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Starch, D.: 191 5. The Measurement of Ability in English Grammar.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 6.
Starch, D.: 1915. Can the Variability of Marks be Reduced? School

and Society, 2:242-243.
Starch, D.: 191 5. The Inheritance of Abihties in School Studies. School

and Society, 2:608-610.
Starch, D.: 1915. Some Experimental Data on the Value of Studying

Foreign Languages. School Review, 23:697-703.
Starch, D.: 1916. The Measurement of Ability in Arithmetic. Journal

of Educational Psychology, April, igi6.
Starch, D.: 191 7. The Estimated Value of School Subjects. School and

Society, 5:59-60.
Starch, D.: 191 7. Further Experimental Data on the Value of Studying

Foreign Languages. School Review, 25:243-248.
Starch, D.: 191 7. Similarity between Brothers and Sisters in Menial

Traits. Psychological Review, 24:235-238.
Starch, D., and Ash, I. E.: 1917. The Mental Work Curve. Psycholog-
ical Review, 24:391-402.
Starch, D., and Elliott, E. C: 191 2. The Reliability of Grading High

School Work in Enghsh. School Review, 20:442-457.
Starch, D., and Elliott, E. C: 1913. The ReliabiHty of Grading Work in

Mathematics. School Review, 21:254-259.
Starch, D., and Elliott, E. C: 1913. The ReliabiHty of Grading Work in

History. School Review, 21:676-681.
Stone, C. W.: 1908. Arithmetical Abilities and Some Factors Deter- 1. - ^

mining Them. Columbia Contributions to Education, No. 10.
Studebaker, J. W.: 1916. Economy Practice Exercises in Arithmetic.

Scott, Forcsman & Company.
Suzzallo, H.: 1910. The Teaching of Spelling.
Suzzallo, H., and Pearson, H. C: 1913. Comparative Experimental

Teaching in Spelling. Teachers' College Record, 13: No. i.
Swift, E. J.: 1908. The Mind in the Making.
Swift, E. J.: 191 2. Youth and the Race.

Taussig, A. E. : 1909. The Prevalence of Visual and Aural Defects among

the Public School Children of St. Louis County, Missouri. The

Psychological Clinic, 3:149-160.
Terman, L. M.: 1916. The Measurement of Intelligence.
Terman, L. M.: 1917. The Intelligence Quotient of Francis Galton in

Childhood. American Journal of Psychology, 28:210.
Thompson (WooUey), H. B.: 1903. Psychological Norms in Men and

Women. University of Chicago Contributions to Philosophy,

IV, No. I.
Thorndike, E. L.: 1900. Mental Fatigue, Psychological Review, 7:466-

482, 547-579-



1



BIBLIOGRAPHY 463

Thorndike, E. L.: 1905. Measurements of Twins. Archives of Phil.

Psychology and Scientific Methods, No. i.
Thorndike, E. L.: 1910. Handwriting. Teachers' College Record, 11:

No. 2.
Thorndike, E. L.: 1910. Practice in the Case of Addition. American

Journal of Psychology, 21 :483-486.
Thorndike, E. L.: 191 1. Mental Fatigue. Journal of Educational

Psychology, 12:61-80.
Thorndike, E. L.: 1912. Education.

Thorndike, E. L.: 191 2. The Permanence of Interests and Their Rela-
tion to Abilities, Popular Science Monthly, Nov., 1912.
Thorndike, E. L.: 1912. The Curve of Work. Psychological Review,

19:165-194.
Thorndike, E. L. : 1914. Educational Psychology, Vol. I. The Original

Nature of Man. Vol. II. The Psychology of Learning. Vol. III.

Mental Work and Fatigue and Individual Differences and Their

Causes.
Thorndike, E. L.: 1914. The Measurement of Ability in Reading.

