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30,000
6,400
2,100,000


$5,312,800


$2.198,900


$3,113,900



" You will notice by this hasty sketch which I now hand you, that the
difference between the present duty and that now proposed is about three
millions one hundred and thirteen thousand nine hundred dollars on the
various articles above named. It is to be presumed that there will be a
gradual increase of importations ; yet a number of years must elapse
before it will make up the deficiency. As regards the exportations of
foreign merchandise, should the proposed tariff become a law, it is diffi
cult to arrive at any definite conclusion. It is to be presumed, however,
that, with the large surplus in the different warehouses now in the At-



216 THE TARIFF.

lantic cities, and the very limited demand we must have previous to the
1st of December, (as no jobber or vender will buy any more than to
supply his daily demands,) the exportations will be large, exceeding the
ordinary exportations under the present tariff, and may make draughts
on the various custom-houses, in debenture, to the extent of $ 800,000
to $ 1,000,000 more than otherwise would be.

" The importers, should the proposed tariff become a law, will very
soon begin to ship their goods out of the country ; then reimport them,
and place them in the warehouses, to remain or be taken out in de
tached parcels previous to the 1st of December ; when whatever then
remains will be subject to a low duty. How much better and more
just would it be (as was the case when the reduction of the tariff took
place in 1830 and 1831) to let all merchandise " not in broken parcels "
go to the custom-house on the eve of the 1st of December, and remain,
rather than force the merchants to the expense of shipping for the pur
pose of evading the present duties.

" You must be aware, as well as myself, that the importations for the
next five months must be extremely limited, and that all the goods that
are imported for the next five months will go to the public stores for
the benefit of the proposed reductions. Consequently, the govern
ment will derive little or no revenue from foreign importations for that
period.

" So far as my experience teaches me, I have ever been in favor of
specific instead of. ad valorem duties, believing that the revenue is more
securely collected, and extending likewise protection to every honest
importer. You will notice that two thirds of the merchandise imported
subject to ad valorem duties is brought into our city by foreigners.
These men come among us possessing no national feeling, and little or
no regard for our laws or institutions, and a custom-house oath is but a
by-word with them. They locate themselves in by-streets and alleys,
subject to no military or jury duty, and pay little or no taxes. They
have a branch of their house or workshop in Europe, and however in
telligent or adroit our appraisers may be, it is almost impossible to de
tect them in their falsified invoices.

" Should the proposed tariff become a law, the American merchants
will, from necessity, almost cease to be importers, so far as our trade is
concerned with Europe. Therefore, let our duties be ascertained by
weight and measure, and we shall at least stand a fair and equal chance
at the custom-house with these foreign importers.

" If these remarks should be of any service to you, I shall be pleased
and gratified, and I remain, respectfully, yours.

" EDWARD H. NICHOL.

" New York, July 17, 1846."



THE TARIFF. 217

On Saturday, Mr. President, I submitted remarks, estimates,
and cal tions upon the subject of iron and coal, and I found
ed those remarks and estimates on the iron and coal of Penn
sylvania for the sake of precision, and to make such calcula
tions an example of the rest. I have now only to say, in that
respect, that there are also iron and coal in New York, in Ten
nessee, in Georgia, in Virginia, in Maryland, all coming in, share
and share alike, for the good or for the evil which the new sys
tem will produce.

I now proceed, Sir, to say something upon the influence, the
necessary influence, which this proposed change in our system
will exercise upon the commerce and navigation of the country.
I shall do that by exhibiting a series of tables which will speak
for themselves; which I know to have been drawn up with
great accuracy, founded on the last official communication of
the Secretary of the Treasury, so far as revenue is concerned,
and on estimates regarding the value of freights, collected from
the first mercantile sources in the country. As a general remark
on these various papers, and one which they fully confirm, I wish
to say, what would naturally be expected to be true, that for
some years past, since the favor and protection of the govern
ment were given to the internal manufactures of the country,
the foreign trade of the country has conformed to that state of
things. A change in the business of navigation, and commerce,
and freight, consequent upon these internal changes, is quite as
striking as these internal changes themselves. The great ele
ment of that change is in the nature of the main articles of im
port, showing a diminution of manufactured articles, and a vast
augmentation of raw materials, or articles serving as such. The
consequence of this, as will be seen by the tables I am about to
exhibit, is a large actual increase of the earnings of the ship
ping interest on imports ; because, as all know, the freight is
proportioned to the bulk of the article, and not to its cost. It
is the space that the commodity fills in the ship, and not its
value, which regulates the rate of freight. Therefore it is, that,
though the importations may be greatly augmented in value,
from being composed of manufactured articles chiefly, yet the
freight is not increased in the same ratio, but may be dimin
ished. That fact is notorious to all who are acquainted with

