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by the fact that in several schools the percentages in this grade
averaged as high as 90. The chief reason for the lower percentage
in the first and second grades is the variation in amount of actual
instruction in spelling given in different schools in these grades.
The best school among the 22 averaged around 90% in every grade
and the poorest school averaged around 60% in its various grades.

Aside from this list, numerous special lists have been prepared
partly on the basis of vocabulary studies or partly on the basis of
words commonly misspelled by pupils as reported by teachers.
Illustrations of such lists are the Boston Minimum Spelling List
(1915) consisting of 762 words, the Nicholson List, consisting of
3,070 words, prepared for the State of California, and the Chico
(California) List, consisting of 3,470 words, prepared by Studley
and Ware,

(2) The Influence of Rules in Spelling. Cook ('12) made a
test with 50 words on 70 university freshmen and on 39 high school
seniors and 30 high school freshmen. These 50 words were ex-
amples of seven rules with their exceptions. The university fresh-
men had had drill on spelling rules about seven months before
the test and the high school classes had finished the study of rules
six weeks before the test. The results are shown in the following
table:

TABLE 100

Observance of the rules. After Cook





Conscious of

Rule While

Writing


Unconscious of

Rule While

Writing


Combination

OF All Citing a

Rule


Unable to

Cite Any

Rule


RULE


High
School


Univer-
sity


High
School


Univer-
sity


High

School


Univer-
sity


High
School


Univer-
sity




No.
Stu-
dents


Av.

%


No.
Stu-
dents


Av.
%


No.
Stu-
dents


Av.

%


No.
Stu-
dents


Av.

%


No.
Stu-
dents


Av.

%


No.
Stu-
dents


Av.

%


No.
Stu-
dents


Av.
%

73
82
73
75
61


No.
Stu-
dents


Av.

%


ic-ci

I'inal e . .
Fiiuil y .
Final con
Final ic. .


16

.n
n

15


79

81

74
78


25
20
18
il


87
87
94
88


15
21
18
27


71
78
67
72


5
9

13

2

...


87
94
95

87


31

52

29

42

5


75
80
70
74
80


30
29
31
34
18


87
89
94
88
95


38
17
40
27
64


40
41
39
36

52


86
88
91
84
69



"In summary, it may be said that no one rule was quoted by as many
as 50% of the university students, though more than half of them had
memorized all these rules, and others besides, only the winter before; and
many of the students had been over all the rules in the public school. A
little less than half the high-school students had the courage to try to



334 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

give the rules they had learned only six weeks previously. In the univer-
sity group, those who gave some sort of rule to cover any part of the list
of words, averaged 4% higher in general spelling efficiency than those who
could not give any rule. So it is fair to assume that their better observ-
ance of the rules as shown by Table 100 is the result of their better spelling
ability in general, and not to any conscious application of the rules as
such. , Not a single rule tested proved to be of real value, except the one
for the last two words of the list — that relating to final ie." (After
Cook.)

These conclusions are interesting and probably correct in their
chief implications. One further point, however, ought to be con-
sidered. Inability to cite a rule or unawareness of its application
does not necessarily prove the impotency of the rule. It might be
possible that a rule played a part in the learning of words at the
time the learning took place and then had been forgotten. A
further investigation is necessary in which a comparison would be
made between two groups, one of which had learned and applied
rules while the other one had never had any contact with rules.

(3) Length of Class Period. Dr. J. M. Rice ('97) tested the
spelling ability of about 33,000 pupils to ascertain the effects of
different factors upon efficiency in the subject, such as methods of
teaching, foreign parentage, home environment, amount of time
devoted to spelling in the school program, and the like. His re-
sults with reference to the factor of time are presented in the
table.

The results as they stand would seem to indicate that length of
class period makes no difference in the ultimate achievement in
spelling since schools devoting 10 or 15 minutes daily do as well
as those devoting 50 minutes daily. Thus, City 15, School B,
grade IVA, devoting only 15 minutes daily to spelling, made a
record of 70.8 in the sentence test, whereas City i, School B, devot-
ing 50 minutes daily to spelling, made a record of only 61. S. Many
other similar comparisons may be cited.



