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latin took the leadership of the com-



THE PEACE TREATIES OF THE UNITED STATES



mission and exercised tact and states-
manship that an agreement was finally
brought about. John Quincy Adams
kept a careful record of the daily inci-
dents in his diary, and there may be
gathered much inside information that
throws an illuminating light on the per-
sonalities of the peace commission.

One last quarrel broke out between
Clay and Adams after the signing of
the peace treaty over the custodianship
of the papers. John Quincy Adams as
head of the comlmission, claimed the
right, but got an order from the majority
of the delegates to have them placed in
Clay's custody. Adams refused to recog-

{To he CO



nize this document and retained them.
In fact, they have remained in the
Adams family to the present day, and
were never turned over to the govern-
ment. The curious truth is that not
one original paper dealing with the
peace negotiations of the War of 1812
is in the hands of the government to-
day. The Adam,s family has carefully
preserved them, however, and in the
will of Charles Francis Adams, the emi-
nent student of American economics —
grandson of John Quincy Adams — these
papers Avere placed in charge of a trust
company in Massachusetts for the term
of one hundred years.

ntinued)



BOND PRIZE ESSAY CONTEST CONDITIONS



The signing of the peace armistice has
not altered the subject or conditions of
the Essay Contest for which Mrs.
Charles H. Bond, of Boston, offered one
hundred dollars as a prize to the Chapter
sending in the best essay written by one
of its members.

The subject is : " Would President
Wilson's definite program, (as stated in
his tenns of peace, addressed to Con-
gress on January 8, 1918) if adopted at



the settlement after the war, remove
all probabilities of future wars ? "

Essays must not exceed 5000 words.
The name of the writer must not ap-
pear on the essay, which should be
accompanied by a sealed letter con-
taining the writer's name and address,
also the name of her Chapter. Essays
should be mailed flat and addressed to :
Mrs. Louise J. Bacon, 128 Common-
wealth Avenue, Boston, Mass.

The contest closes February 1, 1919.




REHABILITATION AND THE WORK
OF THE MAISON DES TOUT PETITS

By Robert G. Skerrett



ORE than a year ago, to be
exact in November of 1917,
some American women in
Paris set about devising ways
^^ and means by which the

slowly starving infants of the
French capital could be helped back to
health and physical normality and their
little feet, so to speak, planted surely
upon the highway to potential matur-
ity. At first blush, this work may not
seem to stand apart from other succor-
ing activities at the time fairly well es-
tablished, but it will be evident pres-
ently that these good women were
clear-sighted enough to grasp the exist-
ence of a new field of welfare effort.

At the start, there were many diffi-
culties to be dealt with, and progress
was made slow toward realization of
their aims by the very multiplicity of
other relief organizations, etc. But
these American women were tmdis-
mayed. They forged steadily ahead,
gradually widened their activities, and,
finally, their labors crystallized on
March 16th of the year just closed when
they proudly opened the Maison des
Tout Petits. Whatever may develop
as the outcome of the institution of that
haven, it will stand in years to come as
a memorable milepost along the way to
reconstruction, rehabilitation in France.
18



The Maison des Tout Petits is lo-
cated at Number Seven Rue du Docteur
Blanche, one of the historic parts of
Paris. Its service is unique. As has
been very well said, " It is one of the
greatest and most significant charities
imaginable — it is the means towards
health and strength, both physical and
moral, of the future generations of
France." Never before has anyone in
that country been willing to take up the
very difificult task of specializing and
concentrating all efforts upon the
needy legions of under-nourished, rha-
chitic babies. No braiich of medical sci-
ence has been more troublesome than
that of the feeding of diseased infants
whose digestive apparatus and even
■^heir very bones are perverted by reason
of malnutrition. And, unhappily, as a
rule, corrective measures are more often
than otherwise rewarded by extremely
discouraging results.

