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THE BURIAL PLACE OF CHARLES LAMB.

After a Design Published March 28th, 1S07, by S. Woodburn of
112 St. Martin's Latie, London.




Iamb's last years were passed at the village of Edmonton, north of
London, in Middlesex. It was while walking on the London road
near Edmonton, that he sustained the fall which resulted in his
death a few days later, December 27th, 1834. The illustration shows the Ed-
monton churchyard in which he was buried.



ROYAL EDITION



THE



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FROM THE

EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME



DAVID ]. BREWER

EDITOR

EDWARD A. ALLEN WILLIAM SCHUYLER

ASSOCIATE EDITORS



TEN VOLUMES

VOL. vn.



ST. LOUIS

FERD. P. KAISER
1900



Royal edition



I^IMITED TO 1000 COMPI^ETE SETS, OF WHICH THIS IS



No.



.'MO



Copyright 1900

BY

FERD. p. KAISER



All rights reserved





EDITOR



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'0 . r. "^'nrEPSTTT OF CALIFORFIA

t^ N SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE LIBRARY

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THE ADVISORY COUNCIL

SIR WALTER BESANT, M. A., F. S. A.,

Soho Square, London W., England.

PROFESSOR KUNO FRANCKE, Ph. D..

Department of German, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

HIRAM CORSON. A. M., LL. D.,

Department of English Literature, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

WILLIAM DRAPER LEWIS, Ph. D.,
Dean of the Department of Law,

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

RICHARD GOTTHEIL, Ph. D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages,

Columbia University, in the City of New York.

MRS. LOUISE CHANDLER MOULTON,

Author « Swallow Flights, » « Bed-Time Stories, » etc. Boston, Mass.

WILLIAM VINCENT BYARS,

Manager The Valley Press Bureau, St. Louis.

F. M. CRUNDEN, A. M.,

Librarian St. Louis Public Library; President (1S90) American
Library Association.

MAURICE FRANCIS EGAN, A. M., LL. D.,
Professor of English and Literature,

Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

ALCEE FORTIER, Lit. D.,

Professor of Romance Languages, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.

SHELDON JACKSON, D. D., LL. D.,

Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.

A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT, Ph. D., LL. D.,
Professor of Romance Languages,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

WILLIAM P. TRENT, M. A.,

Professor of English Literature,

Columbia University, in the City of New York.

CHARLES MILLS GAYLEY, Litt. D.,

Department of English, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.

RICHARD JONES, Ph. D.,

Department of English, vz'ce Austin H. Merrill, deceased. Department
of Elocution, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.

W. STUART SYMINGTON. Jr., Ph.D.,

Professor of Romance Languages, Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME VII



LIVED PAGE

Lamb, Charles i 775-1 834 2451

A Complaint of the Decay of Beggars in the Me-
tropolis
A Dissertation upon Roast Pig
New Year's Eve
Modern Gallantry
Popular Fallacies

That Enough Is as Good as a Feast

That the Worst Puns Are the Best

That We Should Rise with the Lark

That We Should Lie Down with the Lamb

Landor, Walter Savage i 775-1864 2485

Addison Visits Steele

The Pangs of Approaching the Gods

Lang, Andrew 1844- 2490

The Beresford Ghost Story
Celebrated Literary Forgeries

Lanier, Sidney 1842-1881 2496

On the Ocklawaha in May

Lavater, Johann Caspar 1741-1801 2511

On Reading Character

Lecky, William Edward Hartpole 1838- 2516

Montaigne and Middle-Age Superstition
Sex and Moral Character

Legar^, Hugh Swinton 1789-1843 2523

Liberty and Greatness
A Miraculous People



VI

LIVED PAGE

Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm von 1646-1716 2528

On the I'ltimate Origin of Things

Lessing, Gottholu EriiRAiM 1729-1781 2536

" Laocoon " — Art's Highest Law
Poetry and Painting Compared
The Education of the Human Race