VOL. v. 19



218



THE TARIFF.



the commerce of the country. It is perfectly understood by all
the ship-owners of the United States, and is of itself sufficient
to account for the great and important fact, that the navigating
interest of the United States, the ship-owners to a man, oppose
this change, because the existing system gives more employ
ment to navigation than that which is now attempted to be
substituted for it.

A heavy mass or amount, in value, of manufactured articles,
as is well known, comes from France and England. Our more
various commodities, and our importations of heavy articles,
come from round the Capes, and from Brazil and the North of
Europe. The tables which I propose to exhibit to the Senate
will show the amount of these, respectively, and the change
produced in them within the last five years.

Let me first premise, that articles of import into the United
States are properly divisible into three classes. First, those ar
ticles which come here manufactured, and fit for use or for sale ;
secondly, articles not manufactured, brought here for consump
tion as imported, without any manufacture after they arrive;
thirdly, those articles which are in the nature of raw materials,
and are brought here to undergo a process of manufacture.
Let us, then, see the amount of freight derived from these three
respective classes of imports.

NET IMPORTS FOR 1845.
1. Foreign Manufactured Articles.



Articles.


Value.


Duties.


Freights.


Silk,
Wool,


$ 10,840,000
10,750,000


s^ 2,968,000
3,755,000


$36,100

80,625


Cotton,


13,360,000


4,908,000


133,360


Flax,


4,893.000


1,263,000


48,930


Iron,


4,022,000


1,607,000


120,360


Railroad iron, ....


1,000,000


600,000


96,000


Cigars, .....


1,086,000


305.000


25 000


Brass and other metals,
Earthen and glass ware,
Clothing, ready made,
Hats and bonnets, ....
Leather, boots, and shoes, .
Pa per,
Cotton bagging,
Other unenumerated articles, .


3,690,000
3,122,000
IJOS .OOO
732,000
848,000
276,000
102,000
3,000.000


688.000
1,087,000
449,000
256,000
242,000
60,000
56,000
250,000


55,500
218J540
11.080
10,980
12,720
4,140
1,530
75,000


Total,


$ 58,829.000


$18.494,000


$929,865



THE TARIFF.



219



2. Foreign Articles for Consumption.



Articles.


Value.


Duties.


Freights.


Coffee,


$ 5,380,000


Free.


$943,580


Tea,


4,809,000


Free.


343,000


Sugar (proportion of),


2,024,000


$1,067,000


375.000


Wines,


1,493,000


1,292,000


111,925


Spirits,


1,095,000


1,554,000


109,500


Fruits and spices, ....


1,480,000


560,000


124,000


Molasses (proportion of), .


1,000,000


300,000


280,000


Salt,


883,000


678,000


247,000


Coal,


188,000


130,000


188,000


Fish,


300,000


50,000


30,000


Beer, ale, and porter, ....


90,000


19,000


8.000


Other unenumerated articles, .


1,500,000


89,000


225,000


Total,


$ 20,242,000


$ 5,739,000


$ 2,985,005



3. Foreign Articles for Manufacture in the United States.



Articles.


Value.


Duties.


Freights.


Sugar (proportion of),


$2,025,000


$1,510,000


$562,500


Molasses (proportion of),


2.072,000


591,000


450,000


Iron (proportion of), ....


2^966,000


1,401,000


415,000


Steel,


750,000


97,000


25,000


Hides and furs,


4,706,000


332,000


610,000


Copper and brass, ....


1,951,000


Free.


140,000


Mahogany,


248,000


40,000


49,600


Wool,


1,667,000


123.000


330,050


Rags, .......


416,000


27^000


75,000


Saltpetre,


486,000


Free.


245,000


Hemp, . . ...


483,000


173,000


78,000


Indigo, ......


768,000


53,000


15,000


Dye-stuffs, &c.,


294,000


Free.


190,000




178,000


3,000


4,000




143,000


35,000


3,000




337.000


Free.