To begin with, the greatest mortality
occurs during the first year of infancy,
for then, like a feebly swinging pendu-
lum, it takes but a slight touch to
check, if not to effectually halt, motion.
The gathering amplitude of life's action
may, during that critical period of a
span of a few months, be brought to a
standstill. In France, the stress of war



REHABILITATION AND THE WORK OF THE MAISON DES TOUT PETITS 19




THE MAISON DES TOUT PETITS, NO. 7 RUE DU DOCTEUK BLANCHE, PARIS. THE HOPE IS TO ACQUIRE
A LARGER BUILDING WHERE 100 BABIES CAN BE TAKEN CARE OF AT ONCE



intensified the importance of the adult
male, the present man power of the
nation, and for the nonce, at least, the
social value of the wee ones — the poten-
tial men and women of tomorrow — was
somewhat lost sight of. This is not
to be wondered at. Kindred conditions
have existed in Belgium and in Poland
during the years just gone, and it is a
matter of record that the death rate
among children in England increased at
an alarming pace until measures were
taken to prevent further vital wastage.
Whether or not the French were
abreast of us, it is an outstanding fact
that we, in x\merica, have been for
years keenly alive to the need of saving



tiny babies, and have developed this
department of medical science to a
greater degree than any other country.
Clearly, then, if we are earnestly intent
upon helping our Allies during their
period of need, it is evident that we can
play no part more lastingly beneficial
than by lowering the death rate of the
latest born and making strong those
that shall have to bear the nation's bur-
dens in the years to come. This work
means more than actually snatching
from death's door the ill-nourished in-
fant; it includes, besides, transmitting
to the present mothers and the mothers
of the future our knowledge of child wel-
fare, feeding, and hygiene. In short,



20



DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION MAGAZINE



the Maison des Tout Petits is the cor-
nerstone of a foundation upon which
the vital superstructure of France may
hereafter rest.

As Mrs. Frances Welhiian, one of
the officials of the organization, puts
it: "While our specialty is the tiny
baby, we do take them in ranging from
eighteen months up to five years of age,
but these older infants represent the
exception and, because of the extreme
effects of malnutrition, are unable to
walk. In fact, not only are their bones
rachitic, i.e., too flexible and disposed
to distortion when subjected to pres-
sure, but the children are generally
under-developed and bodily below the
normal for their months or years. In a
good many cases w^e have had babies
submitted to us who weighed, after
many weeks of malnutrition, much less
than they did when they were born !
Our problem has been to overcome this
grim handicap, to build up and to
round out their little frames, and to
discharge them from our immediate
care strong
and well in a
fair way to
hold their own
thereafter.

" The Mai-
son des Tout
Petits has ac-
commoda-
tions for only
twenty-five in-
f a n t s , and
there we handle
those that are
c r i t i c a 1 1 )'
in need of con-
tinued expert
attention. This
haven of ours
is really the




WEE MAURICE, EIGHTEEN MONTHS' OLD

rmi.D so WASTED BODILY THAT HE LOOKED BUT A THIRD OF HIS AGE

WHEN BROUGHT TO THE HOSPITAL. HE HAS SINCE RECOVERED AND

IS SUBSTANTIALLY A NORMAL CHILD



center of activities that reach far and
wide throughout the broad area of Paris.
We have striven to make the little hos-
pital a model of perfection in all of its
essential appointments ; indeed, every
phase of the atmosphere of the Maison
des Tout Petits fulfils a twofold puipose :
first, to speed up the recovery of our wee
patients and, then, to serve as an object
lesson to the visiting parents.

" Half a hundred lectures to a mother
on hygiene would never make the im-
pression that a tour through the hospi-
tal does. There she sees her erstwhile
emaciated, dying baby rapidly becom-
ing plump and well. When we tell her
that one of the causes of her child's
returning health is the cleanliness of its
surroundings, drive home to her mind
the function of the pure air that enters
through the open windows, these facts
are so strongly visualized to her mind's
eye that she can never forget them.
" The organization has nothing to do
with the baby after it leaves its milk
diet except to watch over its physical
state and, from
time to time,
to give the
mother or
guardian, a s
the case may
be, advice.
However, i t
does provide
material a i d
after the baby
has been dis-
charged from
the Maison des
Tout Petits.
There are
many societies
notable among
them, the
Daughters of



REHABILITATION AND THE WORK OF THE MAISON DES TOUT PETITS 21



the American Revolution, which aid the
fatherless and motherless children in
France and make provision for the pit-
iable children of refugees. Our aim,
however, is to save the baby that would
in all likelihood have died if we had
not come to its succor, and restored it
to health. After
that, it is our prac-
tice to return the
infant to its home
as soon
ticable,
watch it
it with
long as
and to



as prac-
there t o

to supply

milk, as

need be,
jive those
in charge of it
such instruction as
may be required
for its well being.
In doing this out-
side work we teach
the mother o r
guardian not only
how to take care
of her present in-
fant but give her
that knowledge
which may serve
helpfully should
others come.

