UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Donated in memory of
John W. Snvder
His Son and Daughter
THE GERMAN INFLUENCE
IN ITS SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
H Narrative ant) Critical Distort
PREPARED BY AUTHORITY OF
THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN SOCIETY
THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN IN THE
SETTLEMENT OF MARYLAND
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
JULIUS F. SACHSE, !4tt.D.
DANIEI, W. HEAD, M.D.
J. E. B. BUCKENHAM, M.D.
DANIEL WUNDERLICH NEAD, M.D. (UNIV. OF PA.)
Member of the Pennsylvania-German Society ; the Historical Society of
Pennsylvania ; the Historical Society of Berks County ; the
Pennsylvania Society of Sons of the Revolution, etc.
" Forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit." VIRGIL
ILLUSTRATED BY JULIUS F. SACHSE, LlTT.D.
PART XXV. OF A NARRATIVE AND CRITICAL HISTORY
PREPARED AT THE REQUEST OF
THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN SOCIETY
THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY
rOR a century and a half
the term " Mason and
Dixon's Line " has been a
more or less familiar expres-
sion, and for the greater part
of the latter half of that
period it was frequently on
men's tongues. The lines
drawn on the earth's surface
by geographers or laid out by
the wisdom of statecraft are
often taken in too literal a
sense; and so, in the course of time, it came to pass that
Mason and Dixon's Line came to be regarded almost as a
tangible barrier : the line dividing the North from the South.
Yet, as a mater of fact, were it not for the monuments set
up at stated intervals it would be impossible to tell where
the jurisdiction of one commonwealth ends and that of the
other begins. The mountains and valleys are continuous,
the fertile fields lie side by side, there is no difference to be
found in the people, and it not unfrequently happens that
a farm will lie partly on one side of the line and partly on
the other, and there are even houses through which the line
runs, one part of the house being in Maryland and the
other part in Pennsylvania.
vi The Pennsylvania-German Society.
But outside of the question of contiguity there is a senti-
mental attachment between the states of Maryland and
Pennsylvania. Had the boundary between the two colonies
been fixed at the point where the respective charters appar-
ently placed it, the fortieth parallel of north latitude, a
considerable portion of the territory now included within
the state of Pennsylvania would belong to Maryland. The
fortieth parallel runs about on a line with Lehigh Avenue
in Philadelphia, so that had that meridian been decided on
as the dividing line between the two colonies the greater
part of the city of Philadelhia would now be situated in
Maryland. So too would be a strip of territory nearly
twenty miles in width, extending across the state and tak-
ing in such towns as West Chester, York, Chambersburg,
and all the fertile country surrounding those towns.
In the following pages an attempt has been made to
gather together in brief form what is known concerning the
influence of the Pennsylvanians in the settlement of the
western part of the colony of Maryland. There is no
claim of originality, but use has been freely made of the
results of other investigations. It is very unfortunate that
there are but few records in existence concerning the period
under consideration, so that many points cannot be deter-
mined, but what is known has been put together in concise
form for convenient reference.
The writer wishes here to express his thanks to Dr.
Julius F. Sachse for preparing the illustrations, which add
materially to the interest in the work, and also to Dr. Frank
R. Diffenderffer for material assistance in searching old
THE MARYLAND COLONY 5
THE FIRST GERMAN SETTLERS 12
THE GERMANS IN PENNSYLVANIA 27
THE MOVEMENT TO MARYLAND 37
THE MONOCACY ROAD 45
THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS 50
viii The Pennsylvania-German Society.
HOME-MAKING IN THE WILDERNESS 66
MECHANICAL ARTS AND INDUSTRIES 80
THE RELIGIOUS LIFE 89
EDUCATION, REDEMPTIONERS, SERVITUDE 108
THE BORDER TROUBLES 121
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 141
FORT FREDERICK 1 63
THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 176
PREPARING FOR THE STRUGGLE 196
THE FLYING CAMP 205
THE GERMAN REGIMENT 224
SERVICE OF THE MARYLAND TROOPS 241
FORWARDING THE CAUSE AT HOME 260
INDEX TO PROPER NAMES 272
INDEX TO SUBJECTS 299
Archives of Maryland.