50,000




369^000


19,000


205.000


Raw silk,


710^000


173,000


12,000


Other unenumerated articles,


2,000,000


100,000


295,000


Total,


$22.569,000


$4,677,000


$3,754,150



RECAPITULATION.





Value.


Duties.


Freights.


Foreign manufactured articles, .
Foreign articles for consumption, .
Foreign articles for manufacture in this
country,


$ 58,829.000
20,242,000

22,569,000


$18,494,000
5,739,000

4,677,000


$929,865
2,985,005

3,754,150


Aggregate, ....


$101,640,000


$28,910,000


$ 7,669,020



Now, Sir, I have said that changes have taken place in the
foreign trade of the country since the enlargement of the manu
facturing system of the United States, which were naturally
to be expected. And I think it was suggested the other day by
my friend from Vermont, near me,* that a common and great



Mr. Phelps.



220



THE TARIFF



mistake is, that we do not accommodate our legislation to these
changing circumstances ; and that we think that we can go back
to where we were years ago, without disturbing any interests
except those immediately affected ; whereas, such are the con
nection and cohesion of all these interests, and so closely are
they united, that they become at last mutually dependent on
each other, and there is no disturbing one great branch of the
system without injury to all the rest.

Here is a table of our trade with South America, and beyond
the Capes, with a comparison of that trade in the year 1828
and the present year.

Comparison of our Trade at two different Periods witti Places beyond
the Cape of Good Hope, and South America.

In 1828.



Names of Places.


Imports.


Domestic Ex
ports.


Tons of Ship
ping employed.


Dutch East Indies, ....
British East Indies,
Manilla, ......
China,
Buenos Ayres and Montevideo, .
Brazils, ......
Other South American ports, .

Total,


$113,000
1,543,000
60,000
5,340,000
317,000
3,009,000
1,904,000


$ 83,000
55.000
20,000
230,000
94,000
.1.505,000
1,776,000


1,454

2.589
829
9.900
1,363
24,482
8,672


$ 12,286,000


$3,763,000


49.289



In 1845.



Names of Places.


Imports.


Domestic Ex
ports.


Tons of Ship
ping employed.


Dutch East Indies, ....
British East Indies,
Manilla
China,
Buenos Ayres and Montevideo, .
Brazils, ."
Other South American ports,


$ 935,000
1,650,000
725,000
4,931,000
1.561,000
6.883,000
8,434,000


$ 98,000
338,000
92JOOO
1,110,000
640JOOO
2,409.000
2,574^000


4.900
10,479
6,636
15,035
17,300
48.550
19,747


Total,


$ 25 1 1 9 000


$7,261.000


122,647










Increase,


104 percent.


90 per cent.


150 per cent.



This great increase of tonnage employed over the increase
in the value of imports, is owing to the present importation
of the coarse and bulky articles for manufacture, instead of
manufactured silk and cotton goods of China, Manilla, and Cal
cutta.

To be more particular, I now give a general description of
the goods imported from those places in each year.



THE TARIFF. 221

In 1828 :

Value.

Manufactured cotton goods, $ 1,041,000

Manufactured silk goods, 2,627,000

Indigo (which was imported for export), . . 1,030,000

Hides, 1,040,000

Sugar, 284,000

Copper, in pigs and bars, 650,000

Teas, 1,800,000

Wool, 18,000

Coffee, 1,700,000

Specie, 1,000,000

Unenumerated articles, 1,096,000

$ 12,286,000
In 1845:

Manufactured cotton goods, ..... $ 1,500

Manufactured silk goods, 150,000

Indigo, 660,000

Hides, 3,600,000

Sugar, 419,000

Copper, in pigs and bars, ...... 365,000

Teas, 4,075,000

Wool, 563,000

Coffee, 6,600,000

Saltpetre, 500,000

Linseed, 300,000

Gunny-bags, 110,000

Drugs and dye-stuffs, 150,000

Ginger, 40,000

Cocoa, 170,000

Spices, 15,000

Hemp, 248,000

Specie, . 1,200,000

Unenumerated articles, ...... 5,952,500

Total, $25,119,000

It is thus apparent that the increased employment of our ton
nage to the amount of one hundred and fifty per cent, in this
distant transport has been from the importation of the raw mate
rials for manufacture in our country, and of the increased quanti
ties of coffee and teas ; and no doubt increased exportation of our
domestic products to those distant places has been promoted by
this increase in imports. These domestic products are manufac-
19*



222



THE TARIFF.



hired cotton and woollen goods, lumber, and articles of furniture,
provisions of all kinds, naval stores, cotton, tobacco, ice, candles,
and other miscellaneous articles.

