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ties of brightness before and after training in discriminating in-
tensities of sound consisting of seventeen series of forty judgments
each. The end tests without the intervening training were also
given to three other subjects. The four trained persons rose from
56.9% of right judgments before the training, to 66.0% after the
training, while the untrained persons dropped from 65.5% right
judgments to 61.7%.

' d. Sensori-motor Association. Bair ('02) attempted to measure
spread of practice, not by testing certain capacities before and
after training in some other capacity, but by training the subjects
in a certain function and then determining the effect of this train-
ing upon the progress in the subsequent training of other functions.
His experiments are described thus:

"(i) Six keys of a typewriter are labeled with six symbols (letters or
figures). Fifty-five of these letters or figures, in chance order, are now
shown one by one, and the subject on seeing one taps the corresponding
key. The time taken to tap out the series is recorded. Six different
symbols are then used with a new series composed of them, and the sub-
ject's time record is taken as before. This is continued until twenty
different sets of symbols have been used. Although the symbols have
been changed each time, there is a steady improvement, ranging for the
four subjects in the following decrease in time: 62 to 52, 95 to 85, 71.5 to
58, 65 to 56. The major part of this gain could not have been due to
merely getting used to the machine or to the general features of the
experiments, for the fourth subject was already used to these and still
gained about nine-tenths as much as the other three.

"(2) The other experiment consisted in taking daily records for
twenty days, by means of a stop-watch, of the time required to repeat
the alphabet from memory. Each day's experiment was as follows:
First, the alphabet was repeated as rapidly as possible forward; sec-
ond, the letter n was interpolated between each of the letters; third,
the alphabet was repeated backward interpolating n between each two
of the letters. At the end of twenty practices in each order the subject



TRANSFERENCE OF TRAINING



199



repeated the alphabet first forward interpolating instead of n the letter
X and repeating three times; secondly, interpolating r and repeating
three times; then lastly, repeating backward and in like manner inter-
polating X and r and repeating three times. There was improvement
in the test series, the effect of the twenty days' training with the training
series being to put the abilities in the test series as far ahead as three
days of the direct training would have done."

Scholckow and Judd investigated the effect of knowledge of the
principle of refraction upon learning to hit a target under water.

"One group of boys was given a full theoretical explanation of refrac-
tion. The other group of boys was left to work out experience without
theoretical training. These two groups began practice with the target
under twelve inches of water. It is a very striking fact that in the first
series of trials the boys who knew the theory of refraction and those who
did not, gave about the same results. That is, theory seemed to be of no
value in the first tests. All the boys had to learn how to use the dart, and
theory proved to be no substitute for practice. At this point the condi-
tions were changed. The twelve inches of water were reduced to four.
The differences between the two groups of boys now came out very
strikingly. The boys without theory were very much confused. The
practice gained with twelve inches of water did not help them with four
inches. Their errors were large and persistent. On the other hand, the
boys who had the theory, fitted themselves to four inches very rapidly."
(Judd, '08, p. 37.)

Webb ('17) used the plan of determining the effect of acquired
skill upon the acquisition of other skills. He employed 54 rats and
21 humans in learning mazes in various orders. He measured the
results in terms of the number of trials required, the number of
errors made, and the amount of time needed to learn the mazes.
The following table gives the savings in learning a second maze
as compared with the learning of the first one:



Mazes
A— B..
A— D..
A—E..
A— F. .
A— C.



TABLE 50. After Webb
Average percentage of saving in transfer



Rats



Trials



Errors



. 77.08


85.81


83-


69 . 02


79.71


90.


. 19.91


54-63


63-


• 63.01


42.78


59-


• 57-85


46.10


34-



Time

77
42
40
44
94



Mazes
A— D..
A— B..
A— C.



Humans

Trials Errors



51.98
67.86
19.74



94.58
86.64
20.20



Time

88.73
67.18
29.18



200 EDUCATIONAL rSVCHOLOGY

Webb concluded that "the learning of one maze has a beneficial
effect in the mastery of a subsequent maze situation" (page 50)
and that "the degree of transfer is dependent in part upon the
degree of similarity of two maze patterns" (page 53). Webb
further attempted to ascertain whether a new habit has a retro-
active effect upon habits previously formed. He had his subjects
learn one maze, then a second one, and then return to the first one.
His findings were inconclusive.