Lewes, George Henry 1817-1878 2546

Rousseau, Robespierre, and the French Revolution

LiEBiG, Justus von 1803-1873 2554

Goldmakers and the Philosopher's Stone
Man as a Condensed Gas

LlNCAku, jx.iN I77I-185I 2563

Cromwell's Government by the " Mailed Hand "

Livv (Titus Livius) 59 B. C- 17 A. D. 2567

On the Making of History

LocKF. John 1632-1704 2571

"Of Civil Government** — Its Purposes

Of Tyranny

Of the Conduct of the Understanding

Concerning Toleration and Politics in the Churches

Of Ideas in General, and Their Original

LocKHART, John Gibson 1794-1854 2595

The Character of Sir Walter Scott
Burns and the Pundits of Edinburgh

LoMBRObO, CeSAKE 1 836- 260O

Eccentricities of Famous Men

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 1807- 1882 2604

Anglo-Saxon Language and Poetry
A Walk in Pore Lachaise
When the Swallows Come
The First Bloom of Summer
Men of Books
Leaders of Humanity
The Loom of Life
The Modern Romans



vu





LIVED


PAGE


LONGINUS


c. 210-273 A. D


2636


On the Sublime






Sublimity in the Great Poets






Great Masters of Eloquence






Liberty and Greatness







Lowell, James Russell 1819-1891 2657

The Pious Editor's Creed

On Paradisaical Fashions for Women

Some Advantages of Poverty

Lamb's Good-Nature

Prophets of the New Dispensation

Loving and Singing

Poetry and Religion

Lubbock, Sir John 1834- 2677

A Song of Books

The Happiness of Duty

LuciAN c. \20-c. 200 A. D 2687

That Bibliomaniacs Should Read Their Own Books

Luther, Martin 1483-1546 2690

That Unnecessary Ignorance Is Criminal

Lyell, Sir Charles 1797-1875 2695

The Great Earthquake of Lisbon

Lyly, John c. i 553-1606 2698

A Cooling Card for All Fond Lovers

How the Life of a Young Man Should Be Led

Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer, Baron 2702

1803-1873

The Sanguine Temperament
Some Observations on Shy People
Readers and Writers

McCarthy, Justin 1830- 27 11

The Last of the Napoleons

Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Baron 1800-1859 2717

John Bunyan and the << Pilgrim's Progress >>
The Impeachment of Warren Hastings



VIU

LIVED PAGE

Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Baron — Continued

Samuel Johnson in Grub Street

Addison and His Friends

Milton and Dante

The Genius of Mirabeau

History as an Evolution

Montgomery's Satan

On Gladstone's "Church and State »

Machiavelli

Machiavelli, Niccolo 1469-1527 2775

Whether Princes Ought to Be Faithful to Their

Engagements
How Far Fortune Influences the Things of This

World, and How Far She May Be Resisted

Mackenzie, Henry 1745-1831 2781

An Old Countryhouse and an Old Lady

Mackintosh, Sir James 1765-1832 27S5

On the Genius of Bacon

Madison, James 1751-1836 2794

General View of the Powers Proposed to Be
Vested in the Union

Maine, Sir Henry James Sumner i822-i88'8 2799

The Law of Nations

Mallet, Paul Henri i 730-1 807 2803

Civilization and the Earliest Literature

Malthus, Thomas Robert 1766-1834 2809

Ratios of the Increase of Population and Food /

Mandeville, Sir John Fourteenth Century 2816

A Mohammedan on Christian Vices
The Devil's Head in the Valley Perilous

Marcellinus. Ammianus c. 330-r. 395 A. D. 2820

Luxury of Roman Decadence

Martineau, Harriet 1802-1876 2826

Walter Savage Landor



IX

LIVED PAGE

Marx, Karl 1818-1883 5831

The Buying and Selling of Labor-Power

Maurice, Frederick Denison 1805-187 2835

The Friendship of Books

Maury, Matthew Fontaine 1806-1873 2854

The Sea and Its Sublime Laws



FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME VII



PAGE

The Burial Place of Charles Lamb (Photogravure) Frontispiece

Johann Caspar Lavater (Portrait, Photogravure) 2511

John Locke (Portrait, Photogravure) 2571

Luther at Worms (Photogravure) 2690

Thomas Babington Macaulay (Photogravure) 2717

Niccolo Machiavelli (Portrait, Photogravure) 2775

Harriet Martineau (Portrait, Photogravure) 2826

After the Storm (Photogravure) 2854



2451




CHARLES LAMB

(1775-1834)