" Up to date we
have more than four hundred such out-
side cases which are taken to the hospital
once a week to be weighed and observed ;
and where it is not possible to bring the
babies to our clinic we visit them, admin-
ister, and advise. Our field of opera-
tions is steadily broadening, and it is the
wonder of many persons familiar with
welfare work in Paris how we manage to
reach or rather to secure our numerous
patients. As a rule, the French mother
is very reluctant to part with her in-
fant, and her feeling in this respect is




THIS BABY, ONE YEAR OLD WHEN BROUGHT TO
THE HOSPITAL, HAD TUBERCULOSIS

THE FAMILY PHYSICIAN SAID THE CHILD COULD NOT LIVE.
TODAY IT WALKS, TALKS, AND IS IN EXCELLENT CON-
DITION, AS THE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS



intensified if her child be suflfering or
critically ill. Generally, these little in-
valids can be discovered only by search-
ing inquiry, and even then the dis-
tressed mother will relinquish her min-
istrations grudgingly. She knows how
very often a hospital's work of relief
fails — how f r e -
quently the wee one
is irrevocably lost.
" With us, the
attitude of the par-
ents is quite the
reverse. The suc-
cess of our labors
has been talked
over in humble
homes in all parts
of the French capi-
tal. Children are
voluntarily brought
to the hospital from
every arrondisse-
ment of Paris and
even from the out-
lying suburbs, such
is the persuasive ef-
fect of the reputa-
tion won by the
Maison des Tout
Petits. The attend-
ing physician of the
little hospital i s
Doctor J. Raimondi, the well-known
children's specialist of France. The
head nurse or directress is Miss Lillian
Neilsen, Avho was for some years in
charge of the infant ward of Bellevue
Hospital, New York City. For quite
eighteen years she has given special
study to the problem of infant feeding,
and how well she has mastered her sub-
ject is ampl}- evidenced by Avhat she
has achieved at this little haven.

" To make this clear let me quote a
letter from Doctor Raimondi to Mrs.



22



DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION MAGAZINE



C. Frederick Kohl,
the President of our
organization. He has
written : 'It is with
pleasure that I give
my opinion of the
Maison d e s Tout
Petits. With a feel-
ing of deep gratitude
I have taken notice of
the valuable help given
by our relief work in
the care of our infants
here in Paris as well
as in the nearby sub-
urbs. I have followed
with interest all of the
efforts of your organ-
ization, which is the
only one of its kind in
France, an organiza-
tion which is so neces-
sary and the extension
of which would be highly desirable both
in providing medical advice to mothers
and hospital service for infants who are
suffering from the worst diseases of the
digestive system, and who are in a des-
perate condition when brought to you.
You are fulfilling a noble task. The
originality of your undertaking may be
best emphasized by the fact that here-
tofore no one has tried to essay it here.
Results have outstripped all reasonable
hopes. Through this work, with which
you are allied, a great number of chil-
dren have been saved, of which eighty
or ninety per cent, would otherwise
have died.' "

The really heartening thing about the
work of the Maison des Tout Petits
is that so large a percentage of the little
sufferers become normal children,
and are in a fair way to grow to be
strong men and women once the handi-
cap of a puny start is overcome. In-




ONE OF THE MIRACLES WORKED AT THE
MAISON DES TOUT PETITS

THIS YOUNGSTER WAS GIVEN UP BY THE DOCTORS,
BUT THE PICTURE SHOWS WHAT WAS ACCOM-
PLISHED DURING FOUR MONTHS OF TREATMENT.
THE LITTLE LAD IS SEVENTEEN MONTHS OLD



deed, the significance
of this work is even
greater because of one
ouitstanding fact. The
majority of the babies
that have come under
the helpful purview of
this hospital are male
infants, and their sav-
ing and invigorating
bears intimately and
directly upon the
future man power of
France. There i s
every reason why
Americans should lend
their further aid to
this splendid under-
taking, help to outfit
a bigger building cap-
able of accommodat-
ing at least a hundred
babies, and, at the
same time, augment the personnel so
that a still larger number of out-patients
could be taken care of.