Coover ('16) reports an unpublished investigation by Carrie
W. Liddle designed to measure the effect of practice in discrimi-
nating and sorting cards bearing colors or geometric signs upon
discriminating and sorting cards with different colors or signs.

"Each set of 102 cards contained six colors, or six designs, was shuffled
so that no color or device repeated itself, and was sorted into six com-
partments. The first six cards of the pack determined the order of colors
in the compartments according to which the rest of the pack was to be
sorted. Nine reagents took part and the experiment continued two
semesters. There was transference of practice-effect from one set of
colors to the other set of colors, and to the geometric forms; and from one
set of geometric forms to the other and to the colors. Increased powers
of discrimination and attention were thought to be the causes of trans-
ference."

■-^ergstrom ('94) had found previously that training in sorting
cards by one method interfered with sorting them by a different
method. The same situation is shown by the card-sorting exjDeri-
ment in the author's Experiments, Chapter XV.

Coover and Angell ('07) attempted to ascertain the effect of
practice in card sorting upon t}TDewTiter-reactions. They trained
four persons in card sorting on 15 days scattered through a
period of 40 days. During that time the subjects sorted 4,200,
3,800, 5,200, and 4,000 cards respectively. Before and after this
training they were given practice in t^-pewriter-reactions. Three
other persons, as a control group, were given practice in typewrit-
ing at two periods separated by an interval of 45 days. The re-
sults are interpreted by the authors as indicating transfer, but it
is doubtful whether there is any transfer and, if there is, how much.
The practiced group reduced their time for the first 100 typewriter
reactions, before the training in card sorting, from S4.4 seconds,
with an average of 2.3 errors, to 62.3 seconds, with 6.3 errors, for
the last 100 reactions after the training in card sorting. The



TRANSFERENCE OF TRAINING 20I

unpracticcd group reduced their time from 106.3 seconds, with
;i.;^ errors, to 80.6 seconds, with 2.3 errors. The trained group
reduced its time by 26% but increased in errors, while the untrained
group reduced its time by 25% but decreased in errors. There is
obviously no appreciable transfer,
"^/-i^c. Me7nory. More extensive researches have been made in the
field of memory than in any other single aspect of the problem of
transference of practice. One pf the most elaborate investigations
was made by Ebert and Meumann. (They measured the amount
of transfer from memorizing a series of nonsense syllables to vari-
ous other t}q)es of memory, such as immediate memory for num-
bers, letters, words, permanent memory of prose, paetry, etc.
The end tests were made at three different times, before the be-
ginning of practice series, about the middle, and at the close of the
practice series. The results showed very considerable gains in
these other t^q^es of memorizing. The difficulty in interpreting
their results, however, is the fact that they did not make the cross
section tests with a control group according to which a deduction
could be made for the gain in the end tests themselves. Dearborn
repeated the end tests on a group of subjects to ascertain the
amount of allowance to be made. His results together with those
of Ebert and Meumann are shown in the following table. Dear-
born found a very considerable amount of gain in these end tests.
His comments are as follows:

"The results indicate that a considerable part of the improvement
found must be attributed to direct practice in the test series, and not
to any 'spread' of improvement from the practice series proper. There
is further, at times, lack of correlation between the amount of improve-
ment made in the practice and that made in the test series; occasionally
a larger percentage of gain is made in the latter than in the practice itself.
This again indicates the presence of direct practice in the test series.

"Some at least of the remaining general improvement found is to be
explained simply in terms of orientation, attention, and changes in the
technique of learning.

"These results seem to render unnecessary the hypothesis proposed by
Ebert and Meumann to account for the large extent of the general in-
fluence of special practice, which their experiments seem to indicate."

Three subjects of Ebert and Meumann were trained in learning
64 sets of i2-syllable series; they gained 70%. Three others were
trained with 48 sets. They gained 50%.



202



EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



TABLE 51. After Ebert and Meumann ('05) and Dearborn





Ebert and Meumann's Gains

OF


Dearborn's 3rd

Cross Section

Test over the

First i




End Tests


2nd Cross

Section over

THE First


3rd Cross Sec-
tion over the
First


Difference


Memorj^ Span:
Numbers. .