Between the ages of forty-five and fifty years, — having suf-
fered and renounced whatever was necessary to educate him
for so high a mission, — Charles Lamb wrote the << Essays of
Elia.** It is hard to think of an angel with a stoop and a bad habit
of stuttering. We do not usually imagine that the garments of the
Seraphim smell of stale tobacco smoke, or that the ministers of grace
are liable to make puns without provocation. Still of such super-
natural souls as Lamb it has been written: —

« Through all the world heaven's angels walk obscure,
With radiance hidden from our darkened eyes
By forms of humblest clay, whose mean disguise
May veil celestial light more rare and pure
Than we with purblind sight could dare endure. »

If there is anything in evidence, Lamb in a London tavern, stut-
tering out his jokes through thick clouds of tobacco smoke, was even
then an inhabitant of the same heaven in which Thomas a Kempis
wrote the << Imitatio Christi,^^ — the heaven which belongs to the pure
in heart. *^ St. Charles, ^* Coleridge called him, after having known
him from the time they were Blue-Coat boys together in Christ's Hos-
pital School. Nothing short of saintliness would have made him the
great humorist he is. His life was a long tragedy. An innocent vic-
tim of a hereditary taint, he was confined in a madhouse at twenty-
one. Only a few months after his release, his sister Mary, in a violent
paroxysm of insanity, killed her mother and was committed to a luna-
tic asylum, with the prospect of life imprisonment among the in-
sane. Her brother, scarcely more than a boy and with ** the means
of a day laborer, ^> pledged himself to the authorities to nurse and
care for her if they would make him her guardian, and it was to this
martyrdom that he devoted himself, sacrificing his hopes of happiness
with Alice Winterton, and remaining a bachelor all his life. He lived
with his sister as her guardian and nurse, watching for the recurrence
of the symptoms of her madness, and when they appeared, going
with her to the asylum that she might be confined until restored to
herself. Out of this touching love between the brother and sister
came the "Tales from Shakespeare'^ and "Poetry for Children, '^ "by



-M5 2



CHARLES LAMB



Charles and Mary Lamb," — joint productions which make it evident
that Lamb sought to inspire his sister with his own spirit of hope
and cheerfulness. That the « Tales from Shakespeare, >> which will be
read with delight by children as long as the language in which they
are written remains intelligible, could have been the result of the
struggle for self-possession of two supersensitive minds under the
constant dread of the recurrence of madness, is one of those miracles
of contradiction which glorify human nature and human sanity in the
teeth of Lombroso and all others who, having discovered that " genius
is a neurosis,*^ imagine that it is nothing more.

In Lamb it was the fruit of ripening manliness in that form
which is called "Virtue," — the quality of the " F/>," or fighting man,
who can stand at the front in the first rank, stooped down behind
his shield, but unyielding when the lines are broken and every one
else is retreating. " Certa tanguafii iniles bonus! " writes Thomas a
Kempis of such a one as Lamb. " Fight like a good soldier ! " So
does the metaphor of struggle endured and of blows taken without
shrinking inhere in the meaning of such patient virtue as this —
virtue which makes manliness divine even in its weakness.