Banvard, Joseph. Pioneers of the New World, and the Old French War.
Bozman, John Leeds. The History of Maryland from its first Settlement,
in 1633, to the Restoration, in 1660. 2 vols. Baltimore, 1837.
Browne, William Hand. Maryland, the History of a Palatinate. Boston,
Brumbaugh, Martin Grove. A History of the German Baptist Brethren in
Europe and America. Mount Morris, 111., 1899.
Colonial Records of Pennsylvania.
Doddridge, Joseph. Notes on the Settlements and Indian Wars of the
Western Parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania, from the Year 1763 until
the Year 1783. Wellsburgh, Va., 1824.
Eddis, William. Letters from America, Historical and Descriptive.
Griffith, Thomas W. Annals of Baltimore. Baltimore, 1824.
Harbaugh, Henry. The Life of Michael Schlatter. Philadelphia, 18*57.
James, Bartlett B. The Labadist Colony in Maryland. Baltimore, 18^99^
Johnson, John. Old Maryland Manors. Baltimore, 18*3.
Kercheval, Samuel. A History of the Valley of Virginia. Woodstock,
Kuhns, Levi Oscar. The German and Swiss Settlements of Colonial
Pennsylvania. New York, 1901.
McCormac, Eugene Irving. White Servitude in Maryland, 1634-1820.
McMahon, J. V. L. An Historical View of the Government of Maryland,
from its Colonization to the Present Day. Baltimore, rSs/.
McSherry, James. History of Maryland. Baltimore, 1904.
Mereness, Newton D. Maryland as a Proprietary Province. New York,
Neill, Edward. The Founders of Maryland as Portrayed in Manuscripts,
Provincial Records and Early Documents. Albany, 1876.
Pennsylvania Archives, First and Second Series.
Ridgely, David. Annals of Annapolis. Baltimore, 1841.
Scharf, J. Thomas. The Chronicles of Baltimore. Baltimore, 1874.
History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day. 3
vols. Baltimore, 1879.
History of Western Maryland, being a History of Frederick, Mont-
gomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany and Garrett Counties. 2 vols.
Sioussat, St. George Leakin. Economics and Politics in Maryland, 1720-
1750. Baltimore, 1903.
Steiner, Bernard C. Beginnings of Maryland, 1631-1639. Baltimore,
Maryland under the Commonwealth. A Chronicle of the Years 1649-
r65&. Baltimore, 19111.
Maryland during the English Civil Wars. Baltimore, 1906-7.
Western Maryland in the Revolution. Baltimore, 1902.
Schultz, Edward T. First Settlements of Germans in Maryland. Fred-
erick, Md., 189161.
Society for the History of Germans in Maryland. 16 annual reports.
Thomas, James Walter. Chronicles of Colonial Maryland. Baltimore,
THE MARYLAND COLONY.
settlement of Maryland
was the culmination of the
plan of George, Lord Baltimore,
to found a colony where the in-
habitants might worship God ac-
cording to the dictates of their
consciences. 1 Sir George Calvert
was brought up a Protestant and,
enjoying the personal friendship
of James I., he obtained rapid ad-
vancement in the government service and was finally made
1 " It cannot with evident certainty be stated that Sir George Calvert, in
the settlement of either of his provinces, Avalon or Maryland, had in view
the formation of an asylum for English Catholics, although it is so stated
by several historians ; such intention of his being nowhere clearly expressed
by himself, unless it be in the before mentioned MS. account of Avalon, by
Sir George himself, still remaining in the British Museum, the contents of
which we have no opportunity of examining. With regard to Maryland,
the fact, ascertained in history, as well in the records of the province, that
most of the first colonists of that province were Roman Catholics, leaves a
strong inference that it was the original contemplation of Sir George
thereby to erect for such Catholics a place of refuge. In respect to
Avalon, however, we have not this fact, as a ground for such inference."
Bozman's " History of Maryland," Vol. I., p. 242.
6 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
principal Secretary of State. In 1624 he became a Roman
Catholic and at once resigned his position as Secretary,
but the king kept him as a member of the Privy Council
and created him Lord Baltimore, of Baltimore, in Ireland.