Teachers' College Record, 15, No. 4.
Thorndike, E. L.: 1915. The Disciplinary \'alues of Studies: A Census

of Opinions. Education, 35:278-286.
Thorndike, E. L.: 191 5. The Relation between Speed and Accuracy in

Addition. Jour, of Educ. Psych., 5:537.
Thorndike, E. L.: 1917. The Curve of Work and the Curve of Satisfy-

ingness, Journal of Applied Psychology, 1:265-267.
Trabue, M. R. : 1916. Completion-test Language Scales. Columbia

University Contributions to Education, No. 77.

Uhl, W. T.: 1916. Use of the Results of Reading Tests as Basis for
Planning Remedial Work. Elementary School Journal, 17:266-

275-

Waldo, K. D.: 1914. Tests in Reading in the Sycamore Schools, Ele-
mentary School Journal, 15:251-268.

Walhn, J. E. W.: 191 1. Spelling Efficiency in Relation to Age, Grade and
Sex, and the Question of Transfer.

Walsemann, H. J.: 1907. Anschauungslehre der Rechenkunst.

Warren, H. C: 1897. The Reaction Time of Counting. Psychological
Review, 4:569-591.

Webb, L. W.: 191 7. Transfer of Training and Retroaction. Psycholog-
ical Review Monographs, 24: No. 104.

Wells, F. L. : 1908. Normal Performance in the Tapping Test. American
Journal of Psychology, 19:437-483.

Wells, F. L.: 191 2. The Relation of Practice to Individual Differences.
American Journal of Psychology, 23:75-88.



464 BIBLIOGRAPHY

West, A. F. (Editor): 1917. Value of the Classics, Princeton University
Press.

Whipple, G. M.: 1910. Manual of Mental and Physical Tests.

Whipple, G. M.: 1916. How to Study Effectively.

Whitley, M. T.: 1911. An Empirical Study of Certain Tests for In-
dividual Differences. Archives of Psychology, No. 19.

Wilbur, Flora: 1916. Experiments with Courtis' Practice Pads. Indiana
University Studies.

Wilcox, M. J.: 1917. Does the Study of High School Latin improve
High School English? School and Society, 6:58-60.

Wilson, G. M.: 1917. A Survey of the Social and Business Use of Arith-
metic. Sixteenth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study
of Education, 1917:128-142.

Wimmer, H.: 1916. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Drill in
Arithmetical Processes under Varying Conditions. Indiana Univer-
sity Studies.

Winch, W. H.: 1904. Immediate Memory in School Children. British
Journal of Psychology, 1:127-134.

Winch, W. H.: 1906. Immediate Memory in School Children: Auditory.
British Journal of Psychology, 2:52-57.

Winch, W. H. : 1908. The Transfer of Improvement in Memory in School
Children: I. British Journal of Psychology, 2:284-293.

Winch, W. H.: 1910. The Transfer of Improvement in Memory in
School Children: II. British Journal of Psychology, 3:386-405.

Winch, W. H.: 1910. Accuracy in School Children. Does Improvement
in Numerical Accuracy Transfer? Journal of Educational Psy-
chology, 1:557-589.

Winch, W. H. : 191 1. Further Work in Numerical Accuracy. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 2:262-271.

Winship, A. E.: 1900. Jukes-Edwards: A Study in Education and
Heredity.

Woodworth, R. S.: 1899. The Accuracy of Voluntary Movement. Psy-
chological Review Monographs, No. 13.

Woodworth, R. S., and Thorndike, E. L.: 1901. The Influence of Im-
provement in One Mental Function upon Other Functions. Psy-
chological Review, 8:247-261; 384-395; 553-564-

Woods, F. A.: 1906. Mental and Moral Heredity in Royalty.

Woody, C: 1916. Measurements of Some Achievements in Arithmetic.
Columbia University Contributions to Education, No. 80.

Yerkes, R. M., Bridges, J. M., and Hardwick, R. S.: 191 5. A Point-
Scale for Measuring Mental Ability.



INDEX



Abbott, E. E., 167.

Aiken, 265.

Aldine system of reading, 290, 291,
293, 294.

Ames, W. R., 263, 264.

