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ETHIOPIA:



HER GLOOM AND GLORY,



AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE HISTORY OF THE



SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVERY,



RISE OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA,



PROGRESS OF AFRICAN MISSIONS,



By DAVID CHRISTY,



AUTHOR OF "COTTON IS KINO," ETC., ETC.



itjr o ltttrff&tttti0tt.-






mu



By W. P. STRICKLAND, D.D.,

AGENT OP THE OHIO STATE COLONIZATION SOCIETY.



CINCINNATI:

RICKEY, MALLORY & WEBB.

1857.



ET4

■ C6~



RECOMMENDATION.



At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Ohio State Colonization
Society, held June 29, 1855, it was, on motion of the Rev. Charles Elliott,
D.D., unanimously

"Resolved, That the Board approve of, and recommend the publication of
Prof. Christy's Lectures on Colonization in book form, for general circulation."
Attest: W. P. STRICKLAND,

General Agent and Cor. Secretary.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S57, by

RICKEY, MALLORY & WEBB,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of Ohio.



CONTENTS.



Introduction .



PART FIRST.

The Slave Trade — Emancipation of Slaves in the United States — Coloni-
zation — Influence of Climate on Colored Men — Foreign Emigration —
Influence of Slavery, and Foreign Emigration — Free Colored Emigra-
tion into Ohio — Necessity of Colonization — Practicability of — Influence
of Colonization on the Native Africans — On the Missionary Enter-
prize — Relations of England to Liberia 58



PART SECOND.

Social and Moral Condition of Africa — Human Sacrifices — Idolatry —
Devil Worship — "Witchcraft — Polygamy — Slavery in Africa — Tyranny,
Cruelties and Wars — Cannibalism — The Slave Trade — Origin of —
Slaves in a Barracoon — The Middle Passage — The Slaver Pons — Re-
lations of American Slavery to African Colonization — Religious Views
of the Pilgrims — Condition of Slaves in the United States — In Ja-
maica — Cuba — Brazil — Mexico — Elements of Colonization — Letter from
Governor Pinney 109

PART THIRD.

Free Labor in Tropical and Semi-Tropical Countries — Consumption of
Slave Labor Products by England, France and the United States —
Causes operating to perpetuate Slavery — The Competition of Free with
Slave Labor — Africa the Field of such Competition — African Civiliza-
tion — Colonization in Liberia — Hope for Africa and the African Race . 179

PART FOURTH.

Importance of Reviewing the Past — False Views of Abolitionists— The
Anti-Slavery Policy has retarded the Progress of Emancipation — The
Indebtedness of the Christian World to Slave Labor — The Consump-
tion of Slave Labor Products — Their Influence upon the Commerce of
the World — Increased Exportation of Slaves from Africa — West India
Free Labor — Suppression of Slave Trade in Brazil — Abolition of the
Slave Trade on the Western Coast of Africa — Employments of Libe-
rian Citizens— Free Colored Population in the United States— How
they supported Slavery— What shall be done— Practical Tendency of
Colonization- Horrors of the Slave Trade— The Destiny of Africa in
the Hands of the African Race— Note 195

3



iv CONTENTS.

PART FIFTH.

Missions in Africa— Rev. Samuel J. Mills— First Emigration to Africa-
Rates of Increase in Emigration — Missions of the Methodist E. Church
in Liberia — Appropriations — Progress of— Official Visit of Bishop
Scott — American Baptist Missionary Union — Rev. Lot Carey and Collin
Tea^e, (colored men) — Labors of the Mission — Mr. Carey elected Vice
Agent'of the Colony — His Death — Reinforcement of the Mission — Pro-
gress of — The Foreign Missionary Board of the Southern Baptist
Convention — Its Operations — Number of Stations, Missionaries —
Schools— Communicants— Central Africa— The Presbyterian Board of
Missions— Rev. J. B. Pinney — Encouraging Prospects— Alexander
Hi^h School — The Mission of the American Protestant Episcopal
Church — Bishop Payne — Missionaries — Schools — The Gospel preached
to the whole Guebo Tribe, numbering 25,000— Maryland in Liberia—
The American Christian Missionary Society— The Missionary a Col-
ored Man — Progress — The Associate Reformed Synod of the South-
Preparations for Establishing a Mission — Progress — Influence of Mis-
sions on Native Tribes— Missions in the English Colonies of Recap-
tured Africans — Missions among the Native Tribes beyond the Influ-
ence and Protection of the Colonies — Colonies of White Men in South
Africa — Conclusion— Appendix — Opposition to Colonization 249