At this time the laws of England were very severe
against the Roman Catholics and in order to escape perse-
cution Lord Baltimore determined to found a colony where
religious liberty would be secured to all the inhabitants.
For some years he had been interested in schemes for
colonizing America, having been one of the councillors of
the New England Company and a member of the Virginia
Company until its charter was revoked, when he was
appointed one of the council for the government of that
colony. He first turned his attention to New Foundland
and, securing a grant in that locality, he erected a province
which he named Avalon. 2 After first sending a small
party of colonists, he went thither himself with his family,
but a residence of two years convinced him that that local-
ity was not suited for the successful planting of a colony,
and he sailed for Virginia.
The authorities in the Virginia colony would not allow
him to land unless he would take the oath of allegiance
and supremacy, and this his religious principles would not
allow him to do. He, therefore, sailed north and explored
the shores of the Chesapeake above the Virginia settle-
2 Bozman, Vol. i, p. 240, quotes Oldmixon's " British Empire in Amer-
ica," as follows: "This gentleman" (Sir George Calvert) "being of the
Romish religion was uneasy at home, and had the same reason to leave
the kingdom, as those gentlemen had, who went to New England, to
enjoy the liberty of his conscience. He therefore resolved to retire to
America, and finding the New Foundland company had made no use of
their grant, he thought of this place for his retreat; to which end he
procured a patent for that part of the island, that lies between the bay
of Bulls in the east, and cape St. Mary's in the south, which was erected
into a province, and called Avalon."
Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 7
ment, and finding this territory suitable for his purpose he
returned to England and petitioned Charles I., who by
that time had succeeded his father, for a grant of land in
that locality. Opposition arose from the Virginia authori-
ties and, although the king was favorably disposed toward
Lord Baltimore, the matter was delayed, and before the
charter was finally granted, on June 20, 1632, Lord
Baltimore died, and the charter, when issued, was in the
name of his eldest son, Cecilius.
The charter granted to Lord Baltimore was the most
liberal ever granted by the English crown. It erected the
colony into a palatinate, 3 and created the proprietary but
little short of a ruling sovereign. He was made " abso-
lute lord of the land and water within his boundaries, could
erect towns, cities, and ports, make war or peace, call the
whole fighting population to arms, and declare martial
law, levy tolls and duties, establish courts of justice, ap-
point judges, magistrates, and other civil officers, execute
the laws, and pardon offenders; he could erect manors with
courts-baron and courts-leet, and confer titles and dignities,
so that they differed from those of England; he could
make laws with the assent of the freemen of the province,
and, in cases of emergency, ordinances not impairing life,
3 The term Palatinate originated with the early Prankish or German
rulers who bestowed on an officer known as the " Count of the Palace "
(comes palatii, or palatinus) certain powers nearly equaling those of
royalty. Later these powers were bestowed on powerful vassals who, to
all intents and purposes, became kings, except that they acknowledged the
suzerainty of the appointing sovereign. In England certain counties were
made palatinates, and the charter granted to Lord Baltimore gave him
all the " rights, jurisdictions, privileges, prerogatives, royalties, liberties,
immunities and royal rights, and temporal franchises whatsoever ... as
any bishop of Durham, within the bishopric or county palatine of Durham,
in our kingdom of England, ever heretofore hath had, held, used, or
enjoyed, or of right could, or ought to have held, use or enjoy."
8 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
limb, or property, without their assent; he could found
churches and chapels, have them consecrated according to
the ecclesiastical laws of England, and appoint the in-
Having received his charter, Lord Baltimore immedi-
ately proceeded to organize an expedition to colonize the
territory which had been granted to him. He secured two
vessels, the Ark and the Dove, on which his party of
colonists embarked and sailed from Cowes on November
22, 1633. There were about two hundred in the party,
of whom about twenty were " gentlemen adventurers," as
they were called: men of fortune who took part in the
enterprise partly in a spirit of adventure, although, no
doubt, some of them sought a religious asylum, the bal-
ance of the company being made up of servants and crafts-
men of various kinds. Lord Baltimore had intended
accompanying the expedition, but his presence in England
being necessary he placed his brother Leonard in command
as governor. Early in the following spring they reached
the Chesapeake, and after stopping at an island near the
mouth of the Potomac, which they named St. Clement's,
where, on March 25, 1634, they celebrated their first mass
in the new world, Governor Calvert with a small party
started out to seek a suitable location for their settlement.