I have another table, Mr. President, exhibiting our trade with
the North of Europe, presenting the same general result, and,
as we have ceased to import hemp to a great extent from Rus
sia, the increase in the tonnage is principally from exportations.

Comparison of our Trade at two different Periods with the North of
Europe, viz. Russia, Sweden, Germany, and Holland.



These show a falling off in the imports.
In the year 1828, ....

In the year 1845, . . .

Decrease of

And an increase in our domestic exports.

In the year 1828,

In the year 1845,

Increase of .....

And an increase in the tonnage employed.
In 1828, . . . . .
In 1845,

Increase, ......



Value.

$11,214,000
, 4,059,000

$7,155,000



$ 5,085,000
6,346,000

$1,261,000



138,100 tons.
197,000 tons.

60,900 tons.



This increase is from the transport of our domestic exports to
those places.

It will be interesting to note some of the articles of import
from those places, in which that reduction strikingly appears.



Articles Imported.


Value in 1S28.


Value in 1845.


Manufactures of cotton and flax, ....


$2,190,000


$165.500


Manufactures of iron and steel
Manufactures of glass,


2,204,000
458,000
330,000


677,000
128^000
2 100


Manufactures of sail-cloth,
Manufactures of linseed oil,


345,000
130,000
145,000


186,000
13,000
54000


Unmanufactured hemp, .....


990,000
37 000


211,000
31 000




97 000


31 000


Unmanufactured rags,


None.


12,000


Total,


$ 6,926,000


$1,510,600



Thus showing a reduction in the manufactured goods, hemp,



THE TARIFF. 223

and other articles imported from those countries, of more than
three fourths of the whole amount.

These facts are certainly of importance in considering the em
ployment of our shipping in the transport coastwise of raw ma
terial, such as cotton, flax, hemp, iron, coal, &c., for the manu
facture, in our own country, of goods which have taken the
place of the foreign manufactured goods imported and consumed
by us sixteen years ago.

A very important fact in connection with this part of the sub
ject is, that this distant trade is in our own vessels. It is shared
with none. We know that, in the trade between us and Eng
land, about a third of the navigation is in the hands of England.
But the trade with the North of Europe is on American ac
count, and to our advantage ; and to a great extent, also, we
pay for the importations by domestic products. We do not
now hear of any extraordinary amounts of specie to meet the
demands of this trade, because the products of our own indus
try and our own people, in a manufactured state, are carried
out. These remarks might be extended to other tables showing
like results ; but I am quite desirous of getting through the
duty which remains to be performed by me on this occasion,
and I shall, therefore, pass this part of the case with a very few
additional observations.

It is obvious, Sir, that, for the same reason that the raw ma
terial imported for the manufacturer pays a large proportion of
freight, articles of export of like nature from our side for the
same purpose pay also a large proportion, as every body knows
is the case with cotton. This proves that, in every measure
concerning the interests of navigation, we should consult rather
the great and bulky articles than the small, where the value is
great and the bulk diminished.

Now be pleased to notice these results. Fifty-eight millions
of dollars in value of manufactured goods imported yield less
than one million for freight. Twenty-two millions of dollars
brought in articles to be manufactured here yield three millions
and three quarters ; being very nearly one half of all the freight
earned on all our imports. Certainly, this is a most important
fact, and worthy of all attention.

We propose, then, Mr. President, in the first place, to diminish
and discourage labor and industry at home, by taxing the raw



224 THE TARIFF.

materials which are brought into the country for manufacture.
We propose, in the second place, to diminish the earnings of
freight very materially, by diminishing the importation of bulky
articles, always brought in our own ships. "We propose, in the
third place, to diminish the amount of exports of our own do
mestic manufactured goods, by refusing to take in exchange for
them raw materials, the products of other countries. This is
our present policy ! This is our notion of free trade ! Surely,
Mr. President, this enlightened system cannot fail to attract the
admiration of the world !

Now, Sir, one cannot say to what extent this change of sys
tem may affect the navigation of the country, but its tendency
is, unquestionably, to cripple and cramp the navigating interest.
Its tendency is to diminish the demand for tonnage, for naviga
tion, for the carrying trade. I think I might on this occasion,
without impropriety, call the attention of the Senator from
Maine farthest from me,* a gentleman who here represents a
State, if not first, at least among the very first, in regard to the
amount of its navigation. The ships of Maine are found in
every quarter ; beyond the great Capes and in the North Sea.
They bring home these raw materials ; and every thing that
diminishes the consumption of these raw materials in our own
country diminishes the chances of employment to every ship
owner in the State of Maine. I will read an extract or two
from a letter which I have received on this subject.