INTRODUCTION



That slavery has existed in all ages since the flood, is an unquestioned
fact. That it has formed a part of the civil as well as ecclesiastical polity
of the most powerful and influential empires of the world, Assyrian,
Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, and European, is equally an established fact.
And while it has existed in all ages, and among all nations, it has also
been associated with all religions, and been the subject of legislative
enactments in all countries. We find slavery intimately interwoven with
the rites and ceremonies of Paganism, Judaism, and Christianity ; and
whatever its origin, whether divine, human, or demonic, this dark feature
in the constitution of nations, governments, and churches, has always
existed, while every effort to erase it has only deepened the line of its
deformity.

It has been a subject of greater elaboration and controversy than any
other which has agitated the public mind. It has been the theme of the
pen, the press, the pulpit, the platform, the. ecclesiastical convention, the
halls of legislation, the cabinets of kings, emperors, and autocrats. The
scholar, the divine, the jurist, the politician, and statesman, have alike
been employed in laboring to solve this problem of evil ; and so difficult
has been its solution, that after the lapse of centuries, it remains as dark
and enigmatical as ever.

Africa, more than any other country in the world, has been the great
mother who has furnished more of her hapless sons for the chains and
degradation of slavery, than any other country on the globe ; and the
slavery which has existed there, from time almost immemorial, exists in
all its odious features to the present day. It may be asked, how shall
this dark continent be approached, and what policy shall the friends of
humanity adopt to elevate and save its down-trodden millions ? Will the
Mahommedanism of the North, which is winning its way southward, and
infusing itself among the masses of Central Africa, so as in some degree
to modify their barbarism, prepare the primitive tribes for the reception
of a civilization and faith which are as true as they are divine ? Will the
Republic of Liberia, extending along the western coast, as a fringe,
spread its fibers into the interior, and, like veins of life-giving blood, pour
new currents into the heart of the great mummy ? Is there hope for a
nation which, in the lapse of three thousand years, has scarcely moved its
hand or turned in its sleep ? Will Ethiopia ever awake and stretch out
her hands to God? Can it be that the identical types of race, servitude,
occupation, and character, that now exist in Africa, may be found
engraven on the monuments of Babylon and Thebes four thousand years
ago, and yet that we may look for the redemption of such a people ?

The present work of Prof. Christy is designed to throw light on these
difficult and mysterious subjects, so far, at least, as they stand connected
with the perpetuation of the evils of African slavery, and presents, in our
opinion, the only plan suggested by Providence, as indicated in the signs
of the times, fiir the suppression and final extirpation of this great evil.,
The crmdid reader will find, in these page*, such reliable information as

(5)



INTRODUCTION.



•will guide him in his researches into the condition and prospects of the
enslaved of Africa, as exhibited in this country particularly ; -while the
statesman, politician, moralist, and Christian, will see the importance of
adopting a different line of policy from that species of moral and legal
suasion which has hitherto characterized the movements of those who
have professed to be the only friends of the slave.

We believe it is now conceded by all sober and intelligent minds, that
if ever Africa is redeemed and her enormous system of slavery, embracing
nine-tenths of her entire population, is broken up, it must be by the co-
operation of agencies now so auspiciously begun— through means of
Colonization upon her own soil. The abolition of the African slave
trade, and the destruction of the factories engaged in that traffic, along
the line of coast embraced in the Republic of Liberia, has established the
fact, that just so far as that Republic shall be able to extend its bounda-
ries, by the annexation of territory, so will the infernal system be crip-
pled, and eventually destroyed.