He had secured as guide Henry Fleete, an Englishman
who was well acquainted with that part of the country,
having spent several years among the Indians. But
although Fleete was thoroughly acquainted with the sur-
rounding country he was not the first of his countrymen
to visit it.
The first white man to visit the territory now embraced
within the state of Maryland was Captain John Smith, of
Virginia. Very soon after the foundation of the James-
> i" V/
CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH'S
c>i *? rSi^&eS^
.-*? - . I ~ I "~"H r i -
AP OF VIRGINIA, 1606.
Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 9
town settlement that hardy pioneer turned his attention to
exploring the country to the north, and in the summer of
1608 he made two trips in an open boat, with a few com-
panions, and made his way as far north as the mouth of the
Susquehanna, exploring the different rivers and marking
them on his map with an accuracy that is scarcely exceeded
at the present day. He rowed up the Potomac river to a
point above the present site of Washington, as far as he
could go in his boat, and has given us a comprehensive
description of that part of the country. Of this expedition
Lossing says: 4 "It was one of the most wonderful of
exploring expeditions, considered in all its aspects."
Under the guidance of Fleete the party went a short
distance up the Potomac, and at a point where an Indian
town already existed a tract of land was purchased from
the Indians and a town laid out which was named St.
Mary's. During their first year the colonists subsisted
largely upon supplies of food, chiefly Indian corn, obtained
from the Indians. The policy followed by Governor
Calvert in his treatment of the Indians was such as to gain
their friendship, and thus were avoided many of the dis-
asters which overtook colonists in other parts of the
country. The Maryland settlers, as a rule, were free from
attacks by hostile Indians.
It was evidently Lord Baltimore's intention to found an
aristocratic state, based on large holdings of land, the
land to be kept in the family of the original owner through
the law of entail. The first allotment of land to the
settlers was made with this end in view. In the proprie-
tary's instructions to his brother Leonard, who represented
him, he advises him that he is to
4 Quoted by Scharf, " Chronicles of Baltimore," p. 8.
io The Pennsylvania-German Society.
" make or cause to be made under our great seal of that our said
province unto every first adventurer for every five men aged between
sixteen and fifty years, which such adventurer did bring into our
said province to inhabitt and plant there in the year of our Lord
1633, and unto his heirs forever, a grant of two thousand acres of
land of English measure for the yearly rent of 400 Ib. of good
wheat, . . .
And we do further will and authorize you, that every two thou-
sand acres, and every three thousand acres, and every one thousand
acres of land so to be passed or granted as aforesaid unto any adven-
turer or adventurers, be erected, and created into a manor to be
called by such name as the adventurer or adventurers shall desire." 5
But this plan of Lord Baltimore's did not succeed.
While it was possible for a colonist, by bringing over a
large number of servants, to obtain a large grant of land,
it was unusual to find plantations containing more than one
thousand acres. Prior to 1700 there were few towns and
these did not grow very rapidly. The character and occu-
pations of the inhabitants militated against the growth of
towns. The colony of Maryland had been established by
Lord Baltimore as a religious asylum where the inhabi-
tants might worship God according to the dictates of their
consciences, and although he was a Roman Catholic, no
attempt was made to prevent those who belonged to
Protestant denominations from settling in the colony.
Indeed, it is probable that of the first colonists the greater
number were Protestants. Most, if not all, of the " gen-
tlemen adventurers " were probably Roman Catholics, but
of the servants and laborers there is no doubt that a very
large proportion were Protestants, although there is no
way of accurately determining this, as there is no record of
the names of all the colonists. These settlers were planters
5 Bozman's " History of Maryland," Vol. II., pp. 38-40.
Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of Maryland. 1 1
and farmers and the plantations were, as a rule, spread
over a rather extended territory. There were no manu-
factories, and what manufactured goods were required
were brought over from England.