24%
32

22

67
6r
64
48
24
.36

— 12

— 2Q

6
42


60%

35

43

81
76
80
70
72
73

34

22
II

72


12%
29

17
41

52

14
58


48%


Letters


6


Syllables


26


Memorizing :

lo-syllable series

12- " "

14- " "

16- " "

Geom. Forms (easj') . . .

" (hard) . . .

German-Italian Vocab.

(30 pairs)

German-Italian Vocab.

(40 pairs)


40


Poetry 16 lines

Prose 20 lines


-3
14




22%



' Quoted by permission from an unpublished tabic prepared by Dearborn.

Thus the high percentages of Ebert and Meumann are reduced to
an average residual transfer of 22%.

Fracker has reported a rather extensive series of investigations
on transfer in memory in which the training series consisted of
memorizing various combinations of four degrees of loudness in a
sound. These four loudnesses were presented in the various possible
combinations and the responses of the subjects consisted in indi-
cating the proper order in which the sounds had been received.
The end tests consisted in determining the memory capacities for
various combinations of four shades of gray, 9 tones, 8 shades of
gray, 4 tones, geometrical figures, 9 sets of numbers, arm move-
ments, and poetry. The results are summarized in the following
table which also indicates the amount of deduction to be made due
to the improvement in the end tests made by the control group.



TRANSFERENCE OF TRAINING 203

TABLE 52

Transference of training in memory. After Fracker ('08)

The improvement made in Training Series by 8 subjects was 21%.
End Tests:

Similar to Training Series:



Four Grays,




8 trained


subjects.


36% 4


untrained,


4%


32%


Nine Tones,




8 "


u


22 4


((


ir


11%


Nine Grays,




8 "


l(


19 4


<(


10


9%


Four Tones,




8 "


((


10 4
22%





— 2
6%


12%
16%


End Tests:
















Unlike Training


Series:












Geometrical Figi


uires


, 8 trained subjects.


13% 4 ■


untrained.


8


5%


Nine Numbers,




8 "


u


4 4


"





4%


Movement,




8 "


"


4


u


— I


1%


Poetry,




8 "


"


7 4


<(


2


5%



6% 3% 3%

An interesting result emphasized by these data is the fact that
the transfer to the types of memory similar to that involved in the
training series is considerably greater than the transfer to the
memory functions unlike the training series. The average residual
gain in the four similar memory processes is 16%, whereas in the
four unlike memory processes it was only 3%.

Sleight made a careful and extensive investigation on transfer-
ence of training in one sort of memory to other sorts of memory.
He believed that previous researches had not used enough subjects
to be statistically reliable. He therefore carried out his first re-
search with 84 pupils from three girls' schools, averaging 12 years
and 8 months old. Ten cross sectional tests were made before,
in the middle, and after the training series, as follows: (i) Re-
membering and reproducing the location of points in circles, (2)
two series of six dates each and their corresponding events, (3)
series of eight syllables, (4) a stanza of from eight to twelve lines
of poetry, (5) learning a passage of prose, (6) reproducing the con-
tent of a passage of prose, (7) remembering locations on a map, (8)
remembering dictated sentences, (9) memory span for letters, (10)
remembering names.

The pupils were divided into four groups of approximately equal
ability as determined by the ten tests before the training series.
One group was then trained in learning poetry; another in learning
tables of multiplication, denominations, squares, fractions, etc.;



204



EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



a third in reproducing the thought content of prose selections of
scientific, geographical and historical material; and the fourth
group had no special practice. The training period lasted four
days a week for six weeks, practicing 30 minutes each day.

The chief results are presented in Table 53. I.have computed
the percentage of gain made by each group in Section III, that is,
the end tests made at the close of the training series, over Section
I, the tests made before the training series. These p^tcentages are
given in the last column. Sleight has not made such a percentage
comparison, but has used a different, and possibly fairer, plan of
computing the data. I have, however, made this con'iputation in
terms of percentages as these will be more intelligible to the reader
unfamiliar with statistical methods. The average percentages at
the bottom of the table show only slight gains on the part of the
trained groups, 2, 3, and 4, over the untrained group. The average
gain of group 2, trained in poetry, over group i, untrained, was
3.3%; of group 3, trained in arithmetical tables, over group i was
2.6%; and of group 4, trained in prose, over group i was 4.0%.
The amounts of transfer are very small. Sleight failed to indicate
the improvement in the training series themselves so that it is im-
possible to compare the transferred amount with it.