Seven years ago, Prof. Christy, with a view of forming an additional
State, to be connected with the Republic of Liberia, for the purpose of
furnishing a home for the colored people of Ohio, proposed the subject to
some friends of Colonization in the State, and Mr. Charles McMickex,
of Cincinnati, Ohio, with a generosity worthy of so high and benevolent
an object, gave $5,000 00. Mr. Solomon Sturges, of Putnam, Ohio, also
£ave $1,000 00. To these sums was added a generous donation of
$5,000 00, from Mr. Gurnet, of London ; and the territory northwest of
Liberia, including the Gallinas, known to be the most active seat of the
traffic in slaves, was purchased and forever consecrated to freedom, while
the chains were stricken from more than 70,000 slaves. Such was the
state of the slave trade, and the wars growing out of it, in this section of
country, that the missions established there could not prosper, and all
hope was about to be cast off in regard to their success ; but now, that
the government of Liberia has been extended over the whole territory,
as far as the line of Sierra Leone, the missions are protected and prosper.
Thus we have an Ohio in Africa, in a healthy and fertile region, where
we hope many of our colored friends will find a home in the enjoyment
of all the rights, privileges and benefits of manhood.

As the author wrote the first part of this work in 1849, the numbers
and position of the free colored people are presented as in the census of
1840. No material change in the tendencies of the state of things
described has occurred since, except that the census of 1850 shows the
ratio of their increase to be much lower than that upon which the esti-
mates are based, and more unfavorable to that class of our population.
Another variation in the results is found in the fact, that Indiana, as a
consequence of her recent laws in regard to the colored people, had
diminished her free colored population, in 1850, over two thousand, in-
stead of having the number increased twofold, as had occurred in every
preceding decade. The same result has followed the legislation of
Illinois, while in all the other States, there has been but little change.
The number assigned to Louisiana, in 1840, was too great, as appears
fn>m the census of 1850.

These explanatory remarks become necessary in an introduction to the
following work, as 'the farts were communicated by the author to the

{, islature of Ohio, at two several sessions, with a view to obtain that

assistance which had been granted by other States to further the objects
of Colonization, and they were also communicated to the Constitutional
Convention of this State. W. P. STRICKLAND.

Cincinnati, O., July, 1855.



PART FIRST.



Ever since the fall of man, and his expulsion from that Eden of
bliss, assigned him in his state of innocence, a warfare has been
waged between good and evil. The conflict has been varied in its
results, sometimes good and at others evil having the ascendency.
But why is it that an all-wise, all-powerful, omniscient and infinitely
benevolent Being should have permitted the introduction of moral
evil into the world, and in his providence allow its continuance, we
cannot determine, nor shall we wait to inquire.

We believe that errors of judgment and opinion, and all evil
actions, and every form of wickedness and injustice in the world,
have their origin in the moral depravation of man's nature, and that
the contest between good and evil will necessarily continue until
there shall be a moral renovation of his heart. This moral deprav-
ation of man's nature being general, its effects are universal, and the
whole world has been but a theater upon which continued develop-
ments of its workings have been exhibited.

We believe that God has made provision for man's moral redemp-
tion, — for creating in him a new heart and renewing a right spirit
within him — and that the Gospel is the ordinary medium through
which this blessing flows to mankind. And believing this, we have
full confidence in the success of all enterprises for the amelioration
of the condition of mankind, which embrace the Christian religion
as the basis of their operations.

The history of African slavery forms one of the darkest pages in
the catalogue of woes introduced into the world by human depravity.
It originated in the islands connected with this continent, in an error
of judgment, but, strange to say, from motives of benevolence, and has
been productive of an accumulation of human suffering which affords
a most painful illustration of the want of foresight in man, and the
immensity of the evils which misguided philanthropy may inflict
upon our race.

In attempting to bring up in review this enormous evil in its origin
and various aspects, as connected with colonization, the subject
naturally divides itself into the following heads :

(7)



8 The Slave Trade.

I. The origin of the slave trade, with the efforts made for its

suppression.

II. The measures adopted at an early day for the emancipation of

the slaves introduced into the United States, with the results.

III. The provision to be made for the people of color when liber-
ated.

IV. The practicability of colonizing the free colored people of the
United States.

V. The effects of colonization on the native Africans, and upon

the missionary efforts in Africa.

