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and navy for military service, from which they had been
excused while in school. (3) About half of them pass on
to higher schools. (4) The others find employment in vari-
ous vocations.

Value of Middle School Diploma. — The diploma from
the middle school has great value. Ih addition to its value
in admitting the student to the higher schools, it is required
of candidates for higher civil service examinations, barrister
examinations, for doctor's examinations, and other high-
grade ofiicial and professional positions.

Demand for More Middle Schools. — The number of middle
schools, in 191 2, was 314, with a teaching staff of 6092, and an
enrollment of 125,304. The average age of the students
from the middle school is over 19. About one fourth of the
enrollment in middle schools is in private institutions, the
greater number of which are in Tokyo, as in the case of the
elementary private schools, and for the same reasons. One
of the many pressing problems in Japan to-day is the provision
of enough middle schools to supply the demand. Many more
students are eligible for admission to these schools than can be
accommodated. This is the more striking in view of the fact
that the middle school is a tuition school, charging 75 cents
to $1.50 per month. The Japanese youth are certainly dem-
onstrating the fact that they desire and can take a secondary
education. No other part of the educational work in Japan
is doing more to uplift the nation than the middle schools
with the adolescent boys.

364 Modern Education in Europe and the Orient


(Koto Gakko)

Place in the System. — The higher schools follow the middle
schools, with a three-year course. They are for boys only.
There are three parallel courses, one preparing for law, one
for medicine, and one for science. The three courses are also
combined as a complete one for students not going to college.
There are at present eight higher schools, numbered and
located as follows : (i) Tokyo, (2) Sendai, (3) Kyoto,
(4) Konasawa, (5) Kumamoto, (6) Okayama, (7) Yagoshima,
(8) Nagoya.

These eight institutions furnish accommodations for only
about one fourth of the appHcations. Their enrollment is
about 5000. They admit about 1500 pupils a year, selected
by competitive examinations from about 5000 applicants.

Course of Study. — The course of study in the higher school
is about the equivalent of an American two-year college
course. At least two foreign languages, EngHsh, German, or
French, must be thoroughly studied to meet the require-
ments of the universities. Latin may be taken by those
preparing to enter law. These foreign languages offer a
special difficulty to the Japanese students because of the great
unlikeness to the linguistic structure of their vernacular.
But a great deal of importance is attached to proficiency in
foreign languages, to such an extent, that eight or nine hours
per week are required in these subjects, and -fifteen hours
per week in German, for students preparing for medicine.
All students are expected, by the university faculties, to be
well grounded in at least two foreign languages. These
languages are quite generally taught by foreigners.

Japan 365

This school, as a type, may be compared to the French
lycee or the German gymnasium.

Maintenance and Fees. — All higher schools are main-
tained by the central government. The special purpose for
which they exist, as preparatory schools to the university,
and the heavy expense involved in the support, make it
urtadvisable and impracticable for local units, or individuals,
to try to maintain them.

A general fee of 30 yen ($15) is required of all students,
annually, for laboratory equipment. Otherwise the school is
free. All of the higher schools are provided with dormitories,
as a means of caring better for the moral tone, and esprit-
de-corps, which is very strong in all the higher schools.

Privileges Awarded High School Graduates. — Special priv-
ileges awarded the graduates of higher schools are : (i) ad-
mission to the universities, (2) a Ucense, without examination,
to teach in the normal or secondary schools, (3) further
postponement of miHtary service for those entering the uni-
versities. It is estimated that 99 per cent of the graduates
of the higher schools enter, at once, upon their university


Location and Purpose. — The imperial universities of
Japan, of which there are now two — and two more provided
for— have for their purpose, " the teaching of such arts and
sciences as are required for the purposes of the state, and the
prosecution of original research in such arts and sciences."

The two universities, now running, are at Tokyo and
Kyoto. Of the other two to be estabHshed, one is to be at
Fukuoka, where already a medical college exists, and the other

366 Modern Education in Europe and the Orient

is to be in the northeast at Tohoka, where an agricultural
college is now located.

