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Edward Eri Po or



g WEST CAMBRIDGE,MASSACHUSETTS
DECEMBER 2"' 1861






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niniiiii,iiiiiliilii^— w^«^— ^—1 ■luiiiimiiniiii, I.III






^ /n^-7>i-^ - U c.^





HENRY HALL AM.

After a Mezzotint by Sartain.




OHN Sartain was born in London, October 25th, 1808. He cajne to
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME VI



LIVED PAGE

Hallam, Henry i777-i859 2045

The First Books Printed in Europe
Poets Who Made Shakespeare Possible

Hamerton, Philip Gilbert 1834-1894 2056

Women and Marriage

To a Lady of High Culture

Hamilton, Alexander 1757-1804 2062

On War between the States of the Union

Hare, J. C, and A. W. 1795-1855; 1792-1834 2070

That It Is Better to Laugh than to Cry

Harrington, James 1611-1677 2077

Of a Free State

The Principles of Government

Harrison, Frederic 1831- 2080

On the Choice of Books

Hawkesworth, John <ri7i 5-1773 2105

On Gossip and Tattling

Hawthorne, Nathaniel 1804-1864 21 10

The Hall of Fantasy

A Rill from the Town Pump

Hazlitt, William 1778-1830 2128

On the Periodical Essayists

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 1770-1831 2145

History as the Manifestation of Spirit

The Relation of Individuals to the World's History

Law and Liberty

Religion, Art, and Philosophy



VI

LIVED PAGE

Heine. Heinrich 1799-1856 2153

Dialogue on the Thames
His View of Goethe
Napoleon

Helmholtz, Herman Ludwig Ferdinand von 1821-1894 2164

Universities, English, French, and German

Helps. Sir Arthur 1813-1875 2170

On the Art of Living with Others
Greatness
How History Should Be Read

Herder, Johann Gottfried von i 744-1 803 2180

The Sublimity of Primitive Poetry
Marriage as the Highest Friendship

Herschel. Sir John 1792-1871 2186

Science as a Civilizer
The Taste for Reading

Hillebrand, Karl 1829-1884 2193

Goethe's View of Art and Nature

HoBBES. Thomas 1588-1679 2197

«The Desire and Will to Hurt »>
Br-utality in Human Nature

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 1809-1894 2201

My First Walk with the Schoolmistress

Extracts from My Private Journal

My Last Walk with the Schoolmistress

On Dandies

On « Chryso-Aristocracy "

Hood, Thomas 1798-1845 2218

An Undertaker
The Morning Call

Hook. Theodore 1788-1841 2224

(^n Certain Atrocities of Humor

Hooker. Richard <-i 553-1600 2229

The Law which Angels Do Work by
Education as a Development of the Soul



Vll

LIVED PAGE

Hughes, John 1677-1720 2234

The Wonderful Nature of Excellent Minds

Hugo, Victor 1802-1885 2239

The End of Talleyrand's Brain
The Death of Balzac
A Retrospect
Waterloo — " Quot Libras in Duce '*

Humboldt, Alexander VON 1769-1859 2251

Man

Hume, David 1711-1776 2258

Of the Dignity or Meanness of Human Nature
Of the First Principles of Government
Of Interest

Hunt, Leigh 1784-1859 2269

«The Wittiest of English Poets »

Charles Lamb

Light and Color

Petrarch and Laura

Moral and Personal Courage

Huxley, Thomas Henry 1825-1895 2276

On the Method of Zadig

Ingalls, John James 1833-1900 2291

Blue Grass

Irving, Washington 1783-1859 2301

Bracebridge Hall
The Busy Man
Gentility
Fortune Telling
Love Charms
The Broken Heart
Stratford-on-Avon

