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I




L I B RARY

OF THE

U N IVERSITY

or ILLINOIS



917.344
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ininois Historical Surwj



A 7



LIBHahY

OF THE

UNIVERSITV Of ILMNOI'.-



QUINCY

AND

ADAMS COUNTY

History and Representative Men



DAVID F. WILCOX

Supervising Editor

JUDGE LYMAN McCARL

Chairman of Advisory Board

Assisted by the Following Board of Advisory Editors

JOS. J. FREIBURG
THOMAS S. ELLIOTT
GEORGE W. CYRUS
HEXRY RORXMAXX



ILLUSTRATED



VOLUME I



THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

CHICAGO AND NEW YORK

1919



7 / /• J>1^



V-"-



/



PREFACE



The geogi'aphical position of Adams Couuty gave it historical
promiiieiiee from the time of its first settlement ; so forcibly was this
evident that in not a few of the events and movements which have
been of national import, Adams County and its stanch citizenship
have wielded decisive influence. Quincy, its beautiful county seat,
occupying a coiinuanding site on tiie banks of the Mississippi, on the
western confines of Central Illinois, which here juts into the border
territory of the South, was early recognized as a community where
disputants over Slavery, States Rights and Mormonism would be
accorded justice and even uutramded discussion. Althougii its lead-
ers have never lacked positiveness and forceful expression of their
opinions, Adams County earned a name for liberality and charity in
its very infancy and has always maintained it. That statement ap-
plies to both its men and women, one of the pioneer organizations in
the United States for "the emancipation of the weaker sex" having
originated in Quincy and there developed, with the progress of the
times, as a representative body of American womanhood.

In politics, in social matters, in educational influence, in patriotic
works and in industrial and counuercial expansion, Quincy and Adams
County have constituted a credit to the state and the nation. The
Soldiers' Home, the Chamber of Commerce, churches, farmers and
their splendidly conserved iiiterests, the factories and stores, and all
the fine men and women, comprise subjects of interest and pride for
the writers and compilers of this history. They do not pretend to
liavc (lone any of such subjects full justice, but have been honest in
their endeavor.

In bringing these wonders to i)ass, no class or iiationality has been
pre-eminent. Xo section of Illinois or tlie nation has been more truly
American than Adams County; and especially has this been made
manifest in the acid and fiery test of these days of fearful stress and
war. A considerable portion of this history, however, luis been de-
voted to the influence of the German element upon the developmnt
of Quincy and the territory tributary to it, and the .supervising editor,
with his advisory as.sociates, takes jileasurc in spreading the record
over many pages charged with intere.st and instruction. No citizen of
Quincy could have been better prepared to undertake and complete
this exposition than Henry Bornmann. Those who know him well, and
tlie man.v personalities who have been woven into his narrative, need
be told that Adams County does owe a great debt to the pioneer Ger-
mans, who migrated to free America, from tlie country which l)0und

iii

979073



iv PREFACE

them with shackles and whose intelligent and patriotic descendants,
reaping the fruits of their racial industry and thrift amid the very
conditions and institutions which their fathers sought, have long since
forgotten that they have any blood in them but American.

The supervising editor, David P. Wilcox, also wishes to extend his
thanks to the members of the Advisory Board, Lyman McCarl, chair-
man. Judge of the County Court, and Joseph J, Freiburg, of Quincy :
to George W. Cyrus, of Camp Point, and Thomas S. Elliott, of Payson.
for their invaluable assistance, both in the collating of the necessary
data for the history and in the revision of the manuscripts after they
had been prepared. The newspaper men and women of the county,
the eitj- and county officials, the clergymen of the city and coiinty,
its prominent and charitable women, and the managements of the
Chamber of Commerce, the Soldiers and Sailors Home and other in-
stitutions, have also been helpful in every way.

Believing that the history of Adams County, and of its beautiful
county seat, should be pi'eserved, and feeling that all available mater-
ial has been used to that end, the publishers submit these volumes to
the public with the hope that they may be of interest to the present
generation and of great value to the generations which are to follow.