VI. The certainty of success of the colonization scheme, and of
the perpetuity of the Republic of Liberia.

I. A Portuguese exploring expedition was in progress, in 1434,
along the west coast of Africa, having in view the double object of
conquering the Infidels and finding a passage by sea to India. Under
the sanction of a bull of Pope Martin V., they had granted to them
the right to all the territories they might discover, and a plenary
indulgence to the souls of all who might perish in the enterprise, and
in recovering those regions to Christ and his church. Anthony
Gonzales, an officer of this expedition, received at Rio del Oro, on
the coast of Africa, in 1442, ten negro slaves and some gold dust in
exchange for several Moorish captives, which he held in custody.
On his return to Lisbon, the avarice of his countrymen was awakened
by his success, and in a few years thirty ships were fitted out in
pursuit of this gainful traffic. These incipient steps in the slave
trade having been taken, it was continued by private adventurers until
1481 when the King of Portugal took the title of Lord of Guinea,
and erected many forts on the African coast to protect himself in this
iniquitous war upon human rights.

Soon after the settlement of the first colony in St. Domingo, in
1493, the licentiousness, rapacity and insolence of the Spaniards
exasperated the native Indians, and a war breaking out between them,
the latter were subdued and reduced to slavery. But as the avarice
of the Spaniards was too rapacious and impatient to try any method
of acquiring wealth but that of searching for gold, this servitude soon
became as grievous as it was unjust. The Indians were driven in
crowds to the mountains, and compelled to work in the mines by
masters who imposed their tasks without mercy or discretion. Labor
so disproporlioned to their strength and former habits of life wasted
that feeble race so rapidly, that in fifteen years their numbers were
reduced, by the original war and subsequent slavery, from a million
to sixty thousand.

This enormous injustice awakened the sympathies of benevolent
hearts, and great efforts were made by the Dominican missionaries to
rescue the Indians from such cruel oppression. At Length Las Casas
espoused their cause; but his eloquence ami all his efforts, both ill the
Island and in Spain, were unavailing. The impossibility, as it was
supposed, of carrying on any improvements in America, and securing



The Slave Trade. 9

to the crown of Spain the expected annual revenue of gold, unless
the Spaniards could command the labor of the natives, was an in-
superable objection to his plan of treating them as free subjects.

To remove this obstacle, without which it was in vain to mention
his scheme, Las Oasas proposed to purchase a sufficient number of
Negroes, from the Portuguese settlements on the coast of Africa, to
be employed as substitutes for the Indians. Unfortunately for the
children of Africa, this plan of Las Casas was adopted. As early as
1503, a few Negro slaves had been sent into St. Domingo, and in
1511, Ferdinand had permitted them to be imported in great numbers.
The labor of one African was found to be equal to that of four
Indians. But Cardinal Ximenes, acting as Regent from the death of
Ferdinand to the accession of Charles, peremptorily refused to allow
of their further introduction. Charles, however, on arriving in Spain,
granted the prayer of Las Casas, and bestowed upon one of his
Flemish friends the monopoly of supplying die colonies with slaves.
This favorite sold his right to some Genoese merchants, 1518, and
they brought the traffic in slaves, between Africa and America, into
that regular form which lias been continued to the present time.

Thus, through motives of benevolence toward the poor oppressed
native Indians of St. Domingo, did the mistaken philanthropy of a
good man, co-operating with the avarice of the Christian world, entail
perpetual chains and inflict unutterable woes upon the sons of Africa.

This new market for slaves having been thus created, the nations
of Europe were soon found treating with each other for die extension
of the slave trade. 'The Genoese,' as already stated, 'had, at first,
the monopoly of this new branch of commerce. The French next
obtained it, and kept it until it yielded them, according to Spanish
official accounts, the sum of $204,000,000. In 1713 the English
secured it for thirty years.' But Spain, in 1739, purchased the
British right for the remaining four years, by the payment of $500,000.
The Dutch also participated to some extent in the traffic.

The North American Colonies did not long escape the introduction
of this curse. As early as 1020, slaves were introduced by a Dutch
vessel, which sailed up the James river, and sold her cargo. From
that period a few slaves were introduced into North America from
year to year, until the beginning of the 18th century, when Great
Britain, having secured the monopoly of the slave trade, as before
mentioned, prosecuted it with great activity, and made her own
Colonies the principal mart for the victims of her avarice. But her
North American Colonies made a vigorous opposition to their intro-
duction. The mother country, however, finding her commercial
interests greatly advanced by this traffic, refused to listen to their
remonstrances, or to sanction their legislative prohibitions.