Jameson, Anna Brownell i 794-1 860 2330

Ophelia, Poor Ophelia

Jay, John 1745-1829 2337

Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and In-
fluence



Vlll



LIVED

Jebb, Richard Claverhouse 1841-

Homer and the Epic

Jefferies, Richard 1848- 1887

A Roman Brook

Jefferson, Thomas 1743-1826

Truth and Toleration against Error

Jeffrey, Lord Francis 1773-1850

Watt and the Work of Steam
On Good and Bad Taste

Jerome, Jerome K. 1859-

On Getting On in the World

Jerrold, Douglas 1803-1857

Barbarism in Birdcage Walk

Johnson, Samuel i 709-1 784

Omar, the Son of Hassan

Dialogue in a Vulture's Nest

On the Advantages of Living in a Garret

Some of Shakespeare's Faults

Parallel between Pope and Dryden

JoNSON, Ben c. i 573-1637

On Shakespeare — On the Difference of Wits
On Malignancy in Studies
Of Good and Evil



PAGE
2342



2350



2354



2360



2369



2375



238:



2401



Junius (Sir Philip Francis?) 1740-1818

To the Duke of Grafton

Kant, Immanuel i 724-1 804

The Canon of Pure Reason

Keightlev, Thomas 1789-1872

On Middle-Age Romance

Arabian Romance

How to Read Old-English Poetry

Kempis, Thomas a c. i 380-1 471

Of Wisdom and Providence in Our Actions
Of the Profit of Adversity



2408



2414



2422



2428



IX

LIVED PAGE

Kempis, Thomas a — Continued

Of Avoiding Rash Judgment

Of Works Done in Charity

Of Bearing with the Defects of Others

Of a Retired Life

KiNGSLEY, Charles i 8 19- 187 5 2434

A Charm of Birds

Krapotkin, Prince 1842- 2441

The Course of Civilization

La Bruyere, Jean de 1645-1696 2443

On the Character of Mankind
On Human Nature in Womankind



FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME VI



PAGE

Henry Hallatn (Portrait, Photogravure) Frontispiece

Nathaniel Hawthorne (Portrait, Photogravure) 2 no

Napoleon at Tilsit in 1807 (Photogravure) 2153

Quatre-Bras in 181 5 (Photogravure) 2239

David Hume (Portrait, Photogravure) 2258

Irving's Home at «Sunnyside*> (Photogravure) 2301

Samuel Johnson (Portrait, Photogravure) 2382

When Nature Wakes (Photogravure) 2434



2045




HENRY HALLAM

(1777- 1859)

[allam's « Literary Essays and Characters,^^ published in 1852,
are made up of selections from his <* Introduction to the
Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seven-
teenth Centuries, >> — a work which, until Taine's "History of Eng-
lish Literature *> appeared, held the first place among books of its
class. Hallam's style is as unlike Taine's as possible and his method
is the antithesis of Taine's, but he preceded, if he did not instruct,
Taine in the classical method of dividing and subdividing a great
subject into essays forming its topical units, so that each topic is
presented in its wholeness, as well as in its connection with the
larger whole. Hallam's « Literature of Europe >' — which the general
public has accepted as his masterpiece — becomes, as a result of this
method, a true sequence of essays, each of which has an individuality
of its own, while in many of them this individuality is so well defined
that they are fully as capable of standing alone, outside of their con-
nection, as any detached literary essay of De Quincey or Macaulay.
As an essayist, Hallam deals in facts to a much greater extent than
Macaulay or any of those essayists who formed their style as critical
reviewers. His work represents original research, wide and deep.
Professor Edward Robinson says that " in science and theology,
mathematics and poetry, metaphysics and law, he is a competent and
always a fair, if not a profound, critic,'* and adds that " the great quali-
ties displayed in his work, conscientiousness, accuracy, and enormous
reading, have been universally acknowledged.'* This is especially
true of the << History of European Literature,** which shows a range of
reading equaled only by Gibbon. Hallam's "View of the Middle
Ages ** and his " Constitutional History of England ** trace the devel-
opment of modern England from the Feudal system to its present
form of aristocratic constitutional government. It lacks the general
interest which Blackstone knows how to give to even the most ab-
stract subject, but it has become a recognized authority among Eng-
lish lawyers and public men, and if it is seldomer read than the "History
of European Literature,** it is not less widely distributed in England
and America. In both countries, Hallam holds his place on the shelves
with Gibbon, as he deserves to do because of a faculty of amassing
and using details in which Gibbon alone surpasses him.



