions, the average gains in the reactions to
electric shocks, to touch and to color were 40%, 17%, and 22%,
or on the average 26%, as compared with a gain of 50% in the
practice series. On the face of it, 100% of the practice effect in
simple reaction to sound w^as transferred to the other forms of
simple reaction, while 52% of the practice effect in complex re-
action to sound was carried over to the other types of complex
reactions. Actually the amounts of transfer effects are probably
considerably less; how much we do not know since Gilbert and
Fracker made no control tests. ,

- c. Perception and Discrimination. Thorndike and Woodworth
('01) made an investigation to determine the transference of prac-
tice in estimating areas, lengths of lines, and weights to estimating
areas, lines, and weights of different sizes. They also measured
the effect of practice in perceiving words containing certain letters
upon the accuracy and quickness of perceiving other words con-
taining different letters. The results of this experiment are sum-
marized in the following manner by Thorndike:

"Individuals practiced estimating the areas of rectangles from 10 to
100 sq. cm. in size until a very marked improvement was attained. The
improvement in accuracy for areas of the same size but of different shape



196 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

due to this training was only 44% as great as that for areas of the same
shape and size. For areas of the same shape, but from 140-300 sq. cm.
in size, the improvement was 30% as great. For areas of different shape
and from 140-400 sq. cm. in size, the improvement was 52% as great.

"Training in estimating weights of from 40-120 grams resulted in
only 39% as much improvement in estimating weights from 120 to 1800
grams. Training in estimating lines from .5 to 1.5 inches long (resulting
in a reduction of error to 25% of the initial amount) resulted in no im-
provement in the estimation of lines 6-1 2 inches long.

"Training in perceiving words containing 'e' and 's' gave a certain
amount of improvement in speed and accuracy in that special ability.
In the ability to perceive words containing 'i' and 't,' 's' and 'p,' 'c' and
'a,' 'e' and 'r/ 'a' and 'n,' '1' and 'o', mispelled words and A's, there
was an improvement in speed of only 39% as much as in the ability
specially trained, and in accuracy of only 25% as much. Training in
perceiving English verbs gave a reduction in time of nearly 21% and in
omissions of 70%. The ability to perceive other parts of speech showed a
reduction in time of 3%, but an increase in omissions of over 100%. "

^ The experiments in marking out words and in estimating weights
were repeated with two persons in substantially the same manner
by Coover. ('16.)

"Two reagents were trained for 11 days in marking out words con-
taining e and s in selected columns of the 'Outlook' Magazine. Each
reagent looked over 12,000 words in each day's practice.

"Tests were taken before and after training, in marking out

"(i) Words in 'Outlook' columns containing e-s, i-t, s-p, c-a, e-r.

" (2) Words on manuscript pages containing a-n, l-o, e-r.

"(3) Common nouns in 'Outlook' columns.

" (4) Words in 'Outlook' columns containing e-s."

Coover's results showed a gain of 44% in the training series and
of 33% in the end tests, or 75% as much as in the training series.
This is a larger transfer effect than that of Thomdike and Wood-
worth whose results, however, were based on five persons and
showed a gain of 37.7% in the training series and of 17% in the
end tests, or 48% as much as in the training series.

Coover's experiment in estimating weights was carried out by
training two persons with a set of seventeen blocks ranging from
40 to 120 grams. Each person made 1,700 judgments. The per-
sons were tested, before and after the training, in estimating ten
common objects averaging 67.5 grams in weight but falling within



TRANSFERENCE OF TRAINING



197



the limits of 40 and 120 grams, and in estimating ten common
objects averaging 552.7 grams but all exceeding 120 grams.

The experiment yielded a gain in accuracy of estimating weights
of 23% in the training series and of 29% in the end tests with the
set of ten smaller objects but a loss of 100% with the larger ob-
jects. This loss was due to the very large loss of one subject which
far outweighed the gain of the other subject. The gain in the
estimation of the smaller weights was greater than in the training
series itself. Thorndike and Woodworth's experiments showed
a gain of 45% in the training series and of 7,8% in the end tests
with the smaller weights and of 16% with the larger weights.
n/ Kline had nine persons practice for fourteen days from 30 to 45
mmutes daily in canceling e's and t's on pages of prose. Before
and after the practice he tested them in canceling nouns, verbs,
prepositions, pronouns, and adverbs. Eight other persons were
tested in like manner without doing the practice series. Kline
found that the practiced group did not gain as much as the un-
practiced group. This he explains by the introspective statements
of his subjects that "there was a tendency to cross out words
containing e's and t's rather than the required part of speech."
The detailed results follow:



TABLE 49
The spread of improvement in marking letters. After Kline ('09, p. 10)





Nouns 1 Verbs


Prepositions


Pronouns


Adverbs




X

HO

« a
°* S

u3


§
p

o
z

o

a


Q
W
H
H

s

o




1

o
z

o
m


a

s

o


3


i

p

o

§


Q

1
o




§
o

o
z

o


g

g

o


is

il

3.5
6.6
3.1

5.S
4.4
1.1


o
^

o
z
o
J^

0.6
1.7
1.1

0.7
2.0
1.3


a

o


Practiced

Group

After practice

Before practice

Differences . . .


34.0

28.6

7.4


1.6
4.6
3.0


12.6
17.3
4.7


11.4
9.8
1.6


5.0
6.5
1.5


6.0

4.0

-2.0 1


28.0

25.9

2.)


0.5
3.0

2.5


7.2
8.2
1.0


8.5
6.0

2.5


2.3
4.4
2.1 >


6.3

5.0

-1.3 1


6.3
9.3
3.0


UNPR.'VCTICED

Group
Second period
First period . .
Differences. . .


30.4

23.5

6.9


1.4

5.1
3.7


10.3
17.0
6.7


11.3
8.7
2.6


6.0
7.0
1.0


7.0

5.0

— 2.0 1


26.6
16.6
10.0


1.7
2.6
0.9


9.3
10.5

1.2


5.0
4.6
0.4


0.6

0.3

-0.3 '


4.0
13.7
9.7


7.0
13.0
6.0



' — sign indicates loss at second period.



^



Bennett ('07) tested a group of sixteen pupils in discriminating
between shades of red, yellow-green, and orange, and differences



198 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



in the pitch of tones before and after training twice a week for five
months in discriminating shades of blue. The accuracy in the
four end tests showed the following gains:



Boys.
Girls.



ivf» I



I


2


3


4


Red


Yellow-green


Orange


Tones


79%


60%


65%


28%


84%


57%


56%


23%



x.Coover and Angell tested four adults in discriminating intensi-



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