Miss Neilsen's conspicuous part in
the remarkable success of the Maison
des Tout Petits, apart from her special
training, is due to inborn C|ualifications.
She has a natural aptitude and love for
her work, and her sympathy and
aboimding patience inspires confidence
wdiere reticence and even distrust are all
too common. To the uninitiated, what
she has achieved seem veritable mir-
acles, and it is no wonder that many of
the devout and delighted parents call
her " The Apostle." Miss Neilsen,
how^ever, realizes the essentially prac-
tical side of her task, and therein lies
the message to American mothers. The
little ones, with their utterly disor-
ganized digestive systems, have been
painstakingly won back to health and
strength through the medium of dried



REHABILITATION AND THE WORK OF THE iMAISON DES TOUT PETITS 23




A CORNER OF THE SUN PORCH AND SOME OF THE CONVALESCENT WEE ONES



milk, a milk powder especially pre-
pared for infant feeding on this side of
the Atlantic, and which contains twelve
per cent, of fat or, as it is popularly un-
derstood, that measure of cream.

This preparation does more than
merely restore flesh to the babies' ema-
ciated bodies ; it builds solid tissue ; it
satisfies and does not derange the over-
sensitive stomach of the half-starved ;
it leads to that normal upbuilding
which nourishes rachitic bone and cor-
rects the curvature due to disease ; and,
finally, this method of feeding is potent
in battling with the early symptoms of
tuberculosis. From Miss Neilsen's ex-
perience, especially latterly in France,
she is satisfied that if she can get a
tubercular infant in its first year it will
be entirely practicable to eradicate the
malady !

Of the Maison des Tout Petits,
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Secre-
tary of the American Relief Clearing



House and Member of the Committee
for Fatherless Children \v. France, has
volunteered this tribute. " No work
I have seen in France, and I have been
in relief work since the war opened, is
so appealing to one's heart, nor does
any work do more good in its line or
have more possibilities for useful de-
velopment in the future. No Avork
is more deserving of American support
than this, and what can be done to as-
sist it will be of vital importance to
France and, therefore, to us, as its edu-
cational value will enable it to save
thousands of lives. It is to them we
must look to carry on the work of civil-
ization and be our barrier against future
German aggression."

While the Maison des Tout Petits
has been in full swing for less than a
year, the significance of its labors
should not be judged by the standards
of prolonged service. It should be re-
membered that months, yes, even



24



DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION MAGAZINE



weeks, in an infant's early days are to
its vital record what years would be to
the adolescent or the mature. The
seeming miracles worked by the Maison
des Tout Petits may become the rule,
even the commonplace, of tomorrow,
thanks to the loving, tender initiative
of a small group of Amierican women
fortified by a dietary agency developed
here in the laboratory.

It is certain that woefully wasted
infants, weak and the apparently de-
formed wee ones may be coaxed back
to vigor, rounded out in body, and
straightened and strengthened in spine



and limb — metamorphosed, in short, into
crowing, laughing little urchins or
transformed into winsome fairies bub-
bling over with exuberant health, na-
ture's greatest gift. Is it a marvel, then,
that Madame Poincare, wife of the
President of France, who has spent
many hours at the Maison des Tout
Petits, should pay this grateful tribute?
" I wish everyone could know how
touched I am by the greatness of
American efiforts. This Foundation is
one of the most successful manifesta-
tions, and to it no French mother
should remain insensible."



WHO WON THE WAR?

By Woodbury Pulsifer



Who won the war?

'Twas little Belgium stemmed the tide
Of ruthless hordes who thought to ride
Her borders through, and prostrate France
Ere yet she'd time to raise her lance.
Plucky Belgium !

Who won the war?
Italia broke the galling chain
Which bound her to the guilty twain ;
Then fought 'gainst odds till one of these
Lay prone and shattered at her knees.
Gallant Italy !



Who won the war?

'Twas France who wrote, in noble rage.
The grandest words on history's page ;
" They shall not pass! " The driven Hun
Surged on to death, but not Verdun.
Brave, sturdy France !

Who won the war?
In darkest hour there rose a cry:
" Sweet Liberty, thou shalt not die !
We come ! we come ! across the sea,
Thy stalwart sons and victory ! "
America !



Who won the war?

Old England's watch-dogs of the main
Their vigil kept, and not in vain ;
For scarce a ship her wrath dared brave
Save those which skulked beneath the wav(
Alighty England !



Who won the war?
No one of these; no one, but all
Who answered Freedom's clarion call.
Each humble man who did his bit
In God's own book of fame is writ.
These won the war.

— Washington Evening Star.



THE RELIGIOUS SIDE OF NAVY LIFE

By Edgar Stanton Maclay

Author of "A History of the United States Navy," "A History of
American Privateers," "Reminiscences of the Old Navy," etc.