Anderson, H. W., 290.

Angell, 198, 200.

'Apperception, doctrine of, 139; eval-
uation of, 140.

Arai, T., 173, 174.

Arithmetic; steps involved in, 374f.;
number concept, 375; establish-
ment of associations, 376; clue as to
process required, 376f.; number
preferences, 379f.; methods of meas-
uring efficiency in, 38 if.; economic
methods in learning, 383f.; acquiring
number concept, 383f.; number pic-
tures, 384f.; operations to be learned,
386f.; length of class period, 391;
certain environmental factors, 39Sf.;
drill, 396f.; optimum distribution of
drill, 402f.; special methods of drill,
405f.; speed versus accuracy, 409f.;
limits of attainment, 410; errors,
4iof.; relative difficulty of combina-
tions, 414.

Arithmetic tests:

Courtis, 20, 35, 37, 89, 165, 166, 381,

400, 408, 410, 412.
Starch, 382, 383, 396.
Stone, 382.
Woody, 382.
Judd and Counts, 382.

Arithmetical reasoning, 20; Fig. 4,
Fig. 5, 21; Fig. 19,35-

Arps, G. F., 407.

Association, see Learning, Spelling,
Correlation.

Attention, largely controlled by in-
stinct, 13; control of in studying,
180.



Auditory defects, frequency, 128.
Aussage tests, 133.

Ayres, scale in writing, 35; in spelling,
324-

Bagley, W. C, 224, 247, 424, 425.

Bair, J. H., 161, 198.

Baldwin, B. T., 59, 60.

Ballard, P. B., 407, 408.

Ballou, F. W., 353.

Barr, Martin W., 80.

Batavia plan, 42.

Batson, W. H., 146, 147, 150, 161.

Beacon system of reading, 290, 291,
292, 293.

Bean, C. H., 157.

Beetz, 384, 385.

Bergstrom, J. A., 200.

Betts, G. H., 167, 423.

Biglow, R. P., 218.

Binet, H., 99, 300.

Binet-Simon Tests, 69f.; 99f.; Ter-
man's revised scale, loof., 107; nec-
essary qualifications for tester;
measurements resulting from use of,
io7f.

Birge, E. A., 441, 443.

Boas, F., 18.

Bolton, T. L., 171.

Book, W. F., 144, 145, 146, 150, 157,
161.

Born, 384, 385, 386.

Born, Busse, and Belune, 384.

Borst, M., 133, 136.

Breslich, E. R., 189.

Briggs, T. H., 225, 226.

Brown, H. A., 274, 275, 289.

Brown, J. C, 398.

Brown, M. D., 353, 354, 372.

Brown, J. Stanley, 189.

Brinckerhoff, Morris and Thorndike,
55-



465



466



INDEX



Bryan, W. L., and Harter, N., 142,

143, 150, 151, 153, 158.
Buckingham, B. R., 325.
Burk, C. F., 22.
Burnett, C. J., 384.
Burris, 55.
Burt, C, 53, 54, 59, no.

Cambridge plan, 44.

Capacities, definition of, 10; variation

in, see Individual Differences.
Carter, M. H., 123.
Cattell, J. M., 92, 384.
Charters, W. W., 357, 363.
Charters, W. W., and Miller, Edith,

362.
Classical versus non-classical students,

236, 237f.
Cliborne, J. H., 121.
Coffman, 387, 388.
Cohn, 125, 127.
Color-blindness, 124, 126.
Colvin, S. S., 168.
Commenius, 224.
Conrad, H. E., 407.
Cook, W. A., 333, 334.
Coover, J. E., 196, 198, 200, 206, 208,

209.
Cornell, W. S., 129.
Cornman, O. P., 337, 338, 339, 340,

395-

Correlation: problem stated, 49; co-
efficient of, 49f.; among specific
mental abilities, 5of.; among abil-
ities in school subjects, 54f.; conclu-
sion concerning, 54, 57f.; between
special capacities and general intel-
ligence, 59; between mental and
• physical traits, 59; between early
and later mental abilities, 6of.