SPELLING



335



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336



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SPELLING



337



Cornman made a similar study and reports substantially the
same situation. A sample of his results follows:



TABLE I02. After Cornman ('02)
Records of 1S98





4th a GR.U5E


5th GR^^DE


School


Time Given

TO Spelling;

Minutes per

Week


acplity of the
Class in Spelling


Time Given

TO Spelli.ng;

Minutes per

Week


Ability of the
Class in Spelling


A


50
75
100
100
100
120
ISO
200


67.0

75-5
76.4
65.0
66.0
65.0
70.3
76.3


50

60

So

100

TOO
100
100
160


68


C


72.5
83 5
57-4
76.2
66


E


F


G


D ...


I


67.1
82.0


H







The investigations of both Rice and Cornman are highly im-
portant but they do not afford conclusive evidence that time
makes no difference. The fact that some schools devote two or
three times as much time to spelling as other schools do and obtain
thereby no better results, does not prove that time plays no part,
for the reason that many other complicated factors enter, such as
differences in teachers, method, spirit, and the like, to make the
effect of any one factor unanalyzable. Indeed, we might infer
that the lower schools, assuming all conditions the same, might
have obtained even poorer results than they did if they had de-
voted to spelling only as much time as the better schools did.

In order to ascertain definitely the effect of different lengths of
class periods upon spelling efficiency, it would be necessary to
proceed in a more rigorously scientific manner rather than to
make inferences on the basis of complicated, wholesale statistics.
It would be distinctly worth while to undertake an experiment by
teaching several equally able sections of a given class under as
nearly identical conditions as possible, such as having the same
teacher, text, method, and environment, and by varying only
the time element so as to have, for example, a period of 15 minutes
for one class, of 30 minutes for another, and of 45 minutes for still
another. Comparisons by adequate tests at different times would
yield conclusive evidence concerning the effect of time upon ulti-



338 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

mate achievement. It would seem reasonable to anticipate that
longer periods of equally good class instruction would produce
greater efficiency. The fundamental problem, of course, would
be the determination of the optimum length of the class period in
relation to the desired efficiency in spelling.

(4) Methods of Teaching Spelling. Along with the question
of time, Rice and Cornman were interested also in determining the
influence of different methods of teaching. Rice does not present
definite figures, but, on the basis of extensive inquiries among the
teachers in the schools which he tested, he tried to ascertain the
facts conerning methods of instruction and environmental con-
ditions. His conclusion was as follows:

"In brief, there is no direct relation between method and results. . . .
The results varied as much under the same as they did under different
methods of instruction. The facts here presented, in my opinion, will
admit of only one conclusion, viz., that the results are not determined
by the methods employed, but by the ability of those who use them. In
other words, the first place must be given to the personal equation of the
teacher, while methods and devices play a subordinate part." (After
Rice.)

Practically the same criticism, made in the preceding section
concerning the factor of time, is pertinent here. The situation is
too complex and the cooperating factors too numerous to make
such inferences without a careful isolation of the individual ele-
ments and their separate effects. Each element should be subjected
to an experimental procedure similar to the one outlined in the
preceding sections.

Cornman went further than Rice by undertaking an experiment
in which the spelling period was entirely eliminated from two
schools in Philadelphia for a period of three years. He states:

"It was decided to abandon the use of the spelling book and home
lessons in the subject, to omit also the period from the school programme
which had been devoted to its study and recitation and to investigate the
effect that the abstraction of these influences might produce upon the
spelling of the pupils of the several school grades. Several methods of
measuring results were devised which will be herein described and statis-
tically reported upon." (After Cornman.)

On the basis of these tests, made at different intervals, Cornman
found that the spelling ability of the two schools was almost as



SPELLING 339

good as that of the other schools and that the pupils improved
steadily in spelling, even though special instruction in them had
been omitted. Some of his figures follow:



TABLK 103. After Cornman

Spelling ability measured by uniform examinations for all schools,
giv^cn by the city superintendent.

so Schools Giving Specific 2 Schools in Wnicn for 3 Years no Specific

Instruciion in Spelling Insxkuction in Spelling had been Given

7th gracie 73 . o 69 . 9

6th graHe 70 . 4 65 . i

5th grade 71.6 72.7

Average 71 .7^:^;^^;_^_^. 69.2

The spelling ability of classes in the Northwest School who had for
three years been without specific instruction in spelling compared with
that of corresponding grades of prcvijus years, who had had the full
amount of drill in spelling.