But in addition to the commercial motive which controlled the
actions of England, another, still more potent, was disclosed in the
declaration of the Earl of Dartmouth, in 1777, when he declared, as
a reason for forcing the Africans upon the Colonies, that " Negroes
cannot become Republicans : — they will be a power in our hands to



10 The Slave Trade.

restrain the unruly Colonists." The success which a kind provi-
dence granted to the arms of the Colonists, in their struggle for
independence, however, soon enabled them to control this evil, and
ultimately to expel it from our coasts.

In consequence of citizens of the Colonies being involved in the
traffic, in the adoption of the Constitution the period for the termina-
tion of the slave trade was prolonged until January, 1808. But
Congress, in anticipation, passed a law, on March 3d, 1807, prohibit-
ino- the fitting out of any vessels for the slave trade after that date,
and forbidding the importation of any slaves after January, 1808,
under the penalty of imprisonment from five to ten years, a fine of
$20,000, and the forfeiture of the vessels employed therein. This
act also authorized the President of the United States to employ
armed vessels to cruise on the coasts of Africa and the United States
to prevent infractions of the law.

On the 3d of March, 1819, another act was passed, re-affirming
the former act, and authorizing the President to make provision for
the safe-keeping and support of all recaptured Africans, and for their
return to Africa. This movement was prompted by the exertions of
the American Colonization Society, which had been organized on
the first of January, 1817, and embraced among its members many
of the most influential men in the nation.

On the first of March, preceding the passage of this act, a
gentleman from Virginia offered a resolution in the House of Repre-
sentatives, which was passed without a division, declaring that every
person who should import any slave, or purchase one so imported,
should be punished with death. The incident reveals to us, in a
very unequivocal manner, the state of public sentiment at that time.
In the following year, 1820, Congress gave the crowning act to her
legislation upon this subject, by the passage of the law declaring the
slave trade piracy. This decisive measure, the first of the kind
among nations, and which stamped the slave trade with deserved
infamy, it should be remembered, was recommended by a committee
of the House in a Report founded on a memorial of the Colonization
Society. Thus terminated the legislative measures adopted by our
Government for the suppression of the slave trade.

We shall now turn to Great Britain, the most extensive participator
in this iniquitous traffic, and ascertain the success of the measures
adopted for its suppression in that direction.

Through the efforts of Wilberforce and his co-adjutors, the British
Parliament passed an act in 1800, which was to take effect in 1808,
by which the slave trade was forever prohibited to her West India
Colonies. But the want of wisdom and foresight involved in the
measures adopted to accomplish this great work, soon became mani-
fest. Had Great Britain prevailed upon or compelled Portugal and
Spain to unite with her, the annihilation of the slave trade might
have been effected. The traffic being abandoned by England, and
left free to all Others, was continued under the (lags of Portugal and
Spain, and their tropical colonies soon received such large accessions



The Sluvc Trade. 11

of slaves, as to enable them to begin to rival Great Britain in the
supply or tropical products to the markets of the world.

But the philanthropic Wilberforce persevered in his efforts, and,
after a struggle of thirty years, succeeded in procuring the passage of
the Act of- Parliament, in 1824, declaring the slave trade piracy.
This was four years after the passage of the Act of our Congress
which declared it piracy, and subjected those engaged therein to the
penalty of deatb.

This decisive action of the two Governments was hailed with joy
by the philanthropists of the world, and their efforts were now put
forth to influence all the other Christian powers to unite in the sup-
pression of this horrible traffic. Their exertions were ultimately
crowned with success, and their joy was unbounded. England,
France, the United States, and the other Christian powers, not only
declared it piracy, but agreed to employ an armed force for its sup-
pression. This engagement, however, was not carried out by all of
the Governments who had assented to the proposition; yet, still, the
hope was confidently entertained that the day for the destruction of
the slave trade had come, and that this reproach of Christian nations
would be blotted out for ever.

But, alas, how short-sighted is man, and how futile, often, his



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