Coubal, L. J., 89, 164.

Counts, G. S., 382.

Courtis, S. A., 274, 275, 286, 382,
406.

Courtis tests, 20, 35, 37, 89, 165, 166,
381, 400, 408, 410, 412.

Craig, Helen, 43.

Cross education, 21 of.

Culture epochs theory, 25.

Currier, 290.



Curve of learning, 141; characteristics
of, 141 f.; initial rise in, i43f.; pla-
teaus, isof.

Dallam, M. Ther° \, 246.

Davidson, P. E., 24.

Davis, W. W., 210.

Dearborn, W. F., 60, 154, 161, 162,
177, 201, 202, 206, 207, 262, 265,
266, 267, 268, 269, 428, 430, 444.

De Bruin, L. C, 328.

De Candolle, A., 92.

Dexter, E. G., 178.

Dexter, Emily S., 84, 85.

Diebel, Amelia, 362, 363, 365.

Dietze, G., 384.

Distribution curve, 28, 30, and as-
signment of marks, 443f.; memory
ability, 26; A-test, 27; cancellation,
27; association, 28; chest measure-
ments, 30; height of women, 31;
head girth of boys, 31; of tossings
of pennies, 32; and marks, 443-448.

Distribution of mental abilities, 29.

Distribution of practice, i53f.

Dodge, R., 266.

Dougherty, M. L., 109.

Downey, J. E., 298, 300.

Drill in writing, 3i9f.; in spelling,
339f.; in arithmetic, 396f.

Drushel, J. A., 409.

Dugdale, R. G., 77.

Duquid, 290.

Durr, 124.

Earle, E. L., 82.

Ebbinghaus, H., 69, 153, 157, 171.

Ebbinghaus test, no.

Ebert, E., and Meumann, E., 161,
201, 202.

Edison, T. A., 377.

Education: Definition of, i; funda-
mental problems of, 2.

Elliott, E. C, 45, 433, 434.

Ellis, 92.

English: methods of measuring effi-
ciency in, 3S2f.; results of measure-
ments in, 353f.; economic methods
of acquiring skill in, 354f.; acquisi-
tion of ideas, 35.';; of words and



INDEX



467



forms, 355; grammar and correct
English, 356f.; imitation in acquir-
ing, 357; specific attention to errors
in grammar, 36 if.; oral versus writ-
ten practice, 367f.; good English in
all classes, 37 if.; types of topics
which should be given, 372; effects
of differing teaching ability, 373;
and Latin, see Latin.

Environment, see Environmental In-
fluence.

Environmental influence on different
original abilities, 88; experiments
concerning, 88f.; conclusions con-
cerning, 91.

Erdmann, B., 266.

Extra-work plan, 43.

Family resemblances, see Mental

Heredity.
Faraday, 377.
Far-sightedness, 123.
Fatigue, methods of studying, 170;

experiments on, 17 if.; and school'

work, 17s; see also Progress of

Learning.
Feeblemindedness, inheritance of, see

Mental Heredity.
Fillers, H. D., 362, 363.
Finkelstein, I. E., 428, 440, 443.
Fordyce, 274, 275.
Forgetting, i56f.
Formal discipline, 217, 252.
Foster, F. M., 235, 236, 325.
Foster, J. W., 218.
Foster, W. T., 177, 428, 429, 441, 442,

444.
Fracker, G. C, 161, 194, 195, 202,

203, 212.
Franklin, 360.
Freeman, F. N., 282, 299, 306, 308,

309,310,312,313,317,318,321,384.
Friedrich, J., 171, 172.
Fulton, M. J., 342.

Galton, Sir Francis, 74, 85, 86, 105.

General intelligence and special ca-
pacities, 109; results of Simpson's
experiment on, no; Burt's stvidy of,
iiof.; conclusion concerning, inf.



Gessell, A. L., 300.