The preparation of these volumes was a task carried on while
the nation was engaged in war. The generation that receives them
need not be told of the conditions which restricted and made difSciilt
the printing and publishing business. The war imposed, without
option, certain variations from accepted standards of matei'ial. The
publisliers believe that no essential quality has been lost in the present
books on that account, but offer this explanation for any lack of uni-
formity that may be attributed to war-time requirements.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I

IN A STATE OF NATURE

Area, Drainage and Springs — Uplands, Prairies and Bottom Lands
— Surface Geology Related to Natural Wealth — Alluvial
Deposits — The Loess — The Real Drift — Formation and Dis-
tribution OF THE Drift — Glacial Mo\'ements and Ice Sueets
— Origin of the Prairies — Swamp Lands Transformed into
Prairie — The Coal ]Measures — The Commercial Clays — Soils
and Their Natural Products — Healthful Climate — Bird Life
IX Adams County — Friends of the Farmer 1



CHAPTER II

WEALTH BASED ON THE SOIL

The Rich Corn Belt — Early Attempts at Fruit Raising — Hog
Raising and Pork Packing — Adams County Agricultural So-
ciety — County Farmers' Institute Organized — The County's
Farm AD\^sER — Work of the County Farm Improvement Asso-
ciation — Present and Future ok Agriculture 17

CHAPTER III

PREDECESSORS OF THE WHITES

Prehistoric Mounds in the "American Bottom" — Archaeological
Remains in Adams County — The Illinois Indian Confederacy —
"Poor Old Ivickai-(m) Me" 31

CHAPTER IV

COUNTY IILSTORY L\ THE MAKLXO

Under French Dominion — Joliet and Marquette on Tu^inois Soil
— Legendary Monsters of the Mississippi Valley — The "Piasa"
Bird — Marqueite and Joliet Get Desired Information — Return



vi CONTENTS

Via the Illinois River — Last Days op Marquette — La Salle
Consolidates French Empire in America— Brave and Faithful
ToNTi — Commercial Venture into Illinois Country — Afloat on
the Kankakee — La Salle Meets the Kaskaskia Indians —
Builds Fort Crevecoeur Below Peoria— Sends Father Henne-
pin to Upper Mississippi — The Disasters at Starved Rock
AND Fort Crevecoeur— La Salle's Second Voyage— At the
Mouth of the Mississippi — Messenger Sent to France — Deaths
OP La Salle and Tonti — Permanent Pioneer Settlements of
Illinois— Fort Chartres, Center op Illinois District— First
Land Grant nsr District — Life at the Pioneer French Illinois
Settlements — Under the Crown and the Jesuits — Kaskaskia,
Illinois Jesuit Center — Fortunate and Progressive Illinois
— The English Invade the Ohio Valley — French Rebuild
Fort Chartres — Illinois Triumphs Over Virginia — New Fort
Chartres in British Hands— First English Court op Law in
Illinois Country— Pontiac Buried at St. Louis— Last op Fort
Chartres— "Long Knives" Capture Kaskaskia — Did Not War
on "Women and Children" — Bloodless Capture op Cahokia
and Vincennes — Clark's Little Army Reorganized — Combined
Military and Civil Jurisdiction — County of Illinois, West op
THE Ohio River— Col. John Todd, County Lieutenant-
American Civil Government Northwest of the Ohio — Illinois
as a Territory — Bond Law Protects Home Seekers — State j\Ia-
CHiNERY Set in Motion — Illinois Counties in 1818 — Wild Cat
Banking — Slavery Question Again— The Famous Sangamon
Country — Duncan and the Free School Law — Illinois Inter-
nal Improvements — Capital Moved to Springfield — Remains of
Internal Improvement System — Constitution op 1848 — Legis-
lative Lessons Through Experience — Real Wi* Cat Banks —
National Banks Force Out Free Banks — The Constitution of
1870 38



CHAPTER V

SOME YEARS PRECEDING COUNTY ORGANIZATION

Illinois Bounty Land Tract and :Madison County— Old Pike
County— Wood and Keyes "Meet Up"— The Tillsons Speak
op Quincy's FouNDERSr— The First Man and the First Woman
—Agreeable All 'Round — The Old Wood Place— Mrs. Jere-
miah Rose, First Quincy White Woman — Keyes and Droulard
Settle— The County's First Physician— Gov. John Wood —
WiLLARD Keyes— Jeremiah Rose — Asa Tyrer— Old Pike County
Votes "No Convention" — Thomas Carlin — County* op Adams
Created — Ix)cating the Seat of Justice — John Quincy Adams
Compi-etely Immortalized ^^



CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER VI

COUNTY GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONS

The County's Creative Act — First Court and Its Seal. — County
Se.\t Site Entered — Quincy Ordered Platted — First Sale op
QuiNCY Lots — First Log Courthouse — Burial Ground Re-
served — First Te.\cher and First Preacher — Providing for
Judge Snow's Expansion — Woodland CiaJETERY — A. F. Hub-
bard's Claim to Fame— The Ghost Walks Again — Courthouse
OP 1838-75 — Dangers op Chronic Office Holding — A Jail
Thought Expedient ;\nd Necessary — Original Election Pre-
cincts — Columbus Fights for the County Seat — JIarquette
AND Highland Counties — Judiclvl Reform and Slavery — Town-
ship Organization Ad<jpted — First Board of Supervisors —
The Twenty Polling Precincts — Official Accommodations
Extended — Fire Forces Building of New Courthouse — Coats-
burg Su"bsides — Jefferson Square Selected as Site — Steps in
Building of Present Courthouse — REPRESENTATms of the
Colt^ty — County Officers, 1825-69— The Decade, 1870-79 —
Covering 1882-1918 — Legislative Representatives — Rural
Lands and City Properties — Population, 1890, 3900, 1910 —
Adams County Home 107



CHAPTER VII

PROFESSIONAL SKETCHES

Evolution of Judiciary Systems — First Circuit Court Sits — Wood
vs. Lisle, Sure-Enough Slander — The Jovl^l Judge Sawter —
Samuel D. Lockwood, Illinois' First Lawyer — Peter Lott —
Opportunity for Stephen A. Douglas — Richard M. Young —
James H. Ralston — Congressional Fight BirrwEEN Douglas
AND Browning — Jesse B Thomas — Norman H. Purple — Wilijam
A. MiNSHALii — New Judicial Circuit Formed — Onias C. Skinner
— Early Circuit Judges — Charles B. La\\-rence — Joseph Sib-
ley — Other Circuit Judges — The Probate and County Judges
— Judge B. F. Berrian — Hangings, Legal and iLLEOAii — The
Luckett-Magnor MiTiDER Trial — A Slander Suit with a Moral
— The Killing of Major Prentiss— Famous Eei^ Sl.\ve Case
—The Pioneer Members of the Bar— Archibald Williams —
Calvin A. Warrkn— Nehemiaii Bushnei.i^Isaac N. Morris —
Philo a. Goodwin — Edward H. Buckley — Almeron Wheat —
Hope S. Davis— Col. William A. Richardson- Wiij.iam G.
EwTNG— Col. William H. Benneson— Gen. James W. Single-
ton — Joseph N. Carter — Bernard Arntzen — Jackson Grimshaw
—Sterling P. Delano— Lawyers in 1869 — The Quincy Bab As-



viii CONTENTS

sociATiON — Urlvh H. Ke.\th, Oldest' Living Lawyer — Veteran
Lawrence E. Emmoxs — When Bench and Bar Were Pictur-
esque — The Physicians — Cholera in 1833 — The Cholera Epi-
demic OP 1849 — Adams County jMedical Society — Edward G.
Castle — In the Union Service — City Board of He.vlth Cre-
ate:d 138



CHAPTER VIII

ROADS AND BRIDGES OP ALL KINDS

QuiNCY Mails Through Judge Snow — Illinois and Missouri Bound
BY Ferry — Northern Cross Railroad, Old and New — Operations
Reluctantly Suspended — Outlet Further North — Connection
with Chicago Complete — Express Lines Extended — The Wa-
bash — First Voting of Railroad Bonds — The Quincy & Toledo
Railro^vd Company — Railroad Connections West of the Missis-
sippi — Railroad Bridges Across the River — All Sections Being
Gradually Accommodated — Adams County Highways — Leading
TO the Quincy, Atlas & Warsaw Road — Why Highways Were
Not Needed Until 1825 — Viewers Report on State Road — Pio-
neer Roads and Bridges — Improvements in Road and Bridge
Building — The Tice H.\rd Road Law— Gravel and I\L\cadam
Roads — Illinois State Highway Plan 180