The Imperial University of Tokyo consists of a graduate
hall and six colleges — law, medicine, engineering, literature,
science, and agriculture. That of Kyoto has the same de-
partments, excepting agriculture.

Character of the Faculty and Student Body. — Tokyo has
over 372 faculty members of the various ranks, 15 of whom are
foreigners, and Kyoto has about 158, of whom 5 are foreigners.
Tokyo has over 500 students, and Kyoto, more than 1200.
These universities were at first organized after the German
model of BerUn and Leipsic. They were also largely manned
by foreign professors, but now almost the entire faculties are
Japanese, who have studied abroad and are considered to be
among the world's leading scholars.

The student who enters the university has had fourteen
years of training, and has come up through a long process of
selection by competitive examinations. He is the equivalent
of a graduate of an American two-year college.

College Courses and Degrees. — The college course is
three years in length, and leads to the title (not degree) of
Gakushi, in whatever subject the student may have pursued.
The graduate can then enter upon his work in University
Hall (Daigakuin) for the doctorate (hakushi), which requires
five years of work. This degree corresponds to the Doctor
of Philosophy in western universities.

All degrees are conferred by the ^Minister of Education,
and not by the university. Degrees open the way to appoint-
ment to important civil service and governmental positions,
and are therefore in great demand.

The Hokushi, or assembly of graduates with the doctor's

Japan 367

degree, recommend candidates for the degrees, and also have
the power to revoke degrees for anything which involves
gross immorality. These institutions are rapidly becoming
educational centers, not only for Japan, but for the world of
scholars studying abroad.

Financial Support. — The universities are generally sup-
ported by the state, which support is supplemented by fees,
donations, and endowments. The annual budget is equal to
that of the leading universities of other countries.

German Model with Chinese Classics and Philosophy. —
The Japanese have adopted the German model of Berlin
and Leipsic for her university, as to equipment, course of
study, admission requirements, lecture methods of instruc-
tion, faculty qualifications, etc. The absence of Greek and
Latin from the university courses and the presence of the
Chinese Hterature are striking features, as is also the absence
of all religious instruction. Able scholars maintain that this
substitution of Chinese classics and the ethical philosophy
of Confucius for the Latin and Greek literature and philos-
ophy is a great loss to the Japanese mind. The Japanese
mind as a result, they say, is rather a knowing than a thinking

Social Life. — The moral and social life of the universities
is not as carefully supervised as would be possible in the dor-
mitory system common in America. However, private dor-
mitories are being built for this purpose, by individuals and
by Y. M. C. A.'s. Their hostels usually accommodate about
30 students.

Civic and Social Rank of Faculty and Graduate. — The
presidents of the universities are appointed by the Emperor
upon the recommendation of the cabinet. The professors

368 Modern Education in Europe and the Orient

in the university are chosen from a certain order, represent
a high social rank, and hold an honored position in the realm.
In addition to their salary, they receive a pension, after 15
years of service. They are loyal subjects of the Emperor,
and seek to do his will and to teach others to do so.

The graduates of the imperial universities enjoy the highest
privileges open to their respective professions.

Quite recently women, who are considered competent, are
permitted to enter certain classes as silent listeners, but are
denied the privilege of matriculating as regular students.


Ordinance on Girls' High Schools. — As has been stated
elsewhere, coeducation in Japan is discontinued at the end
of the six-year elementary school, and there are no middle
schools for girls.