Following the example of the Virginia colonists, the
newcomers almost immediately began the cultivation of
tobacco. Indeed more attention was paid to this than to
anything else. The chief aim of the planters was to raise
as much tobacco as possible, for, being the currency of the
colony, all other commodities were purchasable with it,
and a man's possessions were reckoned in accordance with
the amount of tobacco he could produce. The natural
consequence of this state of affairs was that the quality of
the tobacco soon began to deteriorate, while the growing
of corn and other necessaries of life almost ceased. As
early as 1639 an act was passed compelling every grower
of tobacco to plant and cultivate two acres of corn for
each member of his family. The next year another act
was passed limiting the culture of tobacco to so many
plants per head, but even these laws did not improve
matters much. The colony did not grow very rapidly, the
settlers confined themselves almost entirely to the terri-
tory adjacent to tidewater, and it was not until the coming
of the German settlers, who by their thrift and industry
showed the possibilities of the fertile fields, that the colony
began to make rapid strides forward.
THE FIRST GERMAN SETTLERS.
HERE is nothing in the
records to show that there
were any Germans among the
first party sent out by Lord Bal-
timore to found the colony of
Maryland, but it is extremely
probable that among that com-
pany of two hundred people,
consisting chiefly of servants and
artisans, there were a number of
Germans. The colony had been
founded as an English settle-
ment, and it is evident that foreigners were not desired, for
while there was no direct prohibition of the settlement of
foreigners in the colony, there was no inducement to lead
them in that direction. The terms upon which land was to
be granted to colonists was such as to lead to the formation
of an aristocracy, which was undoubtedly Lord Baltimore's
purpose, and naturally this aristocracy would be expected
to be made up of wealthy Englishmen who could take ad-
vantage of the conditions of plantation. According to the
Pennsylvania-German in Settlement of -Maryland. 13
instructions sent out by Lord Baltimore to his brother, in
1636, any member of the first party of colonists who brought
over with him five men was to receive two thousand acres
of land subject to an annual quit-rent of four hundred
pounds of wheat. The same allotment of land was made
to those who came over in the years 1634 and 1635, bring-
ing with them ten men, but the rent was to be six hundred
pounds of wheat, and those who came over later, or
brought fewer men, were to be granted smaller amounts
of land. 6 As Bozman says: 7 " It will be readily perceived,
that these instructions, or conditions of plantation, were
well calculated to induce men of some property in England,
who were able to bear the expense of transporting serv-
ants and dependents, to emigrate to this province. It is
true, that it was sketching out aristocratic features in the
future government of the province, which in other times,
might have been supposed to operate in discouragement of
But it was evidently this class of people that Lord Balti-
more wanted, and foreigners were not even allowed to own
land nor had they any political rights. It was not until
1648 that foreigners were allowed to take up land. In
the commission of William Stone, lieutenant of the prov-
ince, accompanying the conditions of plantation of 1648,
and dated at Bath, August 20, 1648, Lord Baltimore
And we do hereby authorize and Require you till we or our heirs
shall signify our of their Pleasure to the Contrary from time to
time in our name and under the Great Seal of the said Province
of Maryland to Grant Lands within our said Province to all Ad-
venturors or Planters to or within the same upon such terms and
6 Archives of Maryland, Vol. Ill, p. 471.
7 " History of Maryland," Vol. II., p. 38.
14 The Pennsylvania-German Society.
Conditions as are expressed in the said last Conditions of Planta-
tion bearing date with these presents and according to the forms
of Grants above mentioned and not otherwise without further and
special warrant hereafter to be obtain d for the same under our or
our heirs hand and seal at Arms and whereas we are Given to
understand that as well divers Frenchmen as some other People
of other Nations who by our former as also by these last Conditions
of Plantation are not Capable of having any lands within our said
Province and are already seated or may hereafter with our or you
our Lieutenants leave there for the time being seat themselves in
our said Province we do hereby Authorize you to make any Person
or Persons of French Dutch or Italian discent as you shall think
fit and who either are already planted or shall hereafter come and
Plant in our said Province Capable of our said last Conditions of
Plantation and do hereby Give you Power to Grant Lands there-
upon within our said Province unto them and every of them accord-
ingly as well for and in respect of themselves as for and in respect
of any Person or Persons of British or Irish discent or of any of
the other discents aforesaid which they or any of them and also