2046 HENRY HALLAM

Hallam was born at Windsor, England, in 1777. After taking his
degree at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1799, he studied at the Inner
Temple and was called to the bar ; but although his knowledge of the
principles of law was profound, he never practiced his profession.
His life was devoted to literature and to the historical research which
appears so unmistakably in his three great works: <<A View of the
State of Europe during the Middle Ages,^^ 181 8; <^ The Constitutional
History of England," 1827; and the "Introduction to the Literature of
Europe," eleven years later. His eldest son, Arthur Henry Hallam,
a young man of brilliant promise, died at the age of twenty-one, and
was immortalized by Tennyson's <*In Memoriam." In 1834 Hallam
published "The Remains in Prose and Verse of Arthur Henry Hal-
lam, with a Sketch of His Life." The "Literary Essays and Charac-
ters" already referred to followed this as the last of his important
publications. He died January 21st, 1859, surviving all the great
Whigs of the first half of the century except Macaulay, who died in
December of the same year, and Brougham, who lingered in sec-
ond childhood until 1868. Although Hallam took no direct part in
politics, he was himself one of the "great Whigs" of his generation,
but his Whiggery involved no leaning towards Democracy. He be-
lieved in the English constitution as an evolution of national charac-
ter and in Aristocracy as a part of it, but he had the genuine Whig
hatred of despotism. His death and that of Macaulay in the same
year left the potent Whig idea of the eighteenth century without ade-
quate representation in the literature of England during the second
half of the nineteenth century. Old school Whiggery was succeeded
by a quarter of a century of " Liberalism " which, as its logic worked
out at the close of the century, has demonstrated itself as something
far less masculine than the political idea, which from the days of
Chatham to the middle of the nineteenth century was so decisive a
factor in the progress of the world. W, V. B.



THE FIRST BOOKS PRINTED IN EUROPE

ABOUT the end of the fourteenth century we find a practice of
taking impressions from engraved blocks of wood; some-
times for playing cards, which were not generally used long
before that time, sometimes for rude cuts of saints. The latter
were frequently accompanied by a few lines of letters cut in the
block. Gradually entire pages were impressed in this manner;
and thus began what are called block books, printed in fixed
characters, but never exceeding a very few leaves. Of these



HENRY HALLAM 2047

there exist nine or ten, often reprinted, as it is generally thought,
between 1400 and 1440. In using the word Printed, it is of
course not intended to prejudice the question as to the real art
of printing. These block books seem to have been all executed
in the Low Countries. They are said to have been followed by
several editions of the short grammar of Donatus. These also
were printed in Holland. This mode of printing from blocks of
wood has been practiced in China from time immemorial.

The invention of printing, in the modern sense, from mov-
able letters, has been referred by most to Gutenberg, a native of
Mentz, but settled at Strasburg. He is supposed to have con-
ceived the idea before 1440, and to have spent the next ten years
in making attempts at carrying it into effect, which some assert
him to have done in short fugitive pieces, actually printed from
his movable wooden characters before 1450. But of the existence
of these, there seems to be no evidence. Gutenberg's priority
is disputed by those who deem Lawrence Costar of Haarlem the
real inventor of the art. According to a tradition, which seems
not to be traced beyond the middle of the sixteenth century, but
resting afterwards upon sufficient testimony to prove its local re-
ception, Costar substituted movable for fixed letters as early as
1430; and some have believed that a book called <* Speculum Hu-
manse Salvationis, *^ of very rude wooden characters, proceeded from
the Haarlem press before any other that is generally recognized.
The tradition adds that an unfaithful servant, having fled with
the secret, set up for himself at Strasburg or Mentz; and this
treachery was originally ascribed to Gutenberg or Fust, but seems,
since they have been manifestly cleared of it, to have been laid
on one Gensfleisch, reputed to be the brother of Gutenberg. The
evidence, however, as to this is highly precarious; and even if
we were to admit the claims of Costar, there seems no fair rea-
son to dispute that Gutenberg might also have struck out an
idea, which surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity,
and left the most important difficulties to be surmounted, as they
undeniably were, by himself and his coadjutors.