Gilbert, J. A., 67, 71; and Fracker,

G. C., 194, 195.
Gilman, Charles, 122, 123, 124.
Gist, A. S., 412.
Goddard, H. H., 77, 78, 79, 100, 107,

130.
Gormley, 241.
Graves, S. M., 306, 307.
Gray, C. T., 321, 431, 432.
Gray, W. S., 265, 268, 274, 275, 294.
Griesbach, 170.
Gross, 299.
Gulick, L. H., and Ayres, L. P., 127,

128, 130.
Guyer, M. F., 77, 79.

Haggerty, M. E., 275, 353, 354, 372,
400.

Hahn, W. H., 404, 405.

Haines, T. H., 107.

Hall, G. Stanley, 17, 19, 23, 135, 265.

Hall-Quest, A. L., 189, 190.

Hamilton, F. M., 270.

Handwriting: steps involved in, 297;
sex differences in, 299f., 303f.; cor-
relation of with other traits, 300;
measurement of efiBciency in, 3oif.;
economic procedure in learning to
write, 304f.; perception of forms in,
304f.; length of practice periods,
307f.; standard of proficiency in,
3 1 of.; relation of speed to quality
in, 3iif.; methods of teaching, 3 i4f.;
factors affecting execution of move-
ments in, 3i7f.; movement drills,
319; correct form in, 320; analysis
of imperfections in, 32of.

Handwriting scales, Thorndike, 301,

303, 310-

Ayres, 301, 303, 310, 312, 313, 316.

Starch, 301, 303.

Freeman, 302.

Palmer, 302, 321.

Zaner, 302, 321.

Gray, 321.
Harris, J. H., 290.
Harris, L. H., 234, 235,
Heck, W. H., 172, 173.
Height and age, Fig. i, 18.



468



INDEX



Hendricks, 294.

Henmon, V. A. C, 70, 71, 84, 164,
168, 169, 281.

Hentschel, Butz, Sobelewsky and
Kaselitz, 384.

Herbart, 139.

Heredity, see Mental Heredity.

Hewins, N. P., 247, 249.

Hicks, W. E., 391.

Hillegas scale, 35, 39, 40, 41, 245.

History: psychological steps involved
in, 4i6f.; measurement of attain-
ment in, 4i8f.; economic methods
in learning, 42of.; suggestions for
method of study, 422f.; essential
material in, 423f.

History tests:
Starch, 418.
Bell and McCollum, 420.

Hoge, Mildred and Stocking, Ruth J.,
14.

Hollingworth, H. L., 52.

Holloway, H. V., 413, 414.

Horace Mann system of reading, 290,
291, 292, 293.

Horn, E., 425.

Hosic, J. F., 369.

Houser, J. D., 330.

Howe system in reading, 294.

Howell, H. B., 378, 384, 385, 386,
410, 411.

How to study, 176; waste in studying,
176; value of study, i77f.; types of
studying, 179; problems in study-
ing; see also Studying.

Hoyt, F. S., 226, 227.

Huey, E. B., 266, 270, 281.

Hull, C. L., 148, 149, 263, 264, 301.

Humphrey, 240.

Hypermetropia, 123.

Imagery, i66f.

Individual differences, 26; quantita-
tive nature of, 26; means of graphic
representation, 28; range of, 28f.;
in reading, 33; in writing, 34; in
spelling, 34; in arithmetical reason-
ing, 35; in addition, 37; in English,
38, 40, 41, 42; in geography, 39;
in drawing, 40.



Individual instruction plan, 42, 44.

Infallibility of instincts, isf.

Ingersoll, L. R., 351.

Instinct, and motivation, 12; collect-
ing instinct and age, Fig. 6, 22.

Instincts, defined, 9; and reflexes, 9;
and capacities, 10; classified, lof.;
overemphasis of in education, iif.;
role in education, iif; sudden de-
velopment of, igi.; unrevivability
of, 2 if.

Instincts, theories based upon dy-
namic theory, 14, isf.; transitori-
ness, 14, 17; recapitulation, 14,

2 2f.