The imperial ordinance on girls' high schools, now in
force, was issued in 1899 and subsequently revised several
times. The main difference between the regulations cover-
ing these girls' schools and those for the boys' middle schools
is the discouragement, amounting almost to prohibition, of
examinations for grade promotions. The reason is that
girls are thought to be too emotional and too easily excited,
and thereby harmed morally and physically by examina-
tions. The object of girls' high schools, as officially stated,
is "to give higher general education necessary for women,
that is for those who are to be of middle or higher social

Course of Study. — The course of study is quite uniformly
four years, but may be lengthened or shortened by special
courses. The subjects taught are : morals, Japanese Ian-

Japan 369

guage, English or French, history, geography, mathematics,
science, drawing, household arts, sewing, music, and gymnas-
tics. This course is variously modified by omissions and
substitutions, by local authorities, who are allowed great
freedom in this regard by the Minister of Education. The
subjects that are obligatory in these schools are morals, lan-
guage, and gymnastics. The syllabus, provided by the Depart-
ment of Education, for the girls' high schools is practically
the same as that for the boys' middle schools, only that the
standards are not so high, and such subjects as physical
education and household matters are shaped for the particu-
lar needs of women.

Education for Motherhood. — A course in Education is
given to girls in these schools, which merits special notice.
The purpose of this course is to give the girls general ideas
on education as it pertains to the home and the functions of
motherhood. The course includes the elements of psychology,
child-study, child nurture, kindergarten methods, instruc-
tion and training in home and state. Such a course as this
would be excellent for girls in American high schools — in
fact all girls.

Popularity of Girls' High Schools. — In 191 2 there were
250 high schools for girls, with an enrollment of 64,809 stu-
dents. About one half of these schools are public and the
other half private. The enrollment in girls' high schools is
only about one half of the enrollment in the corresponding
middle schools for boys. This unfavorable comparison is due
to the ancient prejudice against the education of girls. The
schools are exceedingly popular and the government is ex-
periencing continuous difficulty in providing for the ever-
increasing number of appHcants for admission to these girls'

37© Modern Education in Europe and the Orient

high schools. The day is not far distant when the number
of girls in these schools will equal the number of boys in the
middle schools.

Special Privileges Granted Graduates of Girls' High
Schools. — The only special privileges granted to graduates of
the girls' high schools are : (i) a license, without examina-
tion, to teach and (2) admission to the higher female normal

The inspection of these high schools is under the regular
inspectors of the boys' schools. It is apparent that there
should be women inspectors to look after the school matters
that are distinctively feminine. The public sentiment towards
the education of girls is shown by the rate at which these
schools have increased in number, in the six years, from 1906
to 1912 ; schools, 113 to 250; students, 35,646 to 64,809.


State System. — As early as 1872, Japan began estabhsh-
ing normal schools as a part of her modern educational system.
In the development of these normal schools, Japan has found
it necessary to make many and frequent modifications of her
original plan, just as she has had to do in all other phases of
her school work.

Since 1907, the date of the last important changes in her
system of normal schools, the scheme has been as here given.

/. Elementary Teachers

For the training of elementary teachers, each prefecture is
required to maintain at least one normal school for each of
the sexes, and is encouraged to maintain more, when possible.
There are now eighty normal schools of this type.

Japan 371

Types of Normal School Courses. — There are two distinct
normal school courses for the training of elementary teachers,
and many short courses.

(i) The first regular course admits graduates of a six-year
elementary school, who are fourteen years of age or over.
This course is four years in length and is practically the same
for both sexes. Attached to many of these normals is a one-
year preparatory course, for students coming from localities
that do not have the full term elementary schools.

(2) The second regular course admits graduates of the boys'
middle schools and the girls' five-year high schools to a one-
year course, and the graduates of the girls' four-year high
schools to a two-year course.

(3) Short courses are also opened, when needed, in dif-
ferent prefectures for an additional supply of elementary or
kindergarten teachers.

(4) An important requirement is that a complete six-year
elementary school must be attached to every normal school,
for observation and practice purposes. Many of these schools
also have a kindergarten.

Courses of Study. — The subjects in the first regular course
include the following, in general : morals, pedagogy, Japanese
language, Chinese literature, history, geography, mathematics,
natural science, physics, chemistry, law and economics (male),
writing, drawing, manual work, music (female), gymnastics,
English, household matters (female), sewing (female), agri-
culture, and commerce (male).