Tests of June, 1897 Tests of June, 1900

8th grade 99-4 99-8

7th grade 99 . 1 98 . 6

6th grade 96.75 99-°

5th grade 96 . 95 97 . 6

The spelling ability in a test in writing words in sentences of classes
which had been without specific instruction in spelling for a year and of
classes which had regular drill.

Classes With Regular Drill Classes Without Regular Drill Difference

Tests of June, 1897 Tests of June, 1898

Northwest 8th grade 89.8 90.6 0.8

7th " 86.1 78.7 —2.6

6th A " 83.5 77.5 —6.0

6th B " 72.7 71.7 — i.o

5th A " 80.6 76.9 —3-7

5th B " 78.8 79-2 0.4

4th A " 75.1 80.7 5.6

4th B " 85.8 85.3 -0.5

3rd A " 86.5 70.4 — 16. 1

3rdB " 57.8 57-7 -o-i



Agnew 4th A grade 76 . 8 82.0 5.2

4th B " 82.5 83.7 1.2

3rd A " 72.3 73-7 1-4

3rd B " 66.1 67.7 1.6



34° EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

That is, half of the classes without specific instruction did better and
half of them did worse than the corresponding classes with specific in-
struction.

Cornman concludes:

" (6) The amount of time devoted to the specific spelling drill bears no
discoverable relation to the result, the latter remaining practically con-
stant after the elimination of the spelling drill from the school programme.

" (9) It is therefore advisable, in view of the economy of time, to rely
upon the incidental teaching of spelling to produce a sufficiently high
average result.

" (10) The average result is what can be and is attained, as shown by
statistical evidence, by average pupils under teachers of average pro-
fessional efficiency in classes of average size, i. e., in the elementary
schools of this country as now organized. To remain strictly within the
evidence gathered by this investigation, it must be admitted that there
may be teachers of surpassing ability, who can obtain more than average
results by the method of the specific spelling drill, and other teachers of
meaner abihty who need the drill to bring their pupils up to the level of
this average result. It is claimed, however, that there is no evidence
(whatever may be the wealth of opinion) to prove that such teachers
exist or to show where they may be found. Moreover, the evidence
which has been presented in this paper makes their existence at least
improbable."

The extensive work of both Rice and Cornman has been very
valuable in attacking a large educational problem by more exact
methods and in showing that there is undoubtedly an enormous
waste in the teaching of spelling, as there is probably in all school
subjects; but the results are not final proof that length of time or
methods of learning are negligible elements. Indeed both labora-
tory experiments in the learning process and the more recent and
more carefully controlled tests in spelling itself indicate quite
certainly that length of time and manner of learning do make
important differences, " ~"

The author found that there are large differences in the average
spelling attainment of the various classes of any given grade in
the same school system. The results for the 10 schools of a Wis-
consin city, Table 104, City J, were as follows:



SPELLING



341



TABLE 104

Differences in attainment in spelling in iS Wisconsin cities as measured by the

author s test



Grades
Standard Scores

City A

C, School



F

I, School



J, School I
2
3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10



.6



30



^9



■30
•35
■31

.IQ
•23
•25
.48

•25
.28

■35



3
40



■34
•38
■38
•37
■39

■43
•34
■41
•32
•30
•36
•44
•37
•44
•43



4

51

.48 o.

• 53 ■ 5 ■
.47.1.

•437^
.49.0.



5

6r

.52.0.

.61.7.

. 60. 7 .

•57^i-
. . 63 . 2 .

■45^i^ •545^
.48. 8. .61.5.

52^8.

•52^5 •■59^ 2.
.47.0. .62.0.
•52^o. .55.3^
.47.7. .58.0.
.51.5. .62.5.
■45^8. .53^2.
.58.0. .62.5.

■447^ ■559-
.56.5. .60.5.

•54^o..S5^7^



6

71



7
78



8
85



,68.8..



. 68 . 8 .
, 69 . o .
.66.0.
•82.3.
. 64 . 1 .
. 60 . 4 .
.79.0.
. 60 . 2 .
68.0.

67^5^
,62.7.

74 ■ 9 ■
67.3.
,67.0.



76. 2.
84.0.