IntelUgence quotient, 104; how de-
termined, losf.

Interest in relation to learning, see
Progress of Learning.

Interests, permanency of, 62.

Jacoby, P., 92.

James, W., 21, 23, 138, 139, 193, 211,

212, 213, 214, 371.
Jastrow, J., 379, 381.
Javal, E., 266.
Jessup, W. A., 387, 388.
Jevons, 377.
Johnson, R. I., 366.
Jonathan Edwards family, 77, 80.
Jones, W. F., 346.
Jost, A., 153.
Judd, C. H., 199, 213, 214, 215, 264,

285, 286, 306, 313, 314, 315, 316,

396, 397-
Jukes family, 77, 80.

Kallikak family, 771.; diagram of de-
scendants, 78.
Kansas silent reading test, 275.
Kelly, F. J., 274, 275.
Kelley, T. L., 61, 62.
Kent, G. H., 174, 175.
Kerr, Mary A., 400.
King, Miss, 172.
King, Irving, 235, 285, 286.
Kirby, T. J., 155, 402, 403, 404, 405.
Kircher, H. W., 2S0.
Kirkpatrick, E. A., 406.
Kline, L. W., 161, 197.



V



INDEX



469



Knight, 346.
Knilling, 384.
Kraepelin, E., 299.
Kuhlmann, F., 100, 108.
Language, psychological processes in-
volved in, 349f.

Landolt, 266.

Language scales:
Starch, 352, 353.
HiUigas-Thorndike, 353, 373.
Harvard-Newton, 353.
Trabue, 353.

Laser, H., 171.

Lathrop, G. C, 378.

Latin: general value of, 229; effect of
study of modern language, 23if.;
and scholarship, 232; effect on Eng-
lish, 233f., 24if., 246f., 356; on rhet-
oric, 235; and college honors, 236f.;
and original capacity, 238f.

Lay, W. A., 384, 385, 3S6.

Learning: problems in rate and prog-
ress of, 141; curve of, 141; early
progress in, 143; various curves of,
142-149; analytic types of, 148;
distribution of practice in, iS3f.;
plateaus in, 142, 149, i5of.; see also
Progress in Learning and Curve of
Learning.

Learning process: analyzed, iisf.;
common and special elements in,
118; general versus special, 119;
problems concerning, iigf.

Length of practice periods, see Prog-
ress of Learning.

Liddle, Carrie W., 200.

Lincoln, 30.

Lindley, E. H., 377.

Llewelyn, 289.

Lodge, G., 229, 230.

Loisette, A., 422.'

Lounsbury, 369.

Loveland, 190.

Lueba, J. H., and Hyde, W., 153.

Lyon, D. O., 156.

McAllister, 264.

McGuire, Margaret F., 122.

Magneff, 157.



Marks: importance of, 426; variations
in distribution of, 426f.; variations
in evaluation of same school subject,
433f.; causes of variations, 43sf.
evaluation of factors involved, 438.
size of units on marking scale, 438f .
how distribute marks, 44of.", objec-
tions to use of distribution curve
in assigning marks, 443f.; methods
of reducing variations in grades,
448f.

Matthews, Brander, 361.

Measurement of mental capacities, 97;
value of, 97f.; methods of, 99, 109.

Mead, C. D., 287, 288, 289, 408.

Memorizing ability, regular increase
during school hfe, i9f.

Memory, see Correlation, Transfer of
Training, Learning.

Mental heredity; problem of, 73;
methods of studying, 73; views of,
74; Galton's study of, 74f.; Wood's
study of in royalty, 75; in various
low grade families, 77f.; in the
Jonathan Edwards family, 77; its
effect on degeneracy and crime, 79;
on feeblemindedness, 78, 79f.; gen-
eral interpretation, gsf.

Messenger, J. F., 384.

Methods of teaching, their relation to
psychology, 3.

Meumann, E., 2oif., 299.

Meyer, M., 426, 427, 444.