It is agreed by all that about 1450 Gutenberg, having gone
to Mentz, entered into partnership with Fust, a rich merchant of
that city, for the purpose of carrying the invention into effect,
and that Fust supplied him with considerable sums of money.
The subsequent steps are obscure. According to a passage in the
**Annales Hirsargienses " of Trithemius, written sixty years after-



2048 HENRY HALLAM

wards, but on the authority of a grandson of Peter Schseffer,
their assistant in the work, it was about 1452 that the latter
brought the art to perfection, by devising an easier mode of cast-
ing types. This passage has been interpreted, according to a lax
construction, to mean that Schseffer invented the method of cast-
ing types in a matrix; but seems more strictly to intimate that
we owe to him the great improvement in letter casting, namely,
the punches of engraved steel, by which the matrices or molds
are struck, and without which, independent of the economy of
labor, there could be no perfect uniformity of shape. Upon the
former supposition Schseffer may be reckoned the main inventor
of the art of printing; for movable wooden letters, though small
books may possibly have been printed by means of them, are so
inconvenient, and letters of cut metal so expensive, that few great
works were likely to have passed through the press till cast types
were employed. Van Praet, however, believes the Psalter of
1457 to have been printed from wooden characters; and some
have conceived letters of cut metal to have been employed both
in that and in the first Bible. Lambinet, who thinks ^* the essence
of the art of printing is in the engraved punch,*' naturally gives
the chief credit to Schseffer; but this is not the more usual
opinion.

The earliest book, properly so called, is now generally believed
to be the Latin Bible, commonly called the Mazarin Bible, a copy
having been found, about the middle of the last century, in Car-
dinal Mazarin's library at Paris. It is remarkable that its exist-
ence was unknown before; for it can hardly be called a book of
very extraordinary scarcity, nearly twenty copies being in differ-
ent libraries, half of them in those of private persons in England.
No date appears in this Bible, and some have referred its publi-
cation to 1452, or even to 1450, which few, perhaps, would at pres-
ent maintain; while others have thought the year 1455 rather
more probable. In a copy belonging to the Royal Library at
Paris an entry is made importing that it was completed in bind-
ing and illuminating at Mentz, on the Feast of the Assumption
(Aug. 15), 1456. But Trithemius, in the passage above quoted,
seems to intimate that no book had been printed in 1452; and,
considering the lapse of time that would naturally be employed
in such an undertaking during the infancy of the art, and that
we have no other printed book of the least importance to fill up
the interval till 1457, and also that the binding and illuminating



HENRY HALLAM 2049

the above-mentioned copy is likely to have followed the publica-
tion at no great length of time, we may not err in placing its
appearance in the year 1455, which will secure its hitherto un-
impeached priority in the records of bibliography.

It is a very striking circumstance that the high-minded in-
ventors of this great art tried at the very outset so bold a flight
as the printing an entire Bible, and executed it with astonishing
success. It was Minerva leaping on earth in her divine strength
and radiant armor, ready at the moment of her nativity to sub-
due and destroy her enemies. The Mazarin Bible is printed,
some copies on vellum, some on paper of choice quality, with
strong, black, and tolerably handsome characters, but with some
want of uniformity, which has led, perhaps unreasonably, to a
doubt whether they were cast in a matrix. We may see in im-
agination this venerable and splendid volume leading up the
crowded myriads of its followers, and imploring, as it were, a
blessing on the new art, by dedicating its first fruits to the serv-
ice of heaven.

A metrical exhortation, in the German language, to take arms
against the Turks, dated in 1454, has been retrieved in the pres-
ent century. If this date unequivocally refers to the time of
printing, which does not seem a necessary consequence, it is the
earliest loose sheet that is known to be extant. It is said to be
in the type of what is called the Bamberg Bible, which we shall
soon have to mention. Two editions of Letters of indulgence
from Nicolas V., bearing the date of 1454, are extant in single
printed sheets, and two more editions of 1455; but it has justly
been observed that even if published before the Mazarin Bible,
the printing of the great volume must have commenced long be-
fore. An almanac for the year 1457 has also been detected; and
as fugitive sheets of this kind are seldom preserved, we may
justly conclude that the art of printing was not dormant so far
as these light productions are concerned. A Donatus, with
Schseffer's name, but no date, may or may not be older than a
Psalter published in 1457 by Fust and Schaeffer (the partnership
with Gutenberg having been dissolved in November, 1455, and
having led to a dispute and litigation), with a colophon, or notice,
subjoined in the last page, in these words: —