Lamb's humor is clearly a result of consciousness of his own in-
firmities and of the clear perception such self-knowledge gives him
of the infirmities of others. Grote, Gibbon, and Macaulay, Locke,
Descartes, and Plato, the historians, and the philosophers know much
and tell much of human nature, but those who know more than they
care or dare to tell do not write history or philosophy. They write
such fairy tales as those of De la Motte Fouque, and Hans Chris-
tian Andersen, and such essays as those of Lamb. The tenderness
of Andersen and the playfulness of Lamb are marks of the acute
sensitiveness of physical organization which must accompany the re-
sponsiveness of the body to the control of mind. One of the
marks of self-mastery in the physical suffering such responsiveness
entails is humor. All humor is the result of a reaction. It may
grow more and more brutal as the brutal nature is strengthened by
reaction against the higher; but in Lamb it grows more and more
tender and delicate as he ripens for translation to some heaven
where — let us hope — reactions are no more; where there are no
headaches in unlimited punches, and no dryness of tongue after such
long nights of innumerable pipes as preceded the " Renunciation "
in which Lamb wrote: —

« For thy sake, tobacco, I
Would do anything — but die!>>

Delightful as is the secret wisdom of Lamb's essays, it is said
that his conversation was even more so. Never preaching and never



CHARLES LAMB 2453

prosing himself, he is reputed to have furnished frequent texts to
Coleridge — who did both. «I think, Charles, » said Coleridge, «you
never heard me preach.'^ « I ne-ne-never heard you do anything else, »
replied Lamb with severe gravity, and no doubt with a deliberately
protracted stutter.

Lamb's antecedents were anything but patrician. His father, who
was ^^ engaged in his youth in domestic service,** never rose higher
than a clerkship for a bencher in the Inner Temple. Seven years in
the Blue-Coat School of Christ's Hospital was all the scholastic
education Charles ever had. In 1789 he became a clerk in the South
Sea House, and in 1792 in the India House, where he worked until
his fiftieth year. He was then retired on a pension of ;£4oo a
year, but he wrote little after this and lived to enjoy his moneyed
ease for only nine years. He died December 27th, 1834, and when
Professor Morley tells us that on that date he « entered into his
heavenly rest,** we will not think of questioning it. But as for the
kind of a heaven it is he entered, we can only guess that there will
be a London in it with no fogs, and many clubrooms, inhabited
exclusively by people who are fit to associate with the author of
«The Complaint of the Decay of Beggars.** W. V. B.



A COMPLAINT OF THE DECAY OF BEGGARS IN THE

METROPOLIS

THE all- sweeping besom of societarian reformation — your only
modern Alcides' club to rid the time of its abuses — is up-
lift with many-handed sway to extirpate the last fluttering
tatters of the bugbear mendicity from the metropolis. Scrips,
wallets, bags — staves, dogs, and crutches — the whole mendicant
fraternity with all their baggage, are fast posting out of the
purlieus of this eleventh persecution. From the crowded cros-
sing, from the corners of streets and turnings of alleys, the
parting Genius of Beggary is <* with sighing sent. **

I do not approve of this wholesale going to work, this im-
pertinent crusado, or belhim ad exterminationem, proclaimed
against a species. Much good might be sucked from these
Beggars.

They were the oldest and the honorablest form of pauper-
ism. Their appeals were to our common nature; less revolting
to an ingenuous mind than to be a suppliant to the particular
humors or caprice of any fellow-creature, or set of fellow-



2454 CHARLES LAMB

creatures, parochial or societarian. Theirs were the only rates
uninvidious in the levy, ungrudged in the assessment.

There was a dignity springing from the very depth of their
desolation; as to be naked is to be so much nearer to the being
a man than to go in livery.

The greatest spirits have felt this in their reverses; and
when Dionysius from king turned schoolmaster, do we feel any-
thing towards him but contempt? Could Vandyke have made a
picture of him, swaying a ferula for a sceptre, which would have
affected our minds with the same heroic pity, the same com-
passionate admiration, with which we regard his Belisarius beg-
ging for an obolus ? Would the moral have been more graceful,
more pathetic ?