The subjects in the second regular course include those of
the first regular course not taken by these students in the
high school or middle school from which they are admitted
to the normal.

372 Modern Education in Europe and the Orient

The standard of work in these schools is about the same as
that in the girls' high schools and the boys' middle schools.
The main difference lies in the point of view from which the
work in the normal school is conducted.

The special work in the normals, of course, is in pedagogy
or education. These subjects are psychology, logic, theory
of education, methods, history of modern education, educa-
tional laws and regulations, school management, and school

The time given to education, including the practice work,
is from two to fifteen hours per week, out of a total of thirty-
four hours.

Ideals Fixed by Imperial Ordinance. — The imperial or-
dinance on normal schools emphasizes the importance of
(i) the spirit of loyalty and patriotism, (2) the discipline
of the mind, (3) the cultivation of virtues, (4) the habit of
strict obedience, (5) the adaptation of methods of instruc-
tion to the teachers' function, and (6) the development of
individual initiative.

These are thought to be the main features that characterize
the training of teachers.

The normal school occupies a position of great importance
in the national scheme of education. The director of a normal
school is a government official, appointed by the Emperor,
upon the nomination of the Minister of Education. He is
under the joint control of the prefect and the minister. His
duties are not only in the management of the normal, but he
is also required to inspect the elementary schools of the pre-
fecture, to see that the work in them is in harmony with the
training given in the normal.

All normal schools are required to be provided with dor-

Japan 373

mitories, as a means of better education and control of the

State Support of Normals. — Tuition is free in the normals
and, in addition, an allowance is made to cover the cost of
board and clothing and other incidental expenses. The regula-
tions governing admission to the normals are so stringent that
only about 25 per cent of the candidates are received. As a
partial remedy of this, prefects are allowed to admit a certain
number of students who receive no stipend, but pay their
own expenses.

Privileges and Obligations of Normal Graduates. — Several
special privileges are extended to graduates of normal schools,
(i) They receive prefectural certificates, as regular teachers
in the prefectures; (2) the men are entitled to one year's
volunteer miUtary service, instead of nine years' compulsory
service; and (3) they are quaHfied to be appointed as civil
ofhcials under heads of departments.

The obligations placed upon normal school graduates bind
them to teach immediately after their graduation ; first,
for a period of two or three years, in schools designated by
their prefect, and second, for periods of one to four years,
in schools of their own choice, but approved by the prefect
and the minister.

This term of obligatory service is in recognition of the free
instruction given in the normals. It also assures the schools
a definite number of teachers.

Teachers' Certificates and Standards. — There are several
different grades of teachers' certificates, corresponding to the
positions to be filled. These certificates may be secured not
only by graduates from the normal schools, but from certain
other approved schools and by passing examinations. For

374 Modern Education in Europe and the Orient

the purpose of certificating these last two classes, a Teachers^
Certificate Committee is appointed in each prefecture.

The subjects and standards for certificates by examination are
about the same as those for graduation from the normal schools.

The appointment, dismissal, and control of teachers are
made by the prefect upon the nomination of the mayor.

To secure the continuous growth of teachers, several methods
are in operation, one of which is to increase salaries on the
basis of profession advancement.

A pension fund, for elementary school teachers, is estab-
lished in each prefecture to which both the prefect and the
state contribute.

//. Secondary Teachers

State Normals for Both Sexes. — Secondary teachers, as
used in this discussion, means teachers in the elementary
normal schools, the boys' middle schools, and the girls' high
schools. The ordinance relative to higher normal schools
defines them as institutions for the training of secondary
teachers, with the meaning as above stated.