*-*-Psalmorum codex venu state capitalium decoratus, rubricationibusque suf-
ficienter distinctus, adinventione artificiosa imprimendi ac caracterizandi, abs-
que calami iilla exaratione sic effigiatus, et ad eusebiam Dei Industrie est
VI — 129



2050 HENRY HALLAM

summatus. Per Johannetn Fust, civem Moguntinum, et Petrum Schceffer
de Gernsheim, anno Domini miilesimo cccclvii. In vigilia Assumptionis?'*

A colophon, substantially similar, is subjoined to several of
the Fustine editions. And this seems hard to reconcile with the
stor)' that Fust sold his impressions at Paris, as late as 1463, for
manuscripts.

Another Psalter was printed by Fust and Schseffer with simi-
lar characters in 1459; and, in the same year, *•'- Durandi Rationale,**
a treatise on the liturgical offices of the church; of which Van
Praet says that it is perhaps the earliest with cast types to which
Fust and Schaeffer have given their name and date. The two
Psalters he conceives to have been printed from wood. But this
would be disputed by other eminent judges. In 1460 a work of
considerable size, the ^*- Catholicon** of Balbi, came out from an
opposition press established at Mentz by Gutenberg. The Clem-
entine Constitutions, part of the canon law, were also printed by
him in the same year.

These are the only monuments of early typography acknowl-
edged to come within the present decennium. A Bible without
a date, supposed by most to have been printed by Pfister at
Bamberg, though ascribed by others to Gutenberg himself, is
reckoned by good judges certainly prior to 1462, and perhaps as
early as 1460. Daunou and others refer it to 1461. The antiq-
uities of typography, after all the pains bestowed upon them, are
not unlikely to receive still further elucidation in the course of
time.

From << Introduction to the Literature of
Europe, >* Chap. iii.



POETS WHO MADE SHAKESPEARE POSSIBLE

«TN THE latter end of King Henry the Eighth's reign," says Put-
1 tenham in his "Art of Poesie,* "sprung up a new company
of courtly makers, of whom Sir Thomas Wyatt the elder and
Henry, Earl of Surrey were the two chieftains, who having trav-
ailed into Italy, and there tasted the sweet and stately measures
and style of the Italian poesie, as novices newly crept out of the
schools of Dante, Ariosto, and Petrarch, they greatly polished our
rude and homely manner of vulgar poesie, from that it had been
before, and for that cause may justly be said the first reformers



HENRY HALLAM 2051

of our English metre and style. In the same time or not long
after was the Lord Nicolas Vaux, a man of much facility in vul-
gar makings. ^> The poems of Sir Thomas Wyatt, who died in 1544,
and of the Earl of Surrey, executed in 1547, were first published
in 1557, with a few by other hands, in a scarce little book called
«Tottel's Miscellanies.^' They were, however, in all probability,
known before; and it seems necessary to mention them in this
period, as they mark an important epoch in English literature.

Wyatt and Surrey, for we may best name them in the order
of time, rather than of civil or poetical rank, have had recently
the good fortune to be recommended by an editor of extensive
acquaintance with literature, and of still superior taste. It will
be a gratification to read the following comparison of the two
poets, which I extract the more willingly that it is found in a
publication somewhat bulky and expensive for the mass of
readers : —

" They were men whose minds may be said to have been cast in
the same mold, for they differ only in those minuter shades of char-
acter which always must exist in human nature, — shades of difference
so infinitely varied, that there never were and never will be two per-
sons in all respects alike. In their love of virtue and their instinc-
tive hatred and contempt of vice, in their freedom from personal
jealousy, in their thirst after knowledge and intellectual improvement,
in nice observation of nature, promptitude to action, intrepidity and
fondness for romantic enterprise, in magnificence and liberality, in
generous support of others and high-spirited neglect of themselves,
in constancy in friendship, and tender susceptibility of affections of a



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