CHAPTER IX

THE MARTIAL RECORD

The Black Hawk War — The Early-Time IMilitia — The Mormon
War — Quincy as a Peace Maker — ;Mexican War and Adams
County Victims— The Civil War — Different Units Represent-
ing Adams County — The Women op Quincy — Lightning War
Moves — ^Opp por Cairo — Colonel Prentiss in Command — Tenth
Infantry Illinois Volunteers — Gen. B. M. Prentiss — Gen.
James D. Morgan— Gen. John Tillson— William H. Collins'
War Notes — The War as Centered at Quincy — Local Military
Leaders— The Sixteenth Infantry — The Twenty-seventh In-
fantry — The Fiftieth and Col. M. M. Bane — The Eighty-
fourth Infantry — The One Hundred and Eighteenth In-
fantry — The One Hundred and Nineteenth Infantry — The
Needle Pickets — Sisters op the Good Samaritan — The First
Soldiers' Monument — Illinois Soldiers' and Sailors' Ho-me —
Quincy in the Spanish-American War — Quincy Naval Re-
serves After the War — Promptly Ans-wtsi Last Call to the



CONTENTS ix

Colors — On Board Torpedoed Sjiip — Company I, Eighth Ilu-
Nois Vollntkkrs — Active Military Hodiks — The MAtHiNi; tiix
Company 200



CHAL'TEK X

COUNTY SCHOOL SYSTEM

Financial Basis of Public School System — The Workings of the
DfNCAN Law — Professor Turner, Father of Present System
— Instructive Report of State Superintendent — State Exaji-
INING Board Created — State Superintendent of Public In-
struction — Rural Schools Standardized — High School Tui-
tion Act — Free High Schools — The School Survey — Strong
Points of Adams County System — The Course of Study —
Perfect Attendance — Better Trained Teachers — High
Schools — Parent-Teachers' Association — Piont:er Schools
and Teachers Outside op Quincy — "Pernicious System" to
Encourage Idleness — Public School Tax Levied in Quincy —
First Town Schools — The Town Schools Become the People's
Schools — County Schools Commissioners and Superintend-
tNTs — Present Status of the County System 243



CHAPTER XI

The German Ele.ment: Its Importance in the History and De-
veuipment of Quincy and Adams County 263



CHAPTER XII

CORPORATE HISTORY AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

Magic of Historic Restoration — The Present Laid Upon the Past
— Corn and Coon Grist — Quincy 's Site Hard Buying — Origin,vl
Town Platted — How the Lots Sold — The Hotel Corner,
Highest Priced Lot — First Courthouse Located — Temple op
Justice, Education and Religion — Charles Holmes Comes to
Quincy — Robert Tillson Expantis tub Business — John Till-
SON, the Elder — Land Office at Quincy — Some Other Fool
than Alexander — Stimulating the Hails — The Bold Quincy
Hoteij — E\tvNTFOj Ye-vb (1836) — Quincy, a Town op "Fair
Play" — Becomes a Town Corporation — Signs of Growth —
Birth of the Fire Department — Street Improvements — The



CONTENTS

City Charter of 1840 — Asbury for President; Van Buren for
Magistrate — First City Election and Officials — First City
Public Schools — A City Seal Conceived in Sin — A Free
Library Revived — City Grades Established — Mails Improved —
Great Flood op 1844 — Business Partially Revived — -Compara-
tive City and County Population — Fertile Year op 1848 —
Telegram Sent "Quick as Lightning"- — First Real City
Directory — Growth of the Town Up to 1848 — Quincy Exodus
of Gold Hunters, 1848-50 — First Daily Mail and Daily News-
paper — Made a Part op Entry — Illuminating Gas and Other
Bright Local Things — The Lincoln-Douglas Festivities — The
Mayors of the City — Public Questions Adjudged by Popular
Vote — The Public Schools of Quincy — Franklin, the Father
OF Them All — Jefferson and Webster Schools — Other Pub-
lic Institutions op Learning — Official School Management —
Strong Features of the Present System — School Savings —
The Junior High School — Raising the Teaching Standard —
Present Status op Schools — The Fire Department — The
Quincy Water Works — Quincy 's Worst Fire — The Park and
Boulevard System — ^]\Ir. Parker's Self-Sacrifice — Loyal Co-
workers — Officers 1888-1918 — Sources of Park Revenue —
The Parks in Detail — The Cemeteries — -The Police op Quincy
— Quincy Gas, Electric and Heating Company — Local Trans-
portation Systems 439