TABLE 53

The numbers in the following talile are the average scores made by each
group in each test. Group i had no sjiecial practice, Group 2 was practiced in
learning poetry, Group 3 in learning tables, and Group 4 in learning prose
substance.

The column under Section I gives the scores before the training, under
Section TI about the middle of the training, under Section III after the training.
After Sleight. ('11, p. 413.)





Section I
Early Tt:sT


SFrxtoN II
MroDLE Test


Section III
Final Test


Percentage
Gain of III

OVER I


Points. .


. .Group I


73-9


86.2


86.5


17




" 2


66


8


80.2


84-5


25




" 3


66


5


77.2


90-3


26




" 4


58


5


69.8


76.5


31


Dates . .


. . . Group I


14


4


^5-3


18. 1


26




" 2


14


7


16.8


20.4


38




3


18


9


21.9


21.3


13




4


17


7


17. 1


20.1


M



TRANSFERENCE OF TRAINING



205





TABLE


53 — Continued






Section I


Section II


Section III


Percentage
Gain of III




Early Test


Middle Test


Final Test


over I


Nons. Sylls. Group i


20.7


20.7


22.8


10


" 2


19


8


24


9


273


ii


" 3


19


2


24


9


28.2


47


" 4


21


9


21





24.6


12


Poetry Group i


58


5


62


4


63.8


9


" 2


56


5


59


4


57-9


3


" 3


60


3


60


9


64.4


7


" 4


59


4


63


4


74-7


35


Prose (literal)














Group I


109


8


117


4


118. 6


8


" 2


lOI


9


107


3


107 -5


7


" 3


loS


I


113





115.6


7


" 4


104


6


"3


7


118. 3


14


Prose Subs . Group i


27


5


28


8


30-5


II


" 2


23


5


24


8


24.7


5


" 3


23


5


27


I


27.1


15


" 4


22


8


28


8


28.3


20


Map Test . . Group i


63


9


65


9


72.4


13


" 2


6S


9


65


I


81.9


25


" 3


65


9


64





74-5


13


" 4


68


3


66


8


78.7


16


Dictation . .Group r


134


I


-^iS


9


139.0


4


" 2


129


6


130


9


I^O.O





" 3


129


3


130


3


132.8


3


" 4


129


8


133


6


134-7


4


Letters .... Group i


76


I


78


9


80.2


5


" 2


79


2


Si


7


82.6


4


" 3


76


5


78


4


80.8


6


" 4


78


7


81


I


82.4


5


Names Group i


32


7


41


5


41.4


27


" 2


34


7


39


9


42.7


23


" 3


35


3


39


7


42.1


19


" 4


35


S


41


5


45-9


29



Average % of gain of Group i in all tests 13.0

" " " " 2 " " 16.3

" " " " " " 3 " " " 15.6

" " " " " " 4 " " " 17.0

Sleight, by his method of computation, found only a few in-
stances of significant amounts of transfer. His conclusion is that
"There appears to be no general memory improvement as a result
of practice, nor any evidence for the hypothesis of a general memory
function " (p. 455).



2o6 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

After the conclusion of these experiments, Sleight repeated the
same investigation with some modifications, on a group of young
women, i8 to 19 years old. The results were substantially the
same.

Coover made a study of the effect of training in reproducing im-
agery of a simple kind upon ability to reproduce imagery aroused by
materials of various sorts. The tests made before and after the
training were as follows: (i) recognition or choice of one of two
letters previously shown, (2) reproduction and recognition of letters
presented in groups of 12, (3) discrimination of intensities of sounds,
(4) memory of visual symbols. The training consisted in practice
in discriminating intensities of sound, and extended through a
period of 48 days. These intensities of sound were produced with a
sound pendulum (wood) instead of with a fall phonometer (steel)
as in end test number (3). The results of the investigation show
small or doubtful effects of transfer.

"The training on discrimination of sound did not result in improve-
ment in efficiency with the training material. But, according to intro-
spective evidence, it effected changes in the processes employed. Quan-
titative analysis showed that the practice-effect of the evident exercise of
retention and reproduction of auditory and other imagery 'spread' to
the tachistoscopic test of Recognition or Choice of One of Two Letters,
and to the test on the Complete Learning of series of visual symbols,
both of which involved retention and reproduction of imagery."