•75^2
.88.0



70. 5^ •775

75. 9.. 81. 3
80.0. .83.0
82.2. .85.0
75.0. .77.0
69.7. .78.8
74.0. .79.7
76. I . .79.0
75^o^ ■779
73.0. .81.5
.64.8. .71.3. .82.2



Thus the lowest sixth grade made an average of 60.2 which is
barely up to the standard of the fifth grade and the highest made
an average of 79.0 which is above the standard of the eighth grade.
These differences are actually quite large when we remember that
they are grade averages and not scores of individual pupils. These
differences must be due in a large measure to differences in methods
of teaching.

Wallin attempted to make a comparison of the careful drill
method, devised for the Cleveland schools by Assistant Superin-
tendent W. E. Hicks, with the incidental method employed by
Cornman in the two schools in Philadelphia from which the spell-
ing period had been eliminated. Wallin reported results from the
Cleveland schools distinctly superior to those in the Philadelphia
schools.

TABLE 105. After Wallin ('11)
Combined averages for the composition and column tests, all schools
Grades 4 5 6 7 8 All Grades

Percent 98.40 9631 96-95 97-03 96-28 97.00



342 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

He states:

"First, the general spelling efficiency for all schools shown (97%) is
striking. It is 12.6% higher than Kratz's results (84.4%, for the fourth
to eighth grades, inclusive), 25% higher than Chancellor's (72%, for
10,000 pupils from the fourth to eighth grade), 25.48% higher than the
results in Rice's column test (71.52%), which consisted of a list of dic-
tated words, and 22.42% higher than the results from his sentence test,
which consisted of dictated sentences containing 50 test words for the
fourth and fifth grades, and 75 words for the sixth, seventh and eighth
grades. It eclipses by 25.7% Cornman's average in three term examina-
tions during three years for eighty Philadelphia schools (71.3%), and
is 27% higher than the results of these examinations in his two experi-
mental schools (70%), in which the spelling instruction was incidental.
In four column tests given to these two schools from September to June
and consisting of lists of fifty words differing from grade to grade, the
averages were 33%, 49%, 50% and 50% respectively for one school, and
49%; 57%i 60% and 6S% for the other; while the repetition of Rice's
column and sentence tests gave an average efficiency in 1897 of 78.9% in
one school, and 6-j.i% in the other, and in 1898, 73.1% and 65.4% re-
spectively, for the column Icsl. The corresponding averages for the
sentence test were: 82.3% and 74.6% in 1897, and 76.5% and 77.9% in
1898. It will be observed that there was a loss of efficiency in 1898 except
in the case of the sentence test for one school." (After WalUn.)

Miss Fulton reports an experiment in which an attempt was
made to ascertain the effect of a specific drill in learning to spell.
One hundred words, ten each day for two weeks, were taught by
the following plan: i. "Write word upon the board." 2. "Explain
meaning." 3. "Children use the word in a sentence." 4. "Write
word ten times while saying letters aloud at same time." 5. "Em-
phasize by intonation of voice or by colored chalk on blackboard
the difhcult part of words." At the end of the two weeks a test
with the 100 words was given.

During the next two weeks another Hst of 100 w^ords of similar
difficulty was used with no directions except to "study the lesson."
The children were "heard" but no special effort was made to
teach the words. A test with these words also was then given.
The results of the two plans as indicated by the tests given im-
mediately and three weeks later were as follows:

TABLE 106. After Fulton ('14)

With Three Weeks Without Three Weeks

Drill Later Drill Later

Average % 98 96 73 68

Daily results 98 . . 78



SPELLING 343

(5) Laws of Association. Skill in spelling is primarily a matter
of forming associative connections between certain arbitrary sym-
bols arranged for the most part in arbitrary order. Economy in
the learning of spelling reduces itself to this question: Under what
conditions can these associations be made most quickly, most
effectively, and most permanently? Of the four laws of associ-
ation, frequency, vividness, primacy, and recency, the first two
are most directly applicable. Obviously, frequent repetition is
necessary to establish the connections. Frequent reviews, monthly,
weekly, and possibly daily, are indispensable.

The law of vividness operates in numerous ways. This law
states that other things being equal, the most vivid or intense
association is most apt to be recalled. It may be made of service
in two general ways: (i) By any device that will stimulate the
clearest possible attention and interest on the part of the learner
upon the spelling of words, or (2) by any device that will make



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