CHAPTER XIII

LITERARY, REFORMATORY AND CHARITABLE

The Quincy Herald — The Quincy Whig — Quincy Germania — The
Quincy Journaij — Labor Publications — Other Publications —
Quincy Press Club — The Friends in Council — The Round
Table — The Atlantis Club — The Study and Tuesday Study
Clubs — Quincy Women's Forum — Three Arts Club — Quincy
Historical Society — Centennial Celebrations — Women's
Christian Temperance Union — The Associated Charities — The
Cheerful Home Settlement — Young jMen's Christian Asso-
ciation — Quincy Humane Society and Henry P. Walton —
Young Women's Christian Association — Daughters op the
American Revolution — Adams County Red Cross Chapter —
Homes and Hospitals — First Orphanage of Quincy — The Wood-
land Home — St. Vincent Home for the Aged — St. Mary 's, the
First Hospitai> — Lindsay Church Home — The Blessing Hos-
pital — The Anna Brown Home — Old People's Home (Das Al-
tenheim) — Detention Home 510



CONTENTS xi

CHAPTER XIV

CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES

FiBST Union Congregation^vl Church — Vermont Street Metho-
dist Episcopal — Central Baptist Church — St. Boniface and
St. Peter's Cuurciie.s — St. John's Parish and Cathedral —
Ev.vngelical Lutheran Church of St. John — Fir.st Presby-
terian- Church — Second Congregational Unitarian Church —
Kentucky Street JIethodist Episcopal Church — The Salem
Evangelical Church — The Christian Churches — St. Jacobi
Evangelical Lutheran Church — Congregation K. K. Bnai
Sholem — St. Francis Solanus Parish — St. Francis Solanus
College — Father Anselm — The Colored Churches —
St. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran — St. JIary's Ro.man Cath-
olic Church — Bethel Germ.vn Methodist Episcopal Church —
St. Paul's Evangelical Church — St. John's Roman Catholic
Church — United Brethren Church — First Church of Christ
Scientist — Luther ^Memorial Church — St. Rose of Lima
Chitrch — Grace Methodist Episcop.vl Church — Church Fed-
eration — Social, Industrial, Secrf.t and Benevolent Societies
— The Masons of Quincy — Scottish Rite ]\I.\sonry in Quincy
— Building op the Temple — Other High Masonic Bodies — The
Independent Order of Odd Fellows — The Knights of Pythias
— The ROY.VL Arcanum Council — Knights of Columbus — The
Eagles and Other Societies — The Western Catholic Union —
Quincy Turn Verein — Quincy Country Club 540



CHAPTER XV

INDUSTRIAL AND FINANCIAL

Oldest Existing Industries — Classification of Today — The
Quincy Chamber of Commerce — The Quincy Freight Bureau
— The Banks of Quincy — Branch of the State Bank — Flagg
& Savage Open a Bank — Several Failures — Old Bank op
Quincy — Quincy Savings Bank — John Wood and H. F. J.
RiCKER — L. & C. II. Bull Enter the Banking Field — E. J.
Parker's Bank — Order of Seniority — Consolidation of the
Bull and Parker Interests — State Savings, Loan and Trust
Company' — Robert W. Gard.ner and Edward J. Parker — Death
op Lorenzo Bull — The Ricker National Bank and its
Founder — Quincy N.vtional Bank — Illinois St.vte Bank —
Other Banks 579



xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER XVI

CAMP POINT

Early Settlements ix Township — Peter B. Garrett and Thomas
Bailey — Pioneer Churches — Rise op Garrett's Mill — Camp
Point Platted — Influence op Thomas B.uley — Bailey Park
AND THE Opera House — The Maplewood High School — Other
Residence Essentials — The Camp Point Journal — The Two
Banks — The Churches — Fraternity Temple and Societies —
The Independent Order op Odd Fellows Lodges — Women's
Organizations 590