Mill, John Stuart, 97.

Minnick, J. H., 190.

Monitorial group plan, 42, 43.

Monroe, Paul, 230.

Monroe, W. S., 275, 391.

Mosso, A., 171.

Motivation in learning, 165.

Mueller, A. D., 273.

Munn, A. F., 154.

Musical discrimination, 130.

Myers, E. J., 168.

Myopia, 123.

Myth, Creation of Woman, 63f.

Nanu, H. A., 3S4.

Nature's infallibility, see Infallibility
of Instincts.



470



INDEX



Near-sightedness, 123

Neff, 2 1 8.
Newton, 95.

Oberholtzer, E. E., 2S7.

Observation, accuracy of, 132^.; in
children, 133; reasons for inaccu-
racy in, 134; range of, i34f.; Iiow im-
prove, 136; effect of practice on,

'^37-

Odin, 92.

Original abilities, affected by differing
environments, 92f.; Cattell's inves-
tigation of scientific men, 92; French
men of letters, 93; efficiency in
school subjects, 93; birth places of
eminent men, 94.

O'Shca, Harriet, 281.

O'Shea, M. V., 327.

Overlapping, 36f.; extent of, 38; im-
portance of, 39; remedies for, 41 f.;
percentages of as basis for com-
parison, 66, 69.

Parker, F. W., 55, 59.

Partridge, E. A., 233, 234.

Paterson, I). G., 107, 130.

Pearson, K., 61, 80, 82, 345, 346, 347,
378.

Perkins, A. S., 240, 242, 243.

Peters, C. C, 282.

Permanency of interests, 62.

Pestalozzi, 384.

Phelps, C. L., 412, 413, 414.

Phelps, William Lyon, 369, 370.

Phillijis, F. M., 379, 381, 400.

Physical defects and school work,
i3of.

Pintner, R., 107, 130, 289.

Plateaus, see Learning.

Plato, 250.

Poellman, 77.

Point scale tests, 107.

Probability curve, ^:^.

Probability, integral, 32.

Proctor, M., 188.

Progress of learning, factors in: length
and distribution of work periods,
i53f., 156; forgetting, i56f., and
school work, 158; concentration,



i58f.; specific versus general prac-
tice, i59f.; relation to school work,
i62f.; practice with knowledge, 163;
interest in improvement, i64f.;
imagery in, i66f.; conclusion on
imagery, 169; fatigue, i69f., 75.

Promotion, by groups, 44, 45; by sub-
jects, 46; further suggestions for,
46f.

Pryor, H. C, 343, 347.

Psychology and teaching, 3, 258f.

Psychology of learning, and methods
of teaching, 3; need for more ex-
tended and exact studies in, 3f.;
analysis of problems of, iisf.; state-
ment of problems of, ii9f.; in school
subjects, 257; problems of in school
subjects, 260.

Pueblo Plan, 42.

Puffer, 24.

Pyle, W. H., 154.

Radossawljewitch, P. R., 157.

Rate of tapping, Fig. 2, 19.

Rational method in reading, 294.

Reading scales. Gray, 274, 275,
291.

Kelly, 274, 275.
Starch, 274, 291, 292.
Courtis, 274, 275, 280.
Brown, 274, 275.
Fordyce, 274, 275, 280.
Kansas silent reading, 275, 280.

Reading, steps involved in, 261; re-
ception of stimuli, 262f.; size of field
of distinct vision, 264; range of at-
tention, 265f.; eye movements, 266f.;
transmission of nerve impulses to
visual center, 269; arousal of asso-
ciation processes, 269f.; transmis-
sion of nerve impulse from visual
center, 27 if.; measurement of effi-
ciency in reading, 2 74f.; results of
measurements, 275f.; economic pro-
cedure in learning to read, 27Sf.;
improvement in reading ability,
28if., 294f.; relation of speed to com-
prehension, 283f.; relation between
oral and silent reading, 287f.; phon-
ics, 290; comparison of teaching



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