The Blind Beggar in the legend, — the father of pretty
Bessy, — whose story doggerel rhymes and alehouse signs cannot
so degrade or attenuate but that some sparks of a lustrous spirit
will shine through the disguisements — this noble Earl of Corn-
wall ( as indeed he was ) and memorable sport of fortune, fleeing
from the unjust sentence of his liege lord, stripped of all, and
seated on the flowering green of Bethnal, with his more fresh
and springing daughter by his side, illumining his rags and his
beggary — would the child and parent have cut a better figure,
doing the honors of a counter, or expiating their fallen con-
dition upon the three-foot eminence of some sempstering shop-
board ?

In tale or history your Beggar is ever the just antipode to
your king. The poets and romancical writers (as dear Margaret
Newcastle would call them) when they would most sharply and
feelingly paint a reverse of fortune, never stop till they have
brought down their hero in good earnest to rags and the wallet.
The depth of the descent illustrates the height he falls from.
There is no medium which can be presented to the imagination
without offense. There is no breaking the fall. Lear, thrown
from his palace, must divest him of his garments, till he answer
" mere nature " ; and Cressid, fallen from a prince's love, must
extend her pale arms, pale with other whiteness than of beauty,
supplicating lazar alms with bell and clap-dish.

The Lucian wits knew this very well; and, with a converse
policy, when they would express scorn of greatness without the
pity, they show us an Alexander in the shades cobbling shoes,
or a Scmiramis getting up foul linen.



CHARLES LAMB 2455

How would it sound in song, that a great monarch had de-
clined his affections upon the daughter of a baker! yet do we
feel the imagination at all violated when we read the "true
ballad, '* where King Cophetua wooes the beggar maid ?

« Pauperism,'^ « pauper, >* « poor man,** are expressions of pity,
but pity alloyed with contempt. No one properly contemns a beg-
gar. Poverty is a comparative thing, and each degree of it is
mocked by its « neighbor grice.** Its poor rents and comings-in
are soon summed up and told. Its pretenses to property are
almost ludicrous. Its pitiful attempts to save excite a smile.
Every scornful companion can weigh his trifle-bigger purse
against it. Poor man reproaches poor man in the streets with
impolitic mention of his condition, his own being a shade better,
while the rich pass by and jeer at both. No rascally compara-
tive insults a Beggar, or thinks of weighing purses with him.
He is not in the scale of comparison. He is not under the
measure of property. He confessedly hath none, any more than
a dog or a sheep. No one twitteth him with ostentation above
his means. No one accuses him of pride, or unbraideth him
with mock humility. None jostle with him for the wall, or pick
quarrels for precedency. No wealthy neighbor seeketh to eject
him from his tenement. No man sues him. No man goes to
law with him. If I were not the independent gentleman that I
am, rather than I would be a retainer to the great, a led cap-
tain, or a poor relation, I would choose, out of the delicacy and
true greatness of my mind, to be a Beggar.

Rags, which are the reproach of poverty, are the Beggar's
robes, and graceful insignia of his profession, his tenure, his full
dress, the suit in which he is expected to show himself in public.
He is never out of the fashion, or limpeth awkwardly behind it.
He is not required to put on court mourning. He weareth all
colors, fearing none. His costume hath undergone less change
than the Quaker's. He is the only man in the universe who is
not obliged to study appearances. The ups and downs of the
world concern him no longer. He alone continueth in one stay.
The price of stock or land affecteth him not. The fluctuations of
agricultural or commercial prosperity touch him not, or at worst
but change his customers. He is not expected to become bail
or surety for any one. No man troubleth him with questioning
his religion or politics. He is the only free man in the uni-
verse.



2456 CHARLES LAMB

The Mendicants of this great city were so many of her sights,
her lions. I can no more spare them than I could the Cries of
London. No corner of a street is complete without them. They
are as indispensable as the Ballad Singer; and in their pictur-
esque attire as ornamental as the Signs of Old London. They
were the standing morals, emblems, mementoes, dial mottoes, the
spital sermons, the books for children, the salutary checks and
pauses to the high and rushing tide of greasy citizenry —