OPULAR fancy seems to have
persisted in regarding the sailor
as an irreverent fellow, yet
when we come to look the facts
squarely in the face, we will
find that, so far as human rec-
ords go. Jack always has had a conscious
or subconscious belief in the existence of
a Supreme Being. Indeed, in what other
element on this globe is such a belief
more likely to be generated ? The moun-
tains are awe-inspiring, but even more so
is the mighty ocean when lashed into a
fury by tempest. It is on such occasions,
more so than in any other material en-
vironment of man, that the soul feels its
utter helplessness, and is prone to cry out,
" God have mercy upon us ! "

With all that has been said, written and
imagined about the lightheartedness of
the sailor, we will find, deep down in his
heart, a profound reverence and belief
in the existence of the Creator; and it is
not too much to say that this belief is
stronger and more general among sea-
men than in any other one class of men.
This is especially true among the navy
sailors of the world, for, as a rule, they
have had this innate belief enhanced by
the teachings of chaplains and the preach-
ing of God's Word while aboard ship.



Whether or not he is willing to admit it.
Jack has taken the liveliest interest in the
life to come — and the means of transit.
No landfolk could be more anxious for
a " decent burial " than your true son of
the sea ; and in many instances he has
been as " fussy " over the details of his
burial as any old lady who has been pay-
ing a " five-cent-a-week " life insurance
policy for twenty years. An illustration
of this is found in the private papers of
Moses Brown, one of the first regularly
commissioned captains in our navy on its
reorganization after the American Revo-
lution. In 1778 Brown commanded a
warship fitted out by Massachusetts, one
of the cannon of which burst, killing or
wounding its entire crew. One of the
fatally injured sailors was an Irishman,
who begged Captain Brown that he might
not be " thrown overboard like a dog,"
but that prayers be said over him.

" Very well, Pat," said Captain Brown,
" I will tell Mr. Blank to read prayers
over you."

But it seems that this particular " Mr.
Blank " was of a religious faith espe-
cially repugnant to Pat. who exclaimed :
" No ! Faith, no, Captain ! Then I shall
not die. Mr. Blank shall never read
prayers over me ! "

25



26



DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION MAGAZINE



Knowing that the man was in earnest,
Captain Brown promised that he would
read the prayers himself. With a gleam
of unutterable satisfaction stealing over
his honest features, Pat replied : " God
bless ye, Captain ! Then I'll die di-
rectly, sor."

This interest in the "life to come " was
not confined to the crews. It cropped
out a few years ago in a request made
by one of the commanding officers in
our navy, who not only bore a name that
was unmistakably Hibernian, but who
wanted everything about him to corre-
spond as much as possible to the traits
of his " ancient and honorable " ancestry.
Coming into command of a fine ship, he
at once proceeded to adjust his environ-
ment in conformity to his views. He did
not have a golden harp emblazoned on
each side of his craft, but he did cause
all the ditty-boxes to be painted an emer-
ald hue. His chaplain was a Mr. Isaacs,
who was a good Methodist parson. Fall-
ing in with another United States war-
ship which had a chaplain bearing a
rich Irish name, our Emerald-true cap-
tain suggested that the ships " swap
chaplains " as being in better conformity
to his racial instincts.

It must be said that differences in
religious beliefs never have seriously in-
terfered with the hearty cooperation,
good-fellowship or safety of the officers
and crew of United States war-craft.

There was one instance in the career
of our navy, however, in which the Ameri-
can man-of-warsman did not display his
usual broad-mindedness in the matter of
religion. In fact, so far as the writer
knows, it is the first case in which the
religious question ever appeared in our
service in an official capacity ; and when
the facts are fully before the reader, pos-
sibly Jack's bigotry may be pardoned.



In 1800 the American frigate George
]]'ashington, Captain William Bainbridge,
touched at the Mediterranean port of
Algiers to deliver the annual tribute from
the United States to the ruler of that
principality.

It happened at that juncture that the
Dey had incurred the displeasure of the
Sultan of Turkey, and, to propitiate the
wrath of that potentate, the Dey was
anxious to send presents to the value of
six or seven hundred thousand dollars
to Constantinople. Not having a craft of
his own, he compelled Captain Bainbridge
to use the George Washington on a voy-
age to the Bosphorus. Humiliating as this
errand was (with the Algerian colors
over the American ship), it was made
doubly so by interruptions to the navi-
gating of the frigate because of the fre-
cjuent devotions of the Mohammedan'



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