" Baltimore, 20th July, 1846.

" SIR, I notice that the new tariff bill has in its schedules silk, ma
hogany, hides, Brazillctto wood, logwood, fustic, Rio Hache wood, Lima
wood, sandal-wood, red cedar, pig copper, nitrate of soda or the sal
soda of Peru, saltpetre, block, and all sorts of crude woods, and many
drugs of bulk, all more or less dutiable, and tea and coffee left free.

" This is curious free trade.

" These are the articles that give our vessels homeward freights, and,
being chiefly gross articles of great bulk, they appeal most strongly
to be classed in the free list. You know veiy well that our outward-
bound vessels to the English islands can get no sort of return cargo
unless they go to Cuba or Porto Rico for sugar or molasses, or else to
some salt port, or bring home some sort of wood or hides from St.
Thomas or the Main. I speak of small vessels that trade to the West
Indies and the Spanish Main.

* Mr. Fairfield.



THE TARIFF. 225

" Gross, crude articles of this sort aid shipping interests, and assist
making up cargoes to Europe of various such articles if free, such as
logwood particularly, and Brazilletto and Rio Hache wood, in cotton
ships, even, for dunnage.

" I call free trade the policy that lets crude articles in free, as in
old times.

44 As far as I can judge, and being myself engaged in shipping inter
ests, I think this bill very unfriendly to such interests ; and as to being
a free-trade bill, it is any thing else, as I understand free trade, as to the
articles named.

" I am, dear Sir, your friend and fellow-citizen,

" WILLIAM MILES."

I now come, Mr. President, to the last topic on which I pro
pose to trespass on the patience of the Senate ; it is the effect
of the change proposed by this bill upon the general employ
ment, labor, and industry of the country. And I would beg,
Sir, in this view, to ask the reading of a petition which has been
lying on my table for some days, but which I have not had an
opportunity to present. It is a very short petition from the me
chanics and artisans of the city of Boston.* Now, Sir, these
petitioners remonstrate against this bill, not in behalf of corpora
tions and great establishments, not in behalf of rich manufac
turers, but in behalf of " men who labor with their own hands,"
whose " only capital is their labor," and "who depend on that
labor for their support, and for any thing they may be able to
lay up."

Mr. President, he who is the most large and liberal in the tone
of his sentiment towards all the interests of all parts of the coun
try; he who most honestly and firmly believes that these interests,
though various, are consistent ; that they all may well be pro
tected, preserved, and fostered by a wise administration of law
under the existing Constitution of the United States; and he
who is the most expansive patriot, and wishes well, and equally
well, to every part of the country ; even he must admit, that, to
a great extent, there is a marked division and difference between
the plantation States of the South and the masses in the agri
cultural and manufacturing States of the North. There is a
difference growing out of early constitutions, early laws and



* The petition was then read by the Secretary.



226 THE TARIFF.

habits, and resulting in a different description of labor ; and, to
some extent, with the most liberal sentiments and feelings, every
man who is concerned in enacting laws with candor, justice,
and intelligence must pay a proper regard to that distinction.
The truth is, that in one part of the country labor is a thing
more unconnected with capital than in the other. Labor, as an
earning principle, or as an element of society working for itself,
with its own hopes of gain, enjoyment, and competence, is a
different thing from that labor, which, in the other part of the
country, attaches to capital, rises and falls with capital, and is in
truth a part of capital. Now, Sir, in considering the general
effect of the change sought to be brought about, or likely to be
brought about, by this bill, upon the employment of men in this
country, regard is properly to be paid to this difference which I
have mentioned; yet it is, at the same time, true, that there are
forms of labor, especially along the sea-coast and along the riv
ers, in all the Southern States, which are to be injuriously
affected by this bill, as much as the labor of any portion of the
Middle or Northern States. The artisan in every State has
just the same interest at the South as at the North. And this
is at the foundation of ah 1 our laws, from 1789 downward,
which have in view the protection of American labor. The
first purpose, the first object, was the full protection of the labor
of these artisans. That subject was gone over the other day by



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