« Look



Upon that poor and broken bankrupt there. *^

Above all, those old blind Tobits that used to line the wall
of Lincoln's, Inn Garden, before modern fastidiousness had ex-
pelled them, casting up their ruined orbs to catch a ray of pity,
and (if possible) of light, with their faithful dog guide at their
feet, — whither are they {\ed ? or into what corners, blind as
themselves, have they been driven, out of the wholesome air and
sun warmth ? Immured between four walls, in what withering
poorhouse do they endure the penalty of double darkness, where
the chink of the dropped half-penny no more consoles their for-
lorn bereavement, far from the sound of the cheerful and hope-
stirring tread of the passenger ? Where hang their useless staves ?

and who will farm their dogs ? Have the overseers of St. L

caused them to be shot ? or were they tied up in sacks, and

dropped into the Thames, at the suggestion of B , the mild

rector of ?

Well fare the soul of unfastidious Vincent Bourne, most classi-
cal and, at the same time, most English, of the Latinists! — who
has treated of this human and quadrupedal alliance, this dog and
man friendship in the sweetest of his poems, the ** Epitaphium in
Cancm," or " Dog's Epitaph." Reader, peruse it; and say, if custo-
mary' sights, which could call up such gentle poetry as this, were
of a nature to do more harm or good to the moral sense of the
passengers through the daily thoroughfares of a vast and busy
metropolis.

" f'aiiperis hie hi rcquiesco Lyciscus, herilis,
Diiin I'ixi, tutela vigil cohintcnquc senectce.
Dux circfl fidiis: nee, me duecntc, solebat,
Prceteriso /tine atque hinc baeulo, per iniqua locorum
Ificertam explorare -iiam; sed fila seeutus,
Qu(e diibios regerent passus, vestigia tuta



CHARLES LAMB 2457

Fixit inoffenso gressuj gelidumque sedile

In nudo nactus saxo, qua prcztereuntium

Unda frequens confluxit, ibi 7niserisque tenebras

Lamentis, noctemque oculis ploravit abortatn.

Ploravit nee frustra; obolum dedit alter et alter.

Quels corda et mentem indlderat natura benignani.

Ad latus tnterea jacui sopitus herile,

Vel medlis vigil in somnis; ad herilia j'ussa

Auresque atque aniinuin arrectus, seu frustula amice

Porrexit sociasque dapes, seu loiiga diei

Tcedia perpessus, reditum sub node parabat.

Hi mores, hcBC vita fuit, dum fata sinebant,
Dum neque languebam morbis, nee inerte senectd;
Qum tandem obrepsit, veterique satellite ececum
Orbavit dofninum: prisci sed gratia facti
JSfe tola intereat, longos delecta per annos,
Exiguum hune Irus tumulum de cespite fecit,
Etsi ifiopis, 710 n ingratce, mu7iuscula dextrce;
Cartnine signavitque brevi, doj7ii7iu7nqite cane/nque
Quod nie7noret, fidu?7ique cane?n dominu7nque be7iignu7n?'*

<< Poor Irus's faithful wolf-dog here I lie,
That wont to tend my old blind master's steps.
His guide and guard : nor, while my service lasted,
Had he occasion for that staff, with which
He now goes picking out his path in fear
Over the highways and crossings; but would plant,
Safe in the conduct of my friendly string,
A firm foot forward still, till he had reach'd
His poor seat on some stone, nigh where the tide
Of passers-by in thickest confluence fiow'd :
To whom with loud and passionate laments
From morn to eve his dark estate he wail'd.
Nor wail'd to all in vain : some here and there.
The well-disposed and good, their pennies gave.
I meantime at his feet obsequious slept;
Not all-asleep in sleep, but heart and ear
Prick'd up at his least motion; to receive
At his kind hand my customary crumbs.
And common portion in his feast of scraps;
Or when night warn'd us homeward, tired and spent
With our long day and tedious beggary.

These were my manners, this my way of life,
Till age and slow disease me overtook,
And sever'd from my sightless master's side.
But lest the grace of so good deeds should die,



2^^S CHARLES LAMB

Through tract of years in mute oblivion lost,
This slender tomb of turf hath Irus reared,
Cheap monument of no ungrudging hand,



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