There are two higher normal schools for each sex. The
two for men are at Tokyo and Hiroshima ; the two for women
are at Tokyo and Nara. These four higher normal schools are
maintained by the government and are under the direction
of the Minister of Education. In all essential respects the
four schools are alike. For the women, the standards are
somewhat lower, and there are fewer elective courses offered.
The tendencies, however, are in the same direction for both.

Special Features of the Higher Normal Schools. — The
main features of these higher normal schools are: (i) The
admission requirements are graduation from the middle

Japan 375

schools, the girls' high schools, or the lower normal schools,
or an equivalent examination.

(2) The courses are : (a) one-year preparatory, {h) three-
year regular course, divided into several sections for the
purpose of specialization, (c) a postgraduate course of one or
two years, and {d) special short courses.

(3) Elementary and middle schools, or girls' high schools,
are attached to the normal schools for observation and prac-
tice work.

(4) The teaching staff are all government officials, and are
appointed by the Emperor.

(5) The tuition and support of the student- teachers are free,
so far as the present appropriations will meet them. Stipends
for this purpose range from full support down to nothing,
there being some students who pay their own expenses,
their desire for admission being so great.

(6) All graduates are under obligations to teach for a
term of years, varying on the basis of the former stipend.

(7) The graduates may defer their term of teaching service
to take the postgraduate course, or to attend the imperial

(8) There are from 800 to 1000 students in the four normal
schools proper, and these are about equally divided between
the two sexes.

(9) Many graduates of these schools are sent abroad, by
the government, for special study.

(10) For the women, the two female higher normal schools
offer the highest educational opportunities provided for them
by the government of Japan. For them, there are no govern-
ment colleges and they are not admitted to the government
universities as regular students.

376 Modern Education in Europe and the Orient

Certificates of Secondary Teachers. — For the certification
of secondary teachers, there is a committee on teachers' certifi-
cates, appointed by the cabinet, upon the recommendation
of the minister. This committee recommends the competent
apphcants to the minister, who issues the certificate. Those
ehgible are the graduates of the higher normals of several
provincial training institutions, and of the normal courses
in the fine arts and musical academies, and others recom-
mended as competent. Each certificate specifies the type of
work for which it is issued. But, owing to the great demand
for teachers, there are many in service, who hold no certif-
icates, though this number is decreasing.

Several private institutions, by approval, have certificate
privileges for their graduates. Likewise, graduates of foreign
universities, upon their individual merits, may receive certif-
icates. More state normal schools seem to be imperative.


Early Technical Education. — The first technical institu-
tion in Japan was started by a British staff in 187 1. About
the same time a department of technology was also opened.
These two institutions combined in 1886 to constitute what is
now the Engineering College in the Imperial University at
Tokyo. During the same period agricultural colleges and
commercial schools were opened at different places. How-
ever, no great emphasis was placed upon technical education
until 1903, though for the previous decade a number of special
grants had been made by the Diet to encourage local govern-
ments to develop such schools.

Present System of Technical Schools. — Technical educa-
tion, as the term is used in Japan, applies to all grades in

Japan 377

(i) agriculture, (2) engineering, (3) technology, (4) com-
merce, and (5) navigation, etc.

The technical schools, as they are now maintained, may
be classified as follows: (i) colleges of engineering and
agriculture in the imperial universities; (2) technical
special colleges requiring graduation from boys' middle
schools, and girls' higher schools for admission; (3) technical
schools with three- or four-year courses admitting graduates
of the six-year elementary course; (4) technical schools with
three-year courses admitting pupils twelve years of age who
have completed four years of the elementary school ; (5) tech-
nical supplementary schools of various lengths.

The technical special colleges are governmental institutions,
and the technical schools are prefectural and local. The
government regulations for the technical schools are about
the same as those for the general schools.

(i) Of the technical colleges, nine are provided for, and, in
fact, seven or eight of them are already in operation. These
colleges are at Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Kumamoto, Sendai,

Online LibraryDavid Excelmons CloydModern education in Europe and the Orient → online text (page 27 of 33)