CHAPTER XVII

CLAYTON AND GOLDEN

Early Settlers op Clayton Township — The McCoys Found the
Village — Moving the Old Town to the Country — The Village
OP Today — Banks — Churches and Societies — Northeast Town-
ship — Founding of Keokuk Junction — The Junction Platted
— The Golden of Today — School and Newspaper — The
Churches op Golden 601



CHAPTER XVIII

mendon and LORAINE

Pioneers of Mendon Township — Mendon Village Platted — Early
Political Center — Churches and Lodges — ]\Iendon Incor-
porated AS A Village — The Local Newspaper — The Banks —
Keiene Township Settled — The Steiner Family — Loraixe
Village 612



CHAPTER XIX

PAYSON AND PLAINVILLE

Pioneer Horticulturists — Founding of Payson Village — Noted
Early Schools — Other Village Institutions — Village of
Plainville 621



CONTENTS xiii

CHAPTER XX
OTHER TOWNSHiry AND VILLAGES

iNDlSTRinS AND PrODICTS OP HONEY CREEK TOWNSHIP FrOCGY

Prairie — Coatsburg, Qiincy's Rival — Paloma and the Good-
INGS — Fall Creek Township — .Marblehead and F^vll Creek —
Lima Township and Village — Liberty — Gilmer Township and
Fowler — The Old Thompson Settlement — Old and New Ursa
— Mercelline — Columbus — Burton Township and Its Villages
— Houston Township — Beveri.y Township and Its Villages —
Ellington Township and Bloomfield — ;McKee Township and
Kkli-ekvii.i.e — Richfield Village 6.]0



CHAPTER XXI

CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS AND HISTORIES

Why Adams County Could Appropriately Celebr.\te — County
Centennial Commission Formed — Celebrations in the County
— Liberty Township Centennial Picnic — Ellington, Burton,
JIendon, Richfield, Golden. Camp Point, Payson, Houston,
Columbus, Gilmer, Honey Creek, Concord, Melrose and Fall
Creek Townships — Centennial History of Liberty Township
(By W. a. Robinson, Historian) — History of Burton Town-
ship (Contributed) — History op Richfield Township (Con-
tributed) — Honey Creek Township (By W. S. Gray) 640



CHAPTER XXII

OTHER HISTORIC CELEBRATIONS

The Masque of Illinois — A Brief Synopsis of the Pageant —
At QuiNCY — Outside op Quincy — Centennial Celebration at
the County Seat — "Hiawatha" in Quincy — Military Day —
Rei^vtives of World War Soldiers — Patriotic Demonstration —
PEitsHiNo's Beauties, a Feature — Sergeant Weyman's Elo-
Qi^ENT War Speech — The Historical Displ.\y — Dedication of
. THE Gold Star Flag 680



xiv CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXIII

ADAMS COUNTY WORLD WAR PERSONNEL

Those Who Gave Their Lives — How the Mex Were Raised and
Distributed — Many Joined Old Guard Units — History of the
Dr.\et Boards — Recruiting Offices Kept Busy — Names Not
All Completed — Quincy Men Inducted by Exemption Board
— How Most of the Men Were Distributed — Some Quincy
Men Who Volunteered — Roster of National Guardsmen Who
Left Quincy — Some County Men Who Enlisted in the Army
— Naval Volunteers Going from Quincy — Latest Figures on
the County 's Contribution op Men 689



History of

Ouincy and Adams County



CHAPTER I

IN A STATE OF NATURE

Akea, Drainage and Springs — Uplands, Prairies and Bottom Lands
— Surface Geology Related to Natural Wealth — Alluvial
Deposits — The Loess — The Real Drift — Formation and Dis-
tribution OP the Drift — Glacial Movements and Ice Sheets
— Origin of the Pr.uries — Swamp Lands Transformed into
Prairie — The Coal Measures — The Commercial Clays — Soils
AND Their Natural Products — Healthful Climate— Bird Life
IN Adams County — Friends of the Farmer.

Adams is one of the Mississippi River ooiiiities. west of the center
of the State, and lies a trifle away from the great routes of discovery
and exploration into the interior of the countrj- which were marked
out by the great French adventurers and Catholic priests. As it is not
far north of the historic valley of the Illinois, the region soon came



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