Dearborn made some experiments to measure the effect of prac-
tice in learning vocabulary and poetry upon ability to memorize
various sorts of material as specified in the following table. He
did not make the end tests on a control group and hence it is im-
possible to determine how much of the gain in the end tests was due
to the practice series. Judging from other experiments these gains
would have to be reduced by one-half or one-third. An interesting
comparison may be made between the gain in the end tests and the
training series. The average gain in learning French and German
vocabulary was 57%, whereas the average gain in the end tests in
learning French, German, or English verse was only 19% or one-
third as much. Practice in learning Paradise Lost made no im-
provement in learning chemical formulae.



TR.'\NSFERENCE OF TRAINING



207



TABLE 54

Transference of practice in memorizing German and French vocabularies and
English poetry and prose. After Dearborn (1910), p. 3S5





Practice


Percentage


End Test


Percentage




Materml


Gain


Material


Gain


I


French Vocab.


57%


French Verse


25%


2


German "


60


German "


10


3


French "


53


English "


17


4


(( (f


55


" "


7


5


li ti


62


French "


33


6


German "


57


German "


25


7


Victor Hugo


82


Browning


5f


8


Horace's Odes


73


Norse Poem


M'


9


Paradise Lost


68


Chemical Formuhi;


o|


10


Enoch Arden


55


Burke


2



Bennett ('07) had one person memorize 16 lines of In Memo-
riam a day for 28 consecutive days. This person was tested before
and after this period of training l^y learning a list of 15 names of
places each day for five days in which he showed a gain of 58 %.
Another person memorized two stanzas of Faerie Quccne a day for
35 consecutive days. Before and after this period he was tested in
learning a list of 30 digits each day for five days and in which he
showed a gain of 22%. No control tests were made on other
persons without training in learning the ])oetry.

Winch tested a group of 34 girls, averaging 13 years of age, by
having them learn a passage of historical prose. On the basis of
this test he divided them into two groups of equal ability. Group
A memorized 18 to 20 lines of poetry each day on four days scat-
tered through a period of two weeks. Group B meanwhile worked
sums. At the end of that time both groups were tested with his-
torical prose. Group A rose from a total score of 1,497 to 2,055, or
37%, while group B rose from 1,497 to 1,890, or 27%.

Winch ('08 and '10) next tested another class of 34 girls in the
same general manner, except that the before and after test was
made with geographical passages and that the poetry for the train-
ing series was somewhat simpler. He also carried out a similar
experiment with a third class of girls, using a historical passage for
the end tests. The results in each case showed a greater gain in the
practiced group.

The results from the author's class experiments (Chapter XI,



2o8 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

Experiments) indicate that an improvement of 27% in learning
Italian vocabulary is accompanied by an improvement of only
8% in learning French vocabulary or less than one-third as much.
Improvement in transcribing letters into numbers was accompanied
by only 12% as much gain in transcribing numbers into symbols.
Attention. Coover made a series of tests on transference which
he lists under the head of attention, but it is doubtful, as he himself
states, whether they are measures of attention any more than
many other tests that have been reported under other headings.
At any rate, attention probably played an important i)art in most
of the tests that Coover employed. The following were the nineteen
end tests made before and after training.

I. Reaction

1 . Simple sensory to sound (50) i

2. Compound

a. With discrimination

(i) Marking out small a's (100) 2

(2) Marking out o's (100) 3

b. With discrimination and choice

(1) Card-sorting (200) 4

(2) Typewriter-reaction (200) 5

(3) Controlled reaction (50) 6

IL Sensible discrimination of sounds (90) 7

III. Reproduction

1. Unequivocal (Rote memory)

a. Successive presentation

(i) Memory of sound intensities (50) 8

(2) Memory of consonants (50) 9

(3) Memory of Arabic numerals. (50) 10

(4) Memory of visual signs (10) n

(5) Memory of associated pairs (50) 12

b. Simultaneous presentation

(i) Learning 1 2-letter-rectangles

(a) Free (10) 13

(b) With distraction (10) 14

2. Equivocal — Word-completion . (10) 15

3. Free — 2-minute trains of ideas (3) 16

IV. E.xtensive threshold of visual attention

1